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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219368 matches for " Adaobi C. Ezike "
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EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CAJANUS CAJAN LEAVES IN RATS
Adaobi C. Ezike,Peter A. Akah,Charles C. Okoli,Chinwe B. Okpala
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The antidiabetic activity of methanol leaves extract of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.(Fabaceae) was studied in alloxan-diabetic and in oral glucose loaded rats. The acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) and the phytochemical analysis of the extract were also evaluated. The results showed that the extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced fasting blood sugar of alloxan diabetic rats in a dose-related manner, with maximum hypoglycemic effect at 4 – 6 h. The extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) also significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the peak postprandial rise in blood glucose of normal rats by 101.8 and 57.40 % respectively. Acute toxicity and lethality test of the extract in rats gave an oral LD50 greater than 5 g/kg. The findings indicate that the leaves of C. cajan may be beneficial as an antidiabetic therapy.
A retrospective study of the outcome of cesarean section for women with severe pre-eclampsia in a third world setting
Ajuzieogu Obinna,Ezike Humphrey,Amucheazi Adaobi,Enwereji Jamike
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: To compare the outcome of subarachnoid block (spinal anesthesia) and general anesthesia in Cesarean delivery for women with severe pre-eclampsia. Methods: A retrospective study of women with severe pre-eclampsia requiring Cesarean section from January 2005 to June 2009 was carried out. Maternal age, parity, gestational age at delivery, booking status, Apgar scores, maternal and perinatal mortality of the sub-arachnoid block group were compared with those of general anesthesia group using c2 , Student t-test and Fischer exact test. Results: There were no significant difference between the two groups in overall maternal mortality (5.4% vs. 11.9%, P=0.5) and perinatal mortality (2.7% vs. 11.9%, P=0.15). The general anesthesia group had significantly more birth asphyxia than the spinal group (55.9% vs. 27.0%, P=0.0006). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the maternal and perinatal mortality outcome of cesarean delivery between women with severe pre-eclampsia who had regional anesthesia and those that had general anesthesia. There was significantly higher proportion of birth asphyxia in babies of women who received general anesthesia.
ASSESSMENT OF THE SUB-ACUTE AND DELAYED TOXICITY OF ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE COMBINATION IN RATS
Ukekwe Ikechukwu Francis,Akah Peter Achunike,Ezike Adaobi Chioma,Okoli Charles Ogbonnaya
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.04216
Abstract: Considering the current surge in the use of artemether-lumefantrine combination (AL), as a treatment regimen for malaria infection, this research elucidated its sub-acute and delayed toxicity profile. Adult albino wistar rats were randomly placed in 7 groups (n=8). Groups 1-3 received oral AL 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg and were used for the sub-acute toxicity study. Groups 4-6 equally received oral AL 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg and were used for the delayed toxicity study. Animals in group 7 served as control. Treatment was given for 7 days; animals for the sub-acute tests were sacrificed on day 8, while animals for the delayed toxicity test were sacrificed on day 15. Parameters evaluated include random blood sugar levels, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, serum electrolytes and hematological indices. The liver, kidney and heart were also subjected to histopathological evaluation. The random blood sugar level was only significantly (P<0.05) elevated in the sub-acute phase but not in the delayed phase. The AL treated rats had a marginal but non-significant increments in Na+, serum cholesterol, urea and liver enzymes in both the sub-acute and delayed phases. The AL had no effect on total and conjugated bilirubin, but reduced K+, Cl- and HCO3-. There was mild increase in hemoglobin, packed cell volume, reticulocyte, total white blood cell and lymphocyte, and a decrease in neutrophil counts. Histology sections showed dose-related increase in severity of hepatic congestion and inflammation. Renal sections showed no significant changes. However, about 25% of animals that received 14, 28 and 56 mg/kg of AL respectively had granular and eosinophilic hyaline casts in renal tubules. There were no remarkable histopathologic changes in the heart in both sub-acute and delayed phases. However, one animal that received 56 mg/kg in the sub-acute phase had organizing fibrinous pericarditis, with intense lymphocytic infiltration and tubular coagulative necrosis. Though oral administration of normal to quadruple strength of AL affected vital organs and clinical parameters, no significant deleterious toxic effect was observed.
Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis
Theophine Chinwuba Okoye,Peter Achunike Akah,Charles Ogbonnaya Okoli,Adaobi Chioma Ezike,Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje,Uchenna Estella Odoh
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/831327
Abstract: Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity.
