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Microscopic Observation of Nuclear Track Pores in Polymeric Membranes  [PDF]
Naveen K. Acharya
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.36076
Abstract: Nuclear track pores were develop and observed in polycarbonate and LR-115 membranes. The polymer membranes were irradiated by swift heavy ions (SHI) and etched chemically. The stopping range of heavy ion is larger than the thickness of the membrane. The fluence of ions was changes from 103 to 107 ions-cm-2. The etching time was increased till pore size reaches up to micron range. The etching conditions were set to develop the porous tracks. The tracks are revealed under optical microscope as the size reaches up to micron or sub-micron size. The size was measured using standard electron diffraction grid. Results show that the porous tracks having average size of 2.4 micron can be developed in polycarbonate, while 5 - 10 micron porous tracks can be developed in LR-115.
Urban Violence in Northern Border of Mexico: A Study from Nuevo León State  [PDF]
Arun kumar Acharya
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14023
Abstract: Urban violence has reached record level in many nations, and having devastating impact on people’s health and livelihood as well as economic prospects. Today, for millions of people around the world, violence, or the fear of violence, is a daily reality. In Mexico since the year 2006 the northern border states are become more violent due to fight against the drug trafficking. In this study, we have taken Nuevo León state as area of study, and we have seen from the result; that urban violence in Nuevo León has increased in an unprecedented manner during last few years. Much of this urban violence is a consequence of rural-to-urban migration and exponential urbanization. We have also seen in the study that urban violence is a multi-factorial phenomena and main reason behind this is inequality among city dwellers. This is a potential source of frustration which increasing risk of urban violence, especially if certain groups are underprivileged and suffers from social exclusion.
Planning for Human Development—Experiences in Asia  [PDF]
Santosh Mehrotra, Sarthi Acharya
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76109
Abstract: The Human Development paradigm states that for workers to create value and enjoy the fruits of their labour, they have to be adequately accomplished through better education, skills, adequate nutrition and health, among other factors. It makes a case for investing in people as a precondition for progress. Recent literature on development also notes that economic growth cannot be sustained without people’s inclusion. The essence of a dynamic HD framework, therefore, is that human capital, inclusion and measures to improve people’s empowerment are paramount. Much of Asia was/is labour surplus; hence, making optimal use of the labour in the growth process until the time when labour from the low productivity sectors (read: agrarian sectors) is redeployed elsewhere would be most desirable. This follows from the standard economic theories and is not new. However, the process does not automatically happen; it has to be planned and carefully executed. This paper puts forth a case for HD-based planning: a process where human capital and the economic sectors are brought into an integrated framework. In practical terms, this implies that three factors are addressed to achieve HD: agrarian reforms, industrial policy and human capital. The paper attempts to assess how select Asian countries have progressed on these counts in the recent past. It identifies the raison d’être of the high achievers’ success and the low achievers’ lack of it in the (implicit or explicit) planning process. Finally, it presents a simple model of how an HD-planning framework might look like.
Relationship among Different Soil Biochemical Methods to Determine Soil Health  [PDF]
Amitava Chatterjee, Umesh Acharya
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.811022
Abstract: Numerous soil biochemical methods are used to determine the soil health status, but the relationships among these methods are not well understood. Relationships among soil biochemical tests, 1) chloroform fumigated microbial biomass C (CFMBC), 2) permanganate oxidizable C (POXC), 3) Solvita CO2-burst (Solvita), 4) Solvita labile amino nitrogen (SLAN), and short-term soil CO2 efflux during laboratory incubation using (v) Alkali-base trap (Alkali) and (vi) infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), were evaluated for nine agricultural soils collected across the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota, USA. Not a single test is comprehensive to relate with all soil biochemical tests. Coefficient of variation percentage for particular method varied with soil type. Among six tests, CFMBC is significantly (p < 0.05) related with Alkali (r = 0.37), Solvita (r = 0.57), SLAN (r = 0.52), and POXC (r = 0.68). Soil CFMBC correlates with most of soil biochemical tests and can be potential to determine soil biochemical condition.
A Study on Compliance and Behavioural Responses of Patients in an Out-Patient Clinic
Acharya JP,Acharya I
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2003,
H?gbomite Associated with Vanadium bearing Titaniferous Magnetite of Mafic-Ultramafic Suite of Moulabhanj Igneous Complex, Orissa, India  [PDF]
D. Beura, D. Acharya, P. Singh, S. Acharya
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.89064
Abstract: H?gbomite associated with vanadium bearing titaniferous magnetite has been identified in mafic-ultramafic suite of rocks of Moulabhanj, Orissa, India. The igneous complex intruded into granulite terrain of Eastern Ghat Super Group. The iron mineral assemblages are Ti-V magnetite, martite and ilmenite. H?gbomite occurs in association with Ti-V magnetite and exhibits both primary and secondary micro-textures. EPMA study confirms the presence of h?gbomite.
