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Clinical utility of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism for breast cancer risk prediction
Shaik Mohammad Naushad,Shree Divyya,Addepalli Pavani,Yedluri Rupasree
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: This study addresses the issues in translating the laboratory derived data obtained during discovery phase of research to a clinical setting using a breast cancer model. Laboratory-based risk assessment indi-cated that a family history of breast cancer, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) G80A, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5’-UTR 28bp tandem repeat, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and catecholamine-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolic pathway increase the risk for breast cancer. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) C1561T and cytosolic serine hydroxymethyl transferase (cSHMT) C1420T polymorphisms were found to decrease breast cancer risk. In order to test the clinical validity of this information in the risk prediction of breast cancer, data was stratified based on number of protective alleles into four categories and in each category sensitivity and 1-specificity values were obtained based on the distribution of number of risk alleles in cases and controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and the area under ROC curve (C) was used as a measure of discriminatory ability between cases and controls. In subjects without any protective allele, aberrations in one-carbon metabolism showed perfect prediction (C=0.93) while the predictability was lost in subjects with one protective allele (C=0.60). However, predictability increased steadily with increasing number of protective alleles (C=0.63 for 2 protective alleles and C=0.71 for 3 protective alleles). The cut-off point for discrimination was >4 alleles in all predictable combinations. Models of this kind can serve as valuable tools in translational re-search, especially in identifying high-risk individuals and reducing the disease risk either by life style modification or by medical intervention.
A Laminar Flow Model for Mucous Gel Transport in a Cough Machine Simulating Trachea: Effect of Surfactant as a Sol Phase Layer  [PDF]
Dipak Kumar Satpathi, Addepalli Ramu
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.34040
Abstract:

In this paper, a planar three layer quasisteady laminar flow model is proposed in a cough machine which simulates mucous gel transport in model trachea due to mild forced expiration. The flow is governed by the time dependent pressure gradient generated in trachea due to mild forced expiration. Mucous gel is represented by a viscoelastic Voigt element whereas sol phase fluid and air are considered as Newtonian fluids. For fixed airflow rate, it is shown that when the viscosity of mucous gel is small, mucous gel transport decreases as the elastic modulus increases. However, elastic modulus has negligible effect on large gel viscosity. It is also shown that for fixed airflow rate and fixed airway dimension, mucous gel transport increases with the thickness of sol phase fluid and this increase is further enhanced as the viscosity of sol phase fluid decreases. The effect of surfactant is studied by considering sol phase as surfactant layer which causes slip at the wall and interface of sol phase and mucous gel. It is found that in the presence of surfactant mucous gel transport is enhanced.

 

