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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 178052 matches for " Adéla?de Nieguitsila "
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Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for molecular typing of Aspergillus fumigatus
Simon Thierry, Dongying Wang, Pascal Arné, Manjula Deville, Barbara De Bruin, Adélade Nieguitsila, Christine Pourcel, Karine Laroucau, René Chermette, Weiyi Huang, Fran?oise Botterel, Jacques Guillot
BMC Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-315
Abstract: We selected 10 VNTR markers located on 4 different chromosomes (1, 5, 6 and 8) of A. fumigatus. These markers were tested with 57 unrelated isolates from different hosts or their environment (53 isolates from avian species in France, China or Morocco, 3 isolates from humans collected at CHU Henri Mondor hospital in France and the reference strain CBS 144.89). The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.5771 to 0.8530. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.9994. In a second step, the panel of 10 markers was used in different epidemiological situations and tested on 277 isolates, including 62 isolates from birds in Guangxi province in China, 95 isolates collected in two duck farms in France and 120 environmental isolates from a turkey hatchery in France. A database was created with the results of the present study http://minisatellites.u-psud.fr/MLVAnet/ webcite. Three major clusters of isolates were defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree (MST). The first cluster comprised most of the avian isolates collected in the two duck farms in France, the second cluster comprised most of the avian isolates collected in poultry farms in China and the third one comprised most of the isolates collected in the turkey hatchery in France.MLVA displayed excellent discriminatory power. The method showed a good reproducibility. MST analysis revealed an interesting clustering with a clear separation between isolates according to their geographic origin rather than their respective hosts.The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus thrives on decaying vegetation and organic debris. It releases large amounts of asexual spores (conidia), which are dispersed by air. As a result of this ubiquitous presence, people and animals are constantly exposed to A. fumigatus conidia. In humans, conidia can colonize the respiratory tract, causing pulmonary infections including bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and i
Nodular Worm Infection in Wild Chimpanzees in Western Uganda: A Risk for Human Health?
Sabrina Krief ,Benjamin Vermeulen,Sophie Lafosse,John M. Kasenene,Adélade Nieguitsila,Madeleine Berthelemy,Monique L'Hostis,Odile Bain,Jacques Guillot
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000630
Abstract: This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding.
Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry
Pascal Arné,Simon Thierry,Dongying Wang,Manjula Deville,Guillaume Le Loc'h,Ana s Desoutter,Fran oise Féménia,Adéla de Nieguitsila,Weiyi Huang,René Chermette,Jacques Guillot
International Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/746356
Abstract: Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.
Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry
Pascal Arné,Simon Thierry,Dongying Wang,Manjula Deville,Guillaume Le Loc'h,Ana?s Desoutter,Fran?oise Féménia,Adélade Nieguitsila,Weiyi Huang,René Chermette,Jacques Guillot
International Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/746356
Abstract: Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. 1. Introduction Aspergillus fumigatus is considered as a major respiratory pathogen in birds. This filamentous fungus was first found in the lungs of a bustard (Otis tarda) in 1863 by Fresenius. Other species like A. flavus, A. niger, A. nidulans, and A. terreus may also be isolated from avian cases of aspergillosis (sometimes in mixed infections) but much less frequently than A. fumigatus [1–6]. Active fungal proliferation and sporulation of A. fumigatus on organic material produce large amounts of airborne small-sized conidia that are easily dispersed in air, then potentially inhaled and deposited deep in the respiratory tract. Susceptible hosts will develop polymorphic clinical forms in relation to either localized or disseminated lesions. Acute aspergillosis generally occurs in young birds resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form is sporadic. It causes lesser mortality and generally affects older birds, especially breeders in poultry, presenting a compromised immune system due to poor husbandry conditions [4, 7]. A. fumigatus has been isolated from lesions in wild birds since the early 1800s. Major die-offs of free-ranging wild birds have been reported from waterfowl, gulls, and corvids following dumping of mouldy waste grains in areas where birds feed [6, 8–10]. Infection by A. fumigatus is also found in birds of prey, penguins, and parrots held in captivity [7, 11]. Incidence may be elevated in debilitated birds sheltered in wildlife centres and severely impair rehabilitation success [12, 13]. Infection by Aspergillus sp. has been reported in almost all domesticated
Prolonged Visual Experience in Adulthood Modulates Holistic Face Perception
Adélade de Heering, Bruno Rossion
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002317
Abstract: Background Using the well-known composite illusion as a marker of the holistic perception of faces, we tested how prolonged visual experience with a specific population of faces (4- to 6-year-old children) modulates the face perception system in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a face composite effect that is larger for adult than children faces in a group of adults without experience with children faces (“children-face novices”), while it is of equal magnitude for adults and children faces in a population of preschool teachers (“children-face experts”). When considering preschool teachers only, we observed a significant correlation between the number of years of experience with children faces and the differential face composite effect between children and adults faces. Participants with at least 10 years of qualitative experience with children faces had a larger composite face effect for children than adult faces. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these observations indicate that even in adulthood face processes can be reshaped qualitatively, presumably to facilitate efficient processing of the differential morphological features of the frequently encountered population of faces.
