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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401465 matches for " Adena M. Galinsky "
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Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults
Adena M. Galinsky,Kathleen A. Cagney,Christopher R. Browning
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/360254
Abstract: Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults’ ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. 1. Introduction Evidence suggests that community processes are important to older adults’ ability to age in place [1, 2]. Of the eight factors identified in the World Health Organization’s report on age-friendly cities [3], three seem fundamentally dependent on community processes. These three, Age-Friendly Outdoor Spaces (WHO factor 1), Social Participation (WHO factor 4), and Respect and Social Inclusion (WHO factor 5) may all be supported by structural innovations and resource infusion, but, in all likelihood, cannot be sustained without on-going community involvement. Community-level behavior is important not only for the immediate results produced by discrete actions and social exchange, but also for its role in shaping the perceptions and norms of behavior held by the community’s residents. The perceptions and norms of behavior likely relevant to the three WHO factors fall under the rubric of a well-developed sociological construct, collective efficacy. Collective efficacy (CE) refers to perceptions and norms of two categories of social processes that represent two kinds of community social resources: trust and connection, commonly referred to as social cohesion, and expectations for action, commonly
The Conservation Contributions of Conservation Easements: Analysis of the San Francisco Bay Area Protected Lands Spatial Database
Adena R. Rissman,Adina M. Merenlender
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: Conservation easements have emerged as an important tool for land trusts and government agencies aiming to conserve private land in the United States. Despite the increase in public investment in conservation easement acquisitions, little is known about their conservation outcomes, particularly at a landscape scale. The nine-county San Francisco Bay Area exemplifies a complex conservation context: 190 organizations hold 24% of the land base in some type of protection status. Using a detailed protected lands database, we compared the contributions of conservation easements and fee-simple protected areas to ecological, agricultural, and public recreation benefits. We found that conservation easements were more likely to conserve grasslands, oak woodlands, and agricultural land, whereas fee-simple properties were more likely to conserve chaparral and scrub, redwoods, and urban areas. Conservation easements contributed to open space connectivity but were unlikely to be integrated into local land-use plans or provide public recreation. In particular, properties held by land trusts were less likely to allow for public recreation than were public lands. Conservation easements held by land trusts and special districts complemented fee-simple lands and provided greater conservation of some ecological communities and agricultural lands than fee-simple properties. Spatial databases of protected areas that include conservation easements are necessary for conservation planning and assessment.
The Consequences of Chorioamnionitis: Preterm Birth and Effects on Development
Robert Galinsky,Graeme R. Polglase,Stuart B. Hooper,M. Jane Black,Timothy J. M. Moss
Journal of Pregnancy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/412831
Abstract: Preterm birth is a major cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. Chorioamnionitis is a common cause of preterm birth. Clinical chorioamnionitis, characterised by maternal fever, leukocytosis, tachycardia, uterine tenderness, and preterm rupture of membranes, is less common than subclinical/histologic chorioamnionitis, which is asymptomatic and defined by inflammation of the chorion, amnion, and placenta. Chorioamnionitis is often associated with a fetal inflammatory response. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is defined by increased systemic inflammatory cytokine concentrations, funisitis, and fetal vasculitis. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that FIRS leads to poor cardiorespiratory, neurological, and renal outcomes. These observations are further supported by experimental studies that have improved our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these outcomes. This paper outlines clinical and experimental studies that have improved our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for chorioamnionitis-induced preterm birth and explores the cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying poor cardiorespiratory, neural, retinal, and renal outcomes observed in preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. 1. Preterm Birth Preterm birth poses a major challenge for perinatal medicine, contributing to over 70% of perinatal mortality in developed countries (excluding deaths associated with congenital defects) [1–4]. Infants that survive preterm birth are more likely to suffer cardiorespiratory problems, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and vision and hearing impairment, when compared to infants born at term [5]. Preterm birth is subcategorised according to gestational age at delivery: infants born preterm are delivered before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Late preterm births include infants delivered between 34 and 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation. Moderate preterm births are of infants delivered between 32 and 33 weeks and 6 days of gestation [4]. Infants born very preterm are delivered before 32 completed weeks; and infants born extremely preterm are delivered before 28 completed weeks of gestation [6]. Survival of extremely preterm infants has improved over the past decade, with the threshold of viability (defined as the gestational age at which 50% of infants survive) falling to less than 24 weeks [7]. Improved survival is a direct result of advances in perinatal care that include the use of antenatal glucocorticoids for precocious maturation of fetal organs, postnatal surfactant therapy
The Consequences of Chorioamnionitis: Preterm Birth and Effects on Development
Robert Galinsky,Graeme R. Polglase,Stuart B. Hooper,M. Jane Black
Journal of Pregnancy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/412831
Fluid Models for Kinetic Effects on Coherent Nonlinear Alfven Waves. II. Numerical Solutions
M. V. Medvedev,V. I. Shevchenko,P. H. Diamond,V. L. Galinsky
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1063/1.872356
Abstract: The influence of various kinetic effects (e.g. Landau damping, diffusive and collisional dissipation, and finite Larmor radius terms) on the nonlinear evolution of finite amplitude Alfvenic wave trains in a finite-beta environment is systematically investigated using a novel, kinetic nonlinear Schrodinger (KNLS) equation. The dynamics of Alfven waves is sensitive to the sense of polarization as well as the angle of propagation with respect to the ambient magnetic field. Numerical solution for the case with Landau damping reveals the formation of dissipative structures, which are quasi-stationary, S-polarized directional (and rotational) discontinuities which self-organize from parallel propagating, linearly polarized waves. Parallel propagating circularly polarized packets evolve to a few circularly polarized Alfven harmonics on large scales. Stationary arc-polarized rotational discontinuities form from obliquely propagating waves. Collisional dissipation, even if weak, introduces enhanced wave damping when beta is very close to unity. Cyclotron motion effects on resonant particle interactions introduce cyclotron resonance into the nonlinear Alfven wave dynamics.
