Abstract:
Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (ttis450), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In ttis450, the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in ttis450 larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in ttis450 larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death.

Abstract:
We derive the (matrix-valued) Feynman rules of the mass perturbation theory and use it for the resummation of the $n$-point functions with the help of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. We use these results for a short review of the complete spectrum of the model and for a discussion of scattering processes. We find that in scattering cross sections all the resonances and higher particle production thresholds of the model are properly taken into account by our resummed mass perturbation theory, without the need of further approximations.

Abstract:
We derive the (matrix-valued) Feynman rules of mass perturbation theory of the massive Schwinger model for non-zero vacuum angle theta. Further, we discuss the properties of the three-boson bound state and compute -- by a partial resummation of the mass perturbation series -- its mass and its partial decay widths.

Abstract:
Using the exact path integral solution of the Schwinger model -- a model where instantons are present -- the Dyson-Schwinger equation is shown to hold by explicit computation. It turns out that the Dyson-Schwinger equation separately holds for every instanton sector. This is due to Theta-invariance of the Schwinger model.

Abstract:
By a closer inspection of the massive Schwinger model within mass perturbation theory we find that, in addition to the $n$-boson bound states, a further type of hybrid bound states has to be included into the model. Further we explicitly compute the decay widths of the three-boson bound state and of the lightest hybrid bound state.

Abstract:
Within the framework of Euclidean path integral and mass perturbation theory we compute the Wilson loop of widely separated external charges for the massive Schwinger model. From this result we show for arbitrary order mass perturbation theory that integer external charges are completely screened, whereas for noninteger charges a constant long-range force remains.

Abstract:
Within the Euclidean path integral and mass perturbation theory we derive, from the Dyson-Schwinger equations of the massive Schwinger model, a general formula that incorporates, for sufficiently small fermion mass, all the bound-state mass poles of the massive Schwinger model. As an illustration we perturbatively compute the masses of the three lowest bound states.

Abstract:
We derive a systematic procedure to compute Green functions for the massive Schwinger model via a perturbation expansion in the fermion mass. The known exact solution of the massless Schwinger model is used as a starting point. We compute the corrections to the Schwinger mass up to second order.

Abstract:
We derive a systematic procedure of computing the vacuum functional and fermion condensate of the massive Schwinger model via a perturbative expansion in the fermion mass. We compute numerical results for the first nontrivial order.