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EFECTO DE UN PROGRAMA DE EJERCICIO AERóBICO Y UN PROGRAMA DE CIRCUITO CON PESAS SOBRE LA CALIDAD DE VIDA, DISNEA Y RESISTENCIA CARDIORRESPIRATORIA EN SUJETOS CON ENFERMEDAD PULMONAR CRóNICA
Delgado Acosta Henry,Acua Corrales Ernesto
Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud , 2007,
Abstract: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un programa de ejercicio aeróbico y un programa de circuito con pesas sobre la calidad de vida, disnea y resistencia cardiorrespiratoria en sujetos con Enfermedad Pulmonar Crónica (EPC). Metodología: el programa de rehabilitación se hizo durante ocho semanas, se realizó un pretest y un postest, se cumplió con una sesión semanal presencial, y las otras dos domiciliarias, se tuvo comunicación directa vía telefónica los días que realizaban el ejercicio en la casa. Instrumentos: el cuestionario St. George Respiratory Questonnaire para medir calidad de vida, la escala de Borg para medir la disnea y el test de caminata de los 6 min. para medir la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria. Sujetos: participaron 38 personas con diagnóstico previo de EPC, 18 hombres y 20 mujeres; 27 sujetos con patología obstructiva y 11 sujetos con restrictiva., con una edad promedio de 69.8 ± 9.34 a os, divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos, uno que realizó ejercicio aeróbico (22 sujetos) y otro que ejecutó ejercicio aeróbico y de contrarresistencia con pesas (16 sujetos). Análisis estadístico: ANOVA mixta de cuatro vías (2x2x2x2) para las variables mediciones, sexo, tratamiento y patología. Resultados: se encontraron diferencias significativas entre mediciones para la variable disnea (pre: 7.18 ± 0.69 puntos y post: 4.89 ± 0.68 puntos) (F = 228.770; p < 0,05), calidad de vida (pre: 59.68 ± 7.50 puntos y post 81.75 ± 7.33 puntos) (F = 228.770; p < 0,05), resistencia cardiorrespiratoria (pre 384,95 ± 51,02 mts. y post 432 ± 37,41 mts.) (F: 59.9; p<0.01), pero no se encontraron diferencias por sexo, actividad ni enfermedad (p>0,05), ni interacción entre las variable (p>0,05). Conclusión: la realización de ejercicio físico aeróbico y anaeróbico mejoran el grado de disnea, la calidad de vida y resistencia cardiorrespiratoria en pacientes con EPC.
Human Oscicular Chain Articulations: Asymmetric Sound Transmission
Ramirez Aristeguieta,Luis Miguel; Ballesteros Acua,Luis Ernesto;
International Journal of Morphology , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022010000400012
Abstract: the mechanism for conducting acoustic energy via middle ear oscicles is still a controversial topic and will remain so until consensus is reached regarding whether it amplifies or reduces sound transmission. 22 paired human temporal bone blocks and 1 left block were studied. digital measurements were taken of the tympanic membrane, oscicular articulations and the oval window; the results were then correlated. a relationship of non-lineal areas was found amongst the structures being studied, suggesting a sound transmission relationship combining both sound reduction and amplification. a complex relationship of levers could be observed originating in an oscicular and articular asymmetric relationship suggesting an amplifying function in initial sound transmission and also a final reducer destination for such conduction.
