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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151028 matches for " Adam Mayyada B "
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Thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan
Adam Mayyada B,Adam Gamal K,Rayis Duria A,Elbashir Mustafa I
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-12-10
Abstract: Background Blood platelet levels are being evaluated as predictive and prognostic indicators of the severity of malaria infections in humans. However, there are few studies on platelets and Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy. Methods A case–control study was conducted at Gadarif Hospital in Eastern Sudan, an area characterized by unstable malaria transmission. The aim of the study was to investigate thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria (cases) and healthy pregnant women (controls). Results The median (interquartile) platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with malaria (N = 60) than in the controls (N = 60), 61, 000 (43,000–85,000) vs. 249,000 (204,000–300,000)/μL, respectively, p < 0.001. However, there was no significant difference in the platelet counts in patients with severe P. falciparum malaria (N = 12) compared with those patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria (N = 48), 68, 000 (33,000-88,000)/μL vs. 61, 000 (45,000–85,000)/μL, respectively, p = 0.8. While none of the control group had thrombocytopenia (platelet count <75, 000/μL), it was found that 6/12 (50%) and 27/48 (56.2%) (p <0.001) of the patients with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria had thrombocytopenia, respectively. Pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria, compared with the pregnant healthy control group, were at higher risk (OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 4.1–25.18; p < 0.001) of thrombocytopenia. Two patients experienced bleeding, and there was one maternal death due to cerebral malaria where the patient’s platelet count was only 28,000/μL. Conclusion P. falciparum malaria is associated with thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in this setting. More research is needed.
De wetgeving
B.H. Adam
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1965,
Adam B. Lowther
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/35-2-35
Abstract: When the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) was released in February of 2006, the United States was in the middle of a multi-front Global War on Terror (GWOT) that had been underway for more than four years. Beginning with the initial response to the 9/11 attacks in October of 2001, the US Navy began to play a significant part in the unconventional operations that characterised the early days of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM. While the Navy carried out its mission admirably supporting Special Operations Forces (SOF) by providing the USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63) as a “lily pad”, which enabled Rangers, Delta operators, Green Berets, and SEALs to move in and out of Afghanistan from a maritime staging area, it was a role well outside the norm of American naval operations and one the Navy is yet to fully embrace.
The Role of TGF Signaling in Squamous Cell Cancer: Lessons from Mouse Models
Adam B. Glick
Journal of Skin Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/249063
Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises
Adam B?k
Contemporary Economics , 2009,
Abstract: The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.
The Role of TGF Signaling in Squamous Cell Cancer: Lessons from Mouse Models
Adam B. Glick
Journal of Skin Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/249063
Abstract: TGFβ1 is a member of a large growth factor family including activins/inhibins and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) that have a potent growth regulatory and immunomodulatory functions in normal skin homeostasis, regulation of epidermal stem cells, extracellular matrix production, angiogenesis, and inflammation. TGFβ signaling is tightly regulated in normal tissues and becomes deregulated during cancer development in cutaneous SCC and many other solid tumors. Because of these diverse biological processes regulated by TGFβ1, this cytokine and its signaling pathway appear to function at multiple points during carcinogenesis with distinct effects. The mouse skin carcinogenesis model has been a useful tool to dissect the function of this pathway in cancer pathogenesis, with transgenic and null mice as well as small molecule inhibitors to alter the function of the TGFβ1 pathway and assess the effects on cancer development. This paper will review data on changes in TGFβ1 signaling in human SCC primarily HNSCC and cutaneous SCC and different mouse models that have been generated to investigate the relevance of these changes to cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the duality of TGFβ1 action in carcinogenesis will inform potential use of this signaling pathway for targeted therapies. 1. Pathogenesis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Nonmelanoma skin cancer including both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer among Caucasian populations, with incidence rates matching all other cancers combined in these groups [1]. Although exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the major risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), other risk factors also include chronic inflammation, and wounding, as well as exposure to arsenic, tobacco, and coal tar products [2]. The multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model has been instrumental in defining the basic biology of SCC development in the skin and other epithelia. Mice are treated once with a carcinogen such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA) followed by 20 weekly applications of a nonmutagenic agent such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) that provides a microenvironment and proliferative stimulus that favors clonal outgrowth of initiated keratinocytes. Benign papillomas representing clonal outgrowths of keratinocytes with initiating mutations in the Hras1 arise within 10–15 weeks. These are largely exophytic hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic lesions that retain the stratified organization of the normal
Counting Independent Sets and Kernels of Regular Graphs
Adam B. Yedidia
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Chandrasekaran, Chertkov, Gamarnik, Shah, and Shin recently proved that the average number of independent sets of random regular graphs of size n and degree 3 approaches w^n for large n, where w is approximately 1.54563, consistent with the Bethe approximation. They also made the surprising conjecture that the fluctuations of the logarithm of the number of independent sets were only O(1) as n grew large, which would mean that the Bethe approximation is amazingly accurate for all 3-regular graphs. Here, I provide numerical evidence supporting this conjecture obtained from exact counts of independent sets using binary decision diagrams. I also provide numerical evidence that supports the novel conjectures that the number of kernels of 3-regular graphs of size n is given by y^n, where y is approximately 1.299, and that the fluctuations in the logarithm of the number of kernels is also only O(1).
An Integration of Integrated Information Theory with Fundamental Physics
Adam B. Barrett
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00063
Abstract: To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.
Exploration of synergistic and redundant information sharing in static and dynamical Gaussian systems
Adam B. Barrett
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.052802
Abstract: To fully characterize the information that two `source' variables carry about a third `target' variable, one must decompose the total information into redundant, unique and synergistic components, i.e. obtain a partial information decomposition (PID). However Shannon's theory of information does not provide formulae to fully determine these quantities. Several recent studies have begun addressing this. Some possible definitions for PID quantities have been proposed, and some analyses have been carried out on systems composed of discrete variables. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of PIDs on Gaussian systems, both static and dynamical. We show that, for a broad class of Gaussian systems, previously proposed PID formulae imply that: (i) redundancy reduces to the minimum information provided by either source variable, and hence is independent of correlation between sources; (ii) synergy is the extra information contributed by the weaker source when the stronger source is known, and can either increase or decrease with correlation between sources. We find that Gaussian systems frequently exhibit net synergy, i.e. the information carried jointly by both sources is greater than the sum of informations carried by each source individually. Drawing from several explicit examples, we discuss the implications of these findings for measures of information transfer and information-based measures of complexity, both generally and within a neuroscience setting. Importantly, by providing independent formulae for synergy and redundancy applicable to continuous time-series data, we open up a new approach to characterizing and quantifying information sharing amongst complex system variables.
A Gibbs Sampler for Multivariate Linear Regression
Adam B. Mantz
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: Kelly (2007, hereafter K07) described an efficient algorithm, using Gibbs sampling, for performing linear regression in the fairly general case where non-zero measurement errors exist for both the covariates and response variables, where these measurements may be correlated (for the same data point), where the response variable is affected by intrinsic scatter in addition to measurement error, and where the prior distribution of covariates is modeled by a flexible mixture of Gaussians rather than assumed to be uniform. Here I extend the K07 algorithm in two ways. First, the procedure is generalized to the case of multiple response variables. Second, I describe how to model the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process, which can be thought of as a Gaussian mixture where the number of mixture components is learned from the data. I present an example of multivariate regression using the extended algorithm, namely fitting scaling relations of the gas mass, temperature, and luminosity of dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters as a function of their mass and redshift. An implementation of the Gibbs sampler in the R language, called LRGS, is provided.
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