Réaction sociale de l’opinion publique face aux prestations de soins au CHU de Treichville (Abidjan) / The social reaction of public opinion towards CHU health services in Treichville (Abidjan)
Gakoué Adélade,Koudou Opadou
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza , 2013,
Abstract: Lo studio della reazione sociale nei confronti delle prestazioni sanitarie è quasi inesistente in Costa d’Avorio. L’obiettivo della presente ricerca era di raccogliere conoscenze e giudizi di valore costruiti dagli individui attorno alla situazione di presa in carico dei malati al CHU (Centro Ospedaliero Universitario) di Treichville. La ricerca è stata realizzata tramite interviste semi-strutturate rivolte a cento persone. In generale, si sono rilevate impressioni relativamente positive in merito alle prestazioni sanitarie. In effetti, attitudini, opinioni e comportamenti in maggioranza positivi si sono tradotti in opinioni favorevoli, adesione e accettazione delle prestazioni. Tuttavia, queste attitudini non hanno portato sempre direttamente le persone al CHU in caso di malattia, ma soltanto per necessità estrema in rapporto allo stato di salute. Ciò nonostante, dato che le denunce e le lamentele registrate non sono in numero trascurabile, vengono avanzate proposte operative al fine di migliorare le prestazioni. L’étude de la réaction sociale relative aux prestations de soins est quasi-inexistante en C te d’Ivoire. L’objectif de cette étude prospective était de cerner les connaissances et jugements de valeurs construites par les individus autour de la prise en charge des malades au CHU (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire) de Treichville. L’enquête interrogation s’est réalisée à l’aide d’un guide d’entretien auprès de cent individus. On notait globalement une appréciation relativement positive des prestations de soins. En effet, les attitudes, opinions et comportements de l’opinion publique en majorité positifs s’est traduit par des opinions favorables, des attitudes d’adhésion et d’acceptation des prestations. Mais, ces attitudes ne les conduit pas toujours directement au CHU dès qu’ils sont malades mais en cas de nécessité exigée par l’état de santé. Toutefois, les plaintes et découragements enregistrés n’étant pas négligeables, des propositions de mesures personnelles complétées à celles des enquêtés ont été faites en vue de l’amélioration des prestations.The study of the social reaction related to health services is quasi non-existent in Ivory Coast. The objective of this forward-looking study was to gather the knowledge and the judgments of values built by individuals regarding the care of the patients in the CHU (University Hospital Centre) of Treichville. The survey was conducted using an interview guide with one hundred people. Overall, there was a relatively positive assessment of care. Indeed, attitudes, opinions and for the greater part positi
The MMTV-PyVT Transgenic Mouse as a Multistage Model for Mammary Carcinoma and the Efficacy of Antineoplastic Treatment  [PDF]
Stephanie Shishido, Adélade Delahaye, Amanda Beck, Thu Annelise Nguyen
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.47138
Abstract:

Animal models are commonly used to analyze the mechanism of carcinogenesis as well as the development and screening of potent drugs. Although numerous animal models of breast cancer have been used in research, few display multiple stages of tumorigenesis. The transgenic strain FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyVT) 634 Mul/J (also known as PyVT) was established to determine the effect of mammary gland-specific expression of the polyomavirus middle T antigen. Here the PyVT model with three distinct stages of tumor development (Pre, Early, and Late stages) was used as a model system for measuring tumor growth, tumor burden, and metastasis of mammary carcinomas. Additionally the expression profile of the molecular markers, survivin and Ki-67, was determined. Three antineoplastic compounds were tested over a 14-day period to determine their efficacy at attenuating tumor growth at each stage of development. Interestingly cisplatin and paclitaxel were determined to be ineffective anticancer drugs, while tamoxifen significantly reduced tumor growth in the Pre and Early stages of tumor formation.