Plasma Glucose and Liver Glycogen of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Petrol
C. Ezike,E.B.C. Ufodike
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: The sublethal effects of water soluble fractions of petrol (WSF) to the plasma glucose and liver glycogen of Clarias gariepinus with mean weight of 4.76 0.4 g were investigated under laboratory conditions for 10 weeks. At sublethal concentrations of 1.36, 0.68, 0.34, 0.17 and 0.09 gL 1 of WSF of petrol, hyperglycaemia, a situation of increased plasma glucose level above the control was observed. Exposed group of fish to the toxicant were significantly lower (p<0.05) in liver glycogen content than the control group of fish.
Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica leaves
A C Ezike,P A Akah,C O Okoli
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2008,
Abstract: Summary: The bronchospasmolytic constituent of leaves of Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson, sub-specie micrantha (Nees) Ensermu (Acanthaceae) was isolated by bio-activity-guided technique. The bronchospasmolytic effect of the fractions of the leaf extract as well as the isolate AG-1 was evaluated using histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig trachea and pre-contracted trachea (pathological tissue). The results showed that the fractions and AG-1 inhibited contractions of the guinea pig trachea induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner. The isolated constituent, (AG-1) caused 82% inhibition of maximal contraction produced by histamine at a concentration of 400μg/ml. On histamine (8μg/ml) pre-contracted trachea, cumulative doses of the fractions evoked a dose dependent relaxation. Phytochemical analysis showed that the isolated compound (AG-1) tested positive to terpenoids while the fractions contained typical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. These findings suggest that the usefulness of leaves of A. gangetica in the treatment of asthma may derive from bronchospasmolytic effect of terpenoid compounds in the leaves. Industrial relevance: Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 – 10% has been reported for Nigeria. Drugs used in the management include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs which are long-term controllers. Despite the availability of oral and inhaled medications, the prevalence of asthma is on the rise (NHLBI/WHO 1995). The challenge of developing new effective, safe and long lasting antiasthmatic drugs from natural products appears inevitable. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica L. (T). (Acanthaceae), a traditional anti-asthma remedy, offer great potential for the development of a novel anti-asthmatic agent. The leaves have been shown to possess antihistaminic, bronchospasmolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this research was to isolate and pharmacologically characterize the anti-asthmatic constituent of the leaves of this plant using bioactivity-guided fractionation of the leaf extract.
Medicinal plants used in wound care: A study of Prosopis africana (Fabaceae) stem bark
Ezike A,Akah P,Okoli C,Udegbunam S
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrott. and Rich.) Taubert (Fabaceae) on bleeding/clotting and coagulation time, excision and dead space wounds were studied in rats. Also, the extract was subjected to antibacterial, and acute toxicity and lethality (LD 50 ) tests. The extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting and coagulation time in rats. It also reduced epithelialization period of excision wounds in rats and inhibited the growth of laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae to varying extents. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD 50 ) test on the extract established an LD 50 of 774 mg/kg (i.p) in mice while phytochemical analysis gave positive reactions for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and carbohydrates. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial effects of the stem bark of P. africana in wound care.
Medicinal Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Diseases: A Case Study of Napoleona vogelii Hook and Planch (Lecythidaceae)
P.A. Akah,O. Nnaeto,C.S. Nworu,A.C. Ezike
Research Journal of Pharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: The methanol and the n-hexane leaf extracts of Napoleona vogelli (Lecythidaceae) were investigated for antiulcer properties using 3 experimental ulcer models induced by ethanol, indomethacin and hypothermic- restraint stress in rats. Anti-ulcer related properties of the extract such as gastrointestinal transit, the activity on isolated gut tissue preparations and the antimicrobial activities were also determined. Ethanol-induced ulcer was significantly (p< 0.05) protected by HE (200 and 400 mg kg 1) and by ME (800 mg kg 1).The extracts ME (400 and 800 mg kg 1) and HE (200 and 400 mg kg 1) showed significant and dose-related (p< 0.05) protection of the rats against indomethacin-induced ulcers. The stress ulcer was not protected by the administration of ME (200, 400 and 800 mg kg 1), but was significantly (p< 0.05) protected by HE at 400 mg kg 1. The extracts appear to exhibit better protection against indomethacin and ethanol-induced ulcers than against the stress ulcer. Gastrointestinal propulsion in mice was significantly (p< 0.05) reduced, in a dose-dependent manner by the methanol extract an n-hexane fraction of N. vogelii. On the rabbit jejunum, ME and HE showed a concentration-dependent antispasmolytic effect and inhibited ACh-evoked contractile response with IC50 of 389.05 and 372.73 g mL 1, respectively. The extracts inhibited the growth of the bacteria used in the study but had no activity against the fungi tested. The ME showed better antibacterial activity than the HE. The methanol leaf extract administered orally up to 5000 mg kg 1 did not produce lethality or signs of acute toxicity in mice after 24 h. Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrate, terpenes, resins, steroids and alkaloids were found present in the extracts of N. vogelii. Gastro-protection and antispasmodic mechanisms could be responsible for the anti-ulcer properties of this plant.