Scale Invariant Theory of Gravitation in Einstein-Rosen Space-Time  [PDF]
Bivudutta Mishra, Pradyumn Kumar Sahoo, Addepalli Ramu
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.13027
Abstract: In this paper, we have studied the perfect fluid distribution in the scale invariant theory of gravitation, when the space-time described by Einstein-Rosen metric with a time dependent gauge function. The cosmological equations for this space-time with gauge function are solved and some physical properties of the model are studied.
Estudio constitucional y legal del modelo territorial italiano
Giorgia Pavani
Prolegómenos. Derechos y Valores , 2006,
Abstract:
Study of the effects of Noise on a New Model Based encryption Mechanism With time stamp and Acknowledgement support in MANET & WSN environment
Addepalli V.N. Krishna
International Journal of Advancements in Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In this work the encryption mechanism in MANET & WSN is considered. One of the very important parameters with MANET & WSN is its low computing power availability in its real time environment. Thus Security is an equal parameter in theses environments and equally important is its low computing power. This study is based on a Mathematical model [9] being used for encryption process, which consumes less power when compared to standard algorithms like 3 DES & RSA. In this work, the model is studied for its strength against noise which is an unavoidable phenomenon with MANET & WSN s. In the considered model, an empirical value is considered which is used as a key. The process is repeated for different timings which are used as time stamps in the encryption mechanism. Thus this model generates a distributed sequence which is used as sub key. The encrypted form of data during the transmission process will be subjected to errors due to some noise sources. These errors can affect the integrity of message or data transfer. The effects of these errors are checked in the present study by modeling the error as a random number having Gaussian Probability Density Function. The random number generator modeled is used to create values of the possible data errors. These errors are stored in a sub data base which can be made use of when corrupted sub key is received at the receiver’s side. Thus when the received message after decryption is showing any ambiguity in its meaning or any integrity variations because of noise, it can be checked using the sub data base developed by the random number generator model.
Probabilistic Encryption Based ECC Mechanism
Addepalli V.N. Krishna
International Journal of Advancements in Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Elliptic Curve Cryptography provides a secure means of exchanging keys among communicating hosts using the Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm. Encryption and Decryption of texts and messages have also been attempted. In the paper[15], the authors presented the implementation of ECC by first transforming the message into an affine point on the EC, and then applying the knapsack algorithm on ECC encrypted message over the finite field GF(p). The kanp sack problem is not secure in the present standards and more over in the work the authors in their decryption process used elliptic curve discrete logarithm to get back the plain text. This may form a computationally infeasible problem if the values are large enough in generating the plain text. In the present work the output of ECC algorithm is provided with probabilistic features which make the algorithm free from Chosen cipher text attack. Thus by having key lengths of even less than 160 bits, the present algorithm provides sufficient strength against crypto analysis and whose performance can be compared with standard algorithms like RSA.
Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Diabetes Mellitus
Pavani Bandaru,Anoop Shankar
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/604715
Abstract: Serum uric acid has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in previous studies. However, few studies have examined the association between serum uric acid and diabetes mellitus and their findings are not consistent. Therefore, we examined the association between serum uric acid levels and diabetes mellitus in participants from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( , 52.5% women). Serum uric acid levels were categorized into quartiles. Diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose ≥126?mg/dL, nonfasting glucose ≥200?mg/dL, or use of oral hypoglycemic medication or insulin ( ). In multivariable logistic regression models, we found that higher serum uric acid levels were inversely associated with diabetes mellitus after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of serum uric acid, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of diabetes mellitus was 0.48 (0.35–0.66; trend ). The results were consistent in subgroup analysis by gender and hypertension status. Higher serum uric acid levels were inversely associated with diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of US adults. 1. Introduction Serum uric acid, an end product of purine metabolism, has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension [1–3], cardiovascular disease [2, 4], and chronic kidney disease [5] in previous epidemiological studies. Also, elevated levels of uric acid is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease [6], insulin resistance, and components of the metabolic syndrome [7]. However, the putative association between serum uric acid levels and diabetes mellitus is not clear. Some studies reported that there is a positive association between high serum uric acid levels and diabetes [8–13], whereas other studies reported no association [14], or an inverse relationship [15, 16]. In this context, the main purpose of our study was to examine the association between serum uric acid and prevalent diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of US adults after adjusting for major confounders. We had adequate sample size to examine this association in the whole cohort as well as separately by gender and hypertension. 2. Methods The current study is based on data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Detailed description of NHANES III study design and methods are available elsewhere [17–20]. In brief, the NHANES survey included a
A model of multilingual digital library
Pavani, Ana M. B.;
Ciência da Informa??o , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-19652001000300010
Abstract: this paper addresses the problem of multilingual digital libraries. the motivation for a such a digital library comes from the diversity of languages of the internet users as well as the diversity of content authors, from e-book authors to writers of courseware. the basic definitions of such a system, the specifications of its functionality and the identification of the items it holds are discussed. the impact of multilinguism in each of the former aspects is presented. a case study of a multilingual digital library - in the maxwell system in puc-rio - is described in the last sections. its main characteristics are described and the current status of its digital library is shown.
Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with oral lichen planus
A Konidena, BV Pavani
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in patients with oral LP. Study Design: A cross-sectional case-control study was carried out on 25 patients with oral LP and an equal number of controls. The study was conducted in the outpatient department of a dental college for a period of six months between January and June 2008. The sera of the patients and controls were tested for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) using reverse transcription primed-polymerase chain reaction and liver function tests (bilirubin, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase). Results: Of the 25 patients with LP, three (12%) had HCV infection. None of the controls had HCV RNA positivity (P = 0.2347). Oral LP patients had higher serum bilirubin and transaminases when compared with controls (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in alkaline phosphatase. HCV-positive and -negative patients did not differ significantly in liver function tests. Conclusions: An increased prevalence of HCV infection was seen in oral LP patients. Our findings support a possible etiological association between these two diseases.
CARBON NANOTUBES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS
Ram Pavani,Kodithyala Vinay
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often described as a graphene sheet rolled up into the shape of a cylinder. These have fascinated scientists with their extraordinary properties. These compounds have become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric and magnetic properties when used alone or with additions of metals. Carbon nanotubes have potential therapeutic applications in the field of drug delivery, diagnostics, and biosensing. Functionalized carbon nanotubes can also act as vaccine delivery systems.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered to be one of the innovative resources in nanotechnology with possible use in wide range of biomedical applications viz. cancer treatment, bioengineering, cardiac autonomic regulation, platelet activation and tissue regeneration. The effect of CNTs on cells and tissues are extremely important for their use in various complex biological systems. With the increasing interest shown by the nanotechnology research community in this field, it is expected that plenty of applications of CNTs will be explored in future.
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