Dissipative Dynamics of Collisionless Nonlinear Alfven Wave Trains
M. V. Medvedev,P. H. Diamond,V. I. Shevchenko,V. L. Galinsky
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.4934
Abstract: The nonlinear dynamics of collisionless Alfven trains, including resonant particle effects is studied using the kinetic nonlinear Schroedinger (KNLS) equation model. Numerical solutions of the KNLS reveal the dynamics of Alfven waves to be sensitive to the sense of polarization as well as the angle of propagation with respect to the ambient magnetic field. The combined effects of both wave nonlinearity and Landau damping result in the evolutionary formation of stationaryOA S- and arc-polarized directional and rotational discontinuities. These waveforms are freqently observed in the interplanetary plasma.
Weak Turbulence in the Magnetosphere: Formation of Whistler Wave Cavity by Nonlinear Scattering
C. Crabtree,L. Rudakov,G. Ganguli,M. Mithaiwala,V. Galinsky,V. Shevchenko
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3692092
Abstract: We consider the weak turbulence of whistler waves in the in low-\beta\ inner magnetosphere of the Earth. Whistler waves with frequencies, originating in the ionosphere, propagate radially outward and can trigger nonlinear induced scattering by thermal electrons provided the wave energy density is large enough. Nonlinear scattering can substantially change the direction of the wave vector of whistler waves and hence the direction of energy flux with only a small change in the frequency. A portion of whistler waves return to the ionosphere with a smaller perpendicular wave vector resulting in diminished linear damping and enhanced ability to pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. In addition, a portion of the scattered wave packets can be reflected near the ionosphere back into the magnetosphere. Through multiple nonlinear scatterings and ionospheric reflections a long-lived wave cavity containing turbulent whistler waves can be formed with the appropriate properties to efficiently pitch-angle scatter trapped electrons. The primary consequence on the Earth's radiation belts is to reduce the lifetime of the trapped electron population.
Mimicry Is Presidential: Linguistic Style Matching in Presidential Debates and Improved Polling Numbers
Daniel M. Romero,Roderick I. Swaab,Brian Uzzi,Adam D. Galinsky
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1177/0146167215591168
Abstract: The current research used the contexts of U.S. presidential debates and negotiations to examine whether matching the linguistic style of an opponent in a two-party exchange affects the reactions of third-party observers. Building off communication accommodation theory (CAT), interaction alignment theory (IAT), and processing fluency, we propose that language style matching (LSM) will improve subsequent third-party evaluations because matching an opponent's linguistic style reflects greater perspective taking and will make one's arguments easier to process. In contrast, research on status inferences predicts that LSM will negatively impact third-party evaluations because LSM implies followership. We conduct two studies to test these competing hypotheses. Study 1 analyzed transcripts of U.S. presidential debates between 1976 and 2012 and found that candidates who matched their opponent's linguistic style increased their standing in the polls. Study 2 demonstrated a causal relationship between LSM and third-party observer evaluations using negotiation transcripts.
Tracking Replicability as a Method of Post-Publication Open Evaluation
Joshua K. Hartshorne,Adena Schachner
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncom.2012.00008
Abstract: Recent reports have suggested that many published results are unreliable. To increase the reliability and accuracy of published papers, multiple changes have been proposed, such as changes in statistical methods. We support such reforms. However, we believe that the incentive structure of scientific publishing must change for such reforms to be successful. Under the current system, the quality of individual scientists is judged on the basis of their number of publications and citations, with journals similarly judged via numbers of citations. Neither of these measures takes into account the replicability of the published findings, as false or controversial results are often particularly widely cited. We propose tracking replications as a means of post-publication evaluation, both to help researchers identify reliable findings and to incentivize the publication of reliable results. Tracking replications requires a database linking published studies that replicate one another. As any such database is limited by the number of replication attempts published, we propose establishing an open-access journal dedicated to publishing replication attempts. Data quality of both the database and the affiliated journal would be ensured through a combination of crowd-sourcing and peer review. As reports in the database are aggregated, ultimately it will be possible to calculate replicability scores, which may be used alongside citation counts to evaluate the quality of work published in individual journals. In this paper, we lay out a detailed description of how this system could be implemented, including mechanisms for compiling the information, ensuring data quality, and incentivizing the research community to participate.
Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks
V. L. Galinsky ,V. I. Shevchenko
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG) , 2010,
Abstract: A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.
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