Ramas Emergentes del Arco Aórtico en Fetos Humanos: Un Estudio Descriptivo Directo en Población Colombiana
Rojas Oviedo,José Dario; Ballesteros Acua,Luis Ernesto;
International Journal of Morphology , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022009000400005
Abstract: the anatomic variations in position and number of branches arise of the aortic arch have different grades of clinical implication and the right treatment and prognosis of associated anomalies depend of their early diagnosis. reviewing your morphogenesis complex and previous literature come up the hypothesis about some expression could be transitional during gestation and do not to express in postnatal life. the morphological expression of the branches of the aortic arch in human fetuses is unknown in colombia and that is why this study has been developed. 51 cardiopulmonary blocks obtained from stillborn fetus from 17th to 40th gestation weeks without cardiovascular anomalies, were analyzed and filled with polyester resin. then the number of branches arises from the aortic arch and the distance between them was also analyzed through gestation. in 56.9% of the cases 3 branches are arisen from the aortic arch, 2 branches in 27.5% and 4 branches in 15.7%. the number of branches according to gestational age showed no significant difference (p>0.1). distance between the first and the last branches increases linearly with gestational age, but showed no significant difference (p>0.1) between the number of branches and the gestation's weeks of the analyzed fetus. the variations found in the number of branches from the aortic arch are further than what literature reports, especially in cases with 4 branches, in these cases the additional branch was between left common carotid and left subclavian artery. these findings indicate than the morphologic patterns were defined since the embryonic stage, and they do not change during gestation.
Ramas Emergentes del Arco Aórtico en Fetos Humanos: Un Estudio Descriptivo Directo en Población Colombiana Branches Arise of the Aortic Arch in Human Fetus: A Descriptive Direct Study in Colombian Population
José Dario Rojas Oviedo,Luis Ernesto Ballesteros Acua
International Journal of Morphology , 2009,
Abstract: Las variaciones anatómicas en el número y ubicación de ramas emergentes del arco aórtico tienen diversos grados de implicación clínica y de su identificación oportuna depende el manejo y pronóstico de las alteraciones asociadas. Al revisar su compleja morfogénesis y reportes bibliográficos previos surge la hipótesis de si algunas formas de expresión pudieran ser transicionales durante la gestación y no manifestarse en el adulto. En Colombia no hay registros directos sobre la expresión morfológica de las ramas del arco aórtico en población fetal, razón que motiva el desarrollo del presente trabajo. Se analizaron 51 bloques cardiopulmonares de fetos mortinatos sin anomalías cardiovasculares, entre 17 y 40 semanas de gestación, cuyos lechos vasculares fueron repletados con resina poliéster. Luego se valoró el número de ramas emergentes del arco aórtico y la distancia entre ellas de acuerdo a la edad gestacional. La forma usual de presentación con 3 ramas en el arco aórtico se encontró en 56.9% de los casos, en el 27,5% se originaron 2 ramas, y en el 15,7% 4 ramas. La distribución del número de ramas por edad gestacional no mostró diferencia significativa (p>0,1). La distancia entre la primera y última ramas aumentó linealmente con la edad gestacional, pero no se observó diferencia significativa (p>0,1) entre el número de ramas y las semanas de desarrollo de los fetos evaluados. Nuestra frecuencia de variaciones en el número de ramas del arco aórtico es superior a la reportada en la literatura, particularmente en los arcos con 4 ramas en la totalidad de los cuales el vaso adicional se ubica entre la carótida común y la subclavia izquierdas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que estos patrones morfológicos están definidos desde el período embrionario y no se modifican en el transcurso de la gestación. The anatomic variations in position and number of branches arise of the aortic arch have different grades of clinical implication and the right treatment and prognosis of associated anomalies depend of their early diagnosis. Reviewing your morphogenesis complex and previous literature come up the hypothesis about some expression could be transitional during gestation and do not to express in postnatal life. The morphological expression of the branches of the aortic arch in human fetuses is unknown in Colombia and that is why this study has been developed. 51 cardiopulmonary blocks obtained from stillborn fetus from 17th to 40th gestation weeks without cardiovascular anomalies, were analyzed and filled with polyester resin. Then the number of branches arises from the
Morphometric of Temporomandibular joint. A study with autopsy material
Luis Ernesto Ballesteros Acua,José Domingo Garcia L
MedUNAB , 1998,
Abstract:
Variables psicológicas como predictores de conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por VIH
Pi?a,Julio Alfonso; Corrales,Andrés Ernesto; Rivera,Blanca Margarita;
Colombia Médica , 2008,
Abstract: fundament: a cross-sectional study was carried out with the main objective to identify if psychological variables including knowledge, belief, and motivation predicted two prevention behaviors related to hiv infection: ?to postpone a sexual intercourse? and ?condom use intention?. method: from an original sample of 648 students of two institutions located in hermosillo, mexico, we worked with a subsample of 328 students whom reported no sexual experience. for data analysis descriptive statistics, the pearson's x2 and a logistic regression analysis were used. results: the pearson's x2 showed significant differences in both behaviors: those who have the opportunity to involve in a sexual relationship and they avoid it (x2 [2]=45.378; p=0.000), as well as those who have condom use intention (x2 [2]=235.622; p=0.000). the logistic regression analysis revealed that one type of motivation predicted the behavior to avoid a sexual relationship with penetration (x2 [9]=33.805; p=0.000), if well another type of motivation predicted the behavior condom use intention (x2 [8]=18.069; p=0.021). conclusions: the role of the variable motivation in the prevention of hiv infection programs is discussed.