Herbal medicine: a survey of use in Nigerian presurgical patients booked for ambulatory anaesthesia
Onyeka Tonia C,Ezike Humphrey A,Nwoke Ogochukwu M,Onyia Emeka A
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-130
Abstract: Background Utilization of herbal medicines in the preoperative period by Nigerian patients booked for day case surgery has not been explored. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 60 patients presenting for day-case surgery at a tertiary healthcare institution over a 3-week period in August 2011 was conducted. Using a structured questionnaire, inquiries were made concerning use of herbal medicines in the immediate preoperative period. Socio-demographic characteristics, information on use of concurrent medical prescriptions, types of herbs used, reasons for use, perceived side effects and perceived efficacy were obtained. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and Chi-square. Results Fifty-two (86.7%) were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 1 while 8 (13%) were ASA 2. Most patients (86.7%) had their procedures done under local infiltration with monitored anaesthesia care (MAC), while 5.0% and 8.3% had their procedures done under regional and general anaesthesia, respectively. About 48.3% of respondents were on concurrent medical prescriptions while 51.7% were not. Forty percent (40%) of patients admitted to use of herbal medicine, all by the oral route, in the immediate perioperative period; 87.5% did not inform their doctor of their herbal use. Types of herbs used included ‘dogonyaro’, ‘agbo’, ‘nchanwu’, and Tahitian noni. Treatment of malaria was commonest reason for use in 29.2% of patients, while cough and concurrent surgical condition were reasons given by 12.5% of patients, respectively. Seventy-nine percent (79.2%) of patients considered their herbal medications effective. Perceived side effects of herbal medication (16.6%) included fever, waist pain and intoxication. There were no variations in use between ASA 1 and ASA 2 patients and none between respondents on conventional medication against those that were not. Variables such as age less than 35 years, female gender, being married and being an urban dweller did not show any significant difference in use. Conclusion This survey revealed many patients were on one or more herbal preparations in the immediate preoperative period. In consideration of possible untoward drug interactions between conventional medication, herbal preparations and anaesthesia, doctors (especially anaesthetists) should routinely assess all patients booked to be anaesthetized, especially those for day case surgery. The authors recommend surveys with larger respondent numbers to determine prevalence of use and possible interactions between indigenous Nigerian herbs and anaesthesia.
Oral ketamine for wound care procedures in adult patients with burns
HA Ezike, MC Odiakosa
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia , 2011,
Abstract: Background: This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of oral ketamine for burn wound dressing in adult patients. The aim was to achieve a state-of-conscious sedation in which the patient would be communicative and cooperative, with minimal, or no pain during burn wound care procedures. Method: Two hundred and forty wound care procedures were randomly assigned to six treatment groups of patients (groups A-F). The quantities of oral ketamine that they received were as follows: Group A, 0.5 mg/kg; B, 2 mg/kg; C, 4 mg/kg; D, 6 mg/kg; E, 8 mg/kg and F, 10 mg/kg. A five-point verbal rating scale was used to assess pain intensity: the AVPU (alert, voice, pain, unresponsive) scale for level of consciousness. The Likert scale was used for patient satisfaction. Blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen saturation were monitored. Adverse effects were noted. Comparisons of the efficacy and safety of the different dosages of oral ketamine were made using the SPSS package. The efficacy criterion was verbal rating scale (VRS) ≤ 2, i.e no pain, mild pain or discomfort. Results: Patients in groups A and B reported higher levels of pain, and in groups C, D, E and F, there were varying degrees of efficacy. Groups E and F had the best analgesic profiles, but at the higher doses, some patients became anaesthetised. The most common adverse effects reported were hallucination (37%) and hypersalivation (29.9%), which occurred more frequently in groups E and F. The patients’ assessments of pain were best in Group D, and worst in Group A. Conclusion: The minimum effective subanaesthetic dose of oral ketamine for analgesia during wound care procedures in adult patients with burns was 6 mg/kg.
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