Life style of patient before and after diagnosis of hypertension in Kathmandu  [PDF]
Radha Acharya, Hom Nath Chalise
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.38081
Abstract: Hypertension is an important public health-challenge in the developing and the developed world alike. However, hospital-based studies on cardiovascular diseases including hypertension in a developing country like Nepal have been limited. Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the life style of patients before and after diagnosis of hypertension. Methods: A total of 100 adult hypertensive patients over 30 years of age who were attending in medical out patients department within 6 month to 2 years after first diagnosis of hypertension in Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre and Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, in Kathmandu, Nepal, in April 2009, using a descriptive research design. The data was collected by interview using a questionnaire consisting of a combination of structured and semistructured questions. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 11.5 version. Results: This study found the respondents’ knowledge regarding hypertension was poor. Regarding life style of hypertensive patients, majorities (90%) of them were non-vegetarian before diagnosis but after diagnosis of hypertension the percentage of non-vegetarian was reduced by 10%. Similarly, the reduction in consumption of meat, eggs, ghee and oil (mustard, sunflower) by hypertensive patients was statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) after the diagnosis of hypertension. Regarding soyabean oil consumption, additional salty food and amount of salt intake there was no statistical significant difference before and after the diagnosis of hypertension. Likewise, physical exercise and stress reduction activities performed by hypertensive patients and change in drinking alcohol and smoking was found to be statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) after the diagnosis of hypertension. Conclusion: The adverse consequences of hypertension can be reduced by modifying the life style. Therefore more focus should be given in increasing the awareness about hypertension by developing information, education and communication materials on hypertension and setting up hypertensive counseling clinic in each hospitals.
Knowledge regarding preventive measures of heart disease among the adult population in Kathmandu  [PDF]
Radha Acharya Pandey, Ismita Khadka
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.49094
Abstract: Heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. Prevention is the most effective way of combating its epidemic in the resource poor nations. Knowledge on preventive measures of heart diseases has been identified as a prerequisite for change in behavior. This study was conducted with the purpose of identifying the knowledge on heart disease and its prevention among the adults population residing in Dadhikot VDC of Bhaktapur district by interviewing house to house survey. A total of 405 respondents who met the eligible criteria were systematically sampled and interviewed face to face for the study. A pretested Nepali version semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect data from adults. The duration of the study was one month i.e. June, 2011. Among total respondents, 57.8 percent had adequate knowledge on heart disease. Only less than half (46.9%) knew age as non-modifiable risk factor for heart disease followed by hereditary (39.8%) and sex (13.8%). Regarding modifiable risk factors, the most cited response was fatty food consumption (72.6%) followed by smoking (70.4%), stress (63.7%), physical inactivity (61.7%), hypertension (59%), obesity (58.8%), high cholesterol diet (36.5%) and diabetes (30.1%). Most of the respondents (57.8%) knew dyspnea during exertion as symptom of heart disease followed by chest pain (24%). Majority of respondents (80.7%) cited decreasing fatty diet as preventive measure of heart disease following daily exercise (75.6%), eating vegetables and fruits (71.6%), keeping blood pressure under control (59%) and keeping diabetes under control (33.8%) respectively. Knowledge was significantly associated with age, gender, education level and family history of heart disease. Conclusion: The findings concluded that significant percentage (42.2%) of respondents had inadequate knowledge on heart disease. The findings also highlighted the lack of knowledge on high cholesterol diet and diabetes as modifiable risk factors for heart disease i.e. 36.5% and 30.1% respectively. So it is recommended that awareness raising programs could be beneficial on prevention of heart disease is correcting in the deficient areas of knowledge regarding preventive measures of heart disease.
Un análisis conceptual del tráfico de mujeres y su tipología de origen
Acharya, Arunkumar;
Andamios , 2009,
Abstract: recently, migration with trafficking of women has become an important social issue for two reasons: firstly, because it puts women into the migratory wave, and secondly, because of the violence faced by immigrant woman at the place of destination. every day thousands of women worldwide are trafficked into cities and other countries with false promises and coercion, basically for the purpose of sexual exploitation. although trafficking of women is progressively drawing attention worldwide, its lack of conceptual definition makes it hard to distinguish between illegal migration and trafficking. so, the main objective of this study is to develop a clear conceptual definition of women trafficking and to construct a typology considering the patterns of migration from the place of origin to destination.
Acharya Subrat
Hepatitis B Annual , 2005,
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