Variables psicológicas como predictores de conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por vih
Julio Alfonso Pi?a,Andrés Ernesto Corrales,Blanca Margarita Rivera
Colombia Médica , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivo: Estudio transversal que tuvo como su objetivo identificar si variables que incluían a los conocimientos, creencias y motivos se constituían en predictores de dos conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por VIH: Evitar una relación sexual con penetración e Intención de uso de preservativo en el futuro .Métodos: De una muestra original de 648 estudiantes pertenecientes a dos instituciones educativas que se localizan en Hermosillo, México, se trabajó con una submuestra de 328 estudiantes que en el momento del estudio informaron no tener experiencia sexual. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas, el x2 de Pearson y un análisis multivariado de regresión logística.Resultados: El análisis con el x2 de Pearson arrojó diferencias significativas en ambas conductas: para los que habían tenido oportunidad de comprometerse en una relación sexual con penetración y la habían evitado (x2 [2]=45.378; p=0.000), así como entre quienes respondieron a una baja o una alta probabilidad de usar preservativo en el futuro (x2 [2]=235.622; p=0.000). El análisis de regresión logística reveló que la variable motivos predijo la conducta evitar una relación sexual con penetración (x2 [9]=33.805; p=0.000), mientras que también la variable motivos predijo la conducta intención de uso de preservativo en el futuro (x2 [8]=18.069; p=0.021).Conclusiones: Se discute la importancia que reviste la variable motivos en el contexto de los programas dirigidos a prevenir la infección por VIH en ese sector de la población.
Nurse effect in seedling establishment: facilitation and tolerance to damage in the Andes of central Chile
ACUA-RODRíGUEZ,IAN S; CAVIERES,LOHENGRIN A; GIANOLI,ERNESTO;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2006000300005
Abstract: nurse effects, which occur when one plant species enhances the survival or growth of another plant species, are predicted to be most relevant in stressful environments. these effects are particulary important during seedling establishment due to their vulnerability to both biotic and abiotic factors, such as herbivory and drought. tolerance to herbivory reflects the degree to which plants are able to regrow and reproduce after damage, and should vary with resource availability. in the high andes of central chile, the cushion plant laretia acaulis (apiaceae) acts as a buffer against environmental stress, enhancing survival of several associated plant species. we hypothesized that tolerance to herbivory of seedlings growing inside the canopy of l. acaulis should be greater than that of seedlings growing outside the cushion plant. we conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis for two native perennial species in the high andes of central chile: hordeum comosum (poaceae) and haplopappus anthylloides (asteraceae). seedlings of each species were planted inside and outside l. acaulis cushions and half of them received manual damage (50 % foliar tissue removed). seedlings growing inside the nurse species showed high survival independent of the damage treatment. whereas position (inside or outside the cushion plant) did not affect tolerance of haplopappus anthylloides, it significantly affected tolerance of hordeum comosum. thus, we found similar survival of damaged and control seedlings of h. comosum inside the cushions, but survival of damaged seedlings in the bare ground was lower than that of control seedlings. we verified the occurrence of nurse effects of laretia acaulis on the establishment of both species, and detected enhancement of tolerance to damage in hordeum comosum in this stressful habitat
Nurse effect in seedling establishment: facilitation and tolerance to damage in the Andes of central Chile Efecto nodriza en el establecimiento de plántulas: facilitación y tolerancia al da o en los Andes de Chile central
IAN S ACUA-RODRíGUEZ,LOHENGRIN A CAVIERES,ERNESTO GIANOLI
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2006,