Nonparametric estimation of the division rate of an age dependent branching process
Marc Hoffmann,Adélade Olivier
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: We study the nonparametric estimation of the branching rate $B(x)$ of a supercritical Bellman-Harris population: a particle with age $x$ has a random lifetime governed by $B(x)$; at its death time, it gives rise to $k \geq 2$ children with lifetimes governed by the same division rate and so on. We observe in continuous time the process over $[0,T]$. Asymptotics are taken as $T \rightarrow \infty$; the data are stochastically dependent and one has to face simultaneously censoring, bias selection and non-ancillarity of the number of observations. In this setting, under appropriate ergodicity properties, we construct a kernel-based estimator of $B(x)$ that achieves the rate of convergence $\exp(-\lambda_B \frac{\beta}{2\beta+1}T)$, where $\lambda_B$ is the Malthus parameter and $\beta >0$ is the smoothness of the function $B(x)$ in a vicinity of $x$. We prove that this rate is optimal in a minimax sense and we relate it explicitly to classical nonparametric models such as density estimation observed on an appropriate (parameter dependent) scale. We also shed some light on the fact that estimation with kernel estimators based on data alive at time $T$ only is not sufficient to obtain optimal rates of convergence, a phenomenon which is specific to nonparametric estimation and that has been observed in other related growth-fragmentation models.
Early Deafness Increases the Face Inversion Effect But Does Not Modulate the Composite Face Effect
Adélade de Heering,Bruno Rossion,Olivier Pascalis
Frontiers in Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00124
Abstract: Early deprivation in audition can have striking effects on the development of visual processing. Here we investigated whether early deafness induces changes in holistic/configural face processing. To this end, we compared the results of a group of early deaf participants to those of a group of hearing participants in an inversion-matching task (Experiment 1) and a composite face task (Experiment 2). We hypothesized that deaf individuals would show an enhanced inversion effect and/or an increased composite face effect compared to hearing controls in case of enhanced holistic/configural face processing. Conversely, these effects would be reduced if they rely more on facial features than hearing controls. As a result, we found that deaf individuals showed an increased inversion effect for faces, but not for non-face objects. They were also significantly slower than hearing controls to match inverted faces. However, the two populations did not differ regarding the overall size of their composite face effect. Altogether these results suggest that early deafness does not enhance or reduce the amount of holistic/configural processing devoted to faces but may increase the dependency on this mode of processing.
Autoregressive functions estimation in nonlinear bifurcating autoregressive models
Siméon Valère Bitseki Penda,Adélade Olivier
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: Bifurcating autoregressive processes, which can be seen as an adaptation of au-toregressive processes for a binary tree structure, have been extensively studied during the last decade in a parametric context. In this work we do not specify any a priori form for the two autoregressive functions and we use nonparametric techniques. We investigate both nonasymp-totic and asymptotic behavior of the Nadaraya-Watson type estimators of the autoregressive functions. We build our estimators observing the process on a finite subtree denoted by Tn, up to the depth n. Estimators achieve the classical rate |Tn| --$\beta$/(2$\beta$+1) in quadratic loss over H{\"o}lder classes of smoothness. We prove almost sure convergence, asymptotic normality giving the bias expression when choosing the optimal bandwidth and a moderate deviations principle. Our proofs rely on specific techniques used to study bifurcating Markov chains. Finally, we address the question of asymmetry and develop an asymptotic test for the equality of the two autoregressive functions.
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