Abstract: Nurse effects, which occur when one plant species enhances the survival or growth of another plant species, are predicted to be most relevant in stressful environments. These effects are particulary important during seedling establishment due to their vulnerability to both biotic and abiotic factors, such as herbivory and drought. Tolerance to herbivory reflects the degree to which plants are able to regrow and reproduce after damage, and should vary with resource availability. In the high Andes of central Chile, the cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae) acts as a buffer against environmental stress, enhancing survival of several associated plant species. We hypothesized that tolerance to herbivory of seedlings growing inside the canopy of L. acaulis should be greater than that of seedlings growing outside the cushion plant. We conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis for two native perennial species in the high Andes of central Chile: Hordeum comosum (Poaceae) and Haplopappus anthylloides (Asteraceae). Seedlings of each species were planted inside and outside L. acaulis cushions and half of them received manual damage (50 % foliar tissue removed). Seedlings growing inside the nurse species showed high survival independent of the damage treatment. Whereas position (inside or outside the cushion plant) did not affect tolerance of Haplopappus anthylloides, it significantly affected tolerance of Hordeum comosum. Thus, we found similar survival of damaged and control seedlings of H. comosum inside the cushions, but survival of damaged seedlings in the bare ground was lower than that of control seedlings. We verified the occurrence of nurse effects of Laretia acaulis on the establishment of both species, and detected enhancement of tolerance to damage in Hordeum comosum in this stressful habitat Se ha sugerido que el efecto nodriza, el cual se evidencia cuando una especie vegetal incrementa la supervivencia o el crecimiento de otra, es más relevante en ambientes estresantes. Este efecto sería particularmente importante durante el periodo de establecimiento de las plántulas debido a su alta vulnerabilidad a factores bióticos y abióticos como herbivoría y desecación. La tolerancia a la herbivoría evidencia la capacidad de las plantas de recrecer y reproducirse después del da o, pero esta capacidad es recurso-dependiente. En los Andes de Chile central, la planta en cojín Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae) atenúa el efecto del estrés ambiental, aumentando la supervivencia de diversas especies de plantas asociadas. Proponemos que las plántulas que se encuen
Determinación de la Dominancia Coronaria en Población Mestiza Colombiana: Un Estudio Anatómico Directo
Ballesteros Acua,Luis Ernesto; Corzo Gómez,Edgar Giovanni; Saldarriaga Tellez,Bladimir;
International Journal of Morphology , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022007000300003
Abstract: there is great variability between results of coronary dominance among several ethnic groups. the purpose of this work was to determine the coronary dominance in a group of half caste colombian sample. one hundred fifty four hearts obtained from fresh autopsy cadavers were evaluated. coronary arteries were injected with synthetic resin and later cleaned with 15% of koh for removing the epicardial fat. right dominance in 83.7% of the sample with a moderated dominance corresponding to 42.8% was observed. a balanced circulation in 9.2% and left dominance in 7.2% with a major frequency (3.3%) in the subgroup ii was observed. although not statistical significantly different (p=0.26) we found major female right dominance. circumflex artery had short and long trajectory in 92.8% and 7.2% respectively. right coronary artery concludes its trajectory between the cruz cordis and the left margin in 81.8% and in the left margin in 1.9%. in right coronary dominance the caliperof right coronary arteries was 3.21 mm (sd 0.53) and 2.67 mm (sd 0.30) for the left coronary dominance with an statistical significative difference (p=0.0066). in right coronary dominance sample there was prevalence of the moderated expression, short circumflex arteries (all dominances) and a major caliper in the right coronary dominance
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