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Bevacizumab vs. Ranibizumab in Preserving or Improving Vision in Patients with Wet, Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Cost-effectiveness Review
Chukwuemeka C. Nwanze, Abumere Akinwale and Ron A. Adelman
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMT.S7439
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of monthly and as-needed dosing protocols using ranibizumab or bevacizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), when the treatment costs of severe ocular and systemic adverse events are considered. Methods: A Markov model was developed to assess the cost effectiveness of each of the following protocols: monthly ranibizumab, monthly bevacizumab, as-needed ranibizumab and as-needed bevacizumab. Direct costs and utilities were assessed from the perspective of a third-party payer or an insurance company. Cost effectiveness was evaluated in 2011 US dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Considering the treatment costs of severe medical and ocular adverse events, the cost effectiveness of each protocol is as follows: monthly ranibizumab $63,333/QALY, ranibizumab as needed $18,571/QALY, bevacizumab monthly $2,676/QALY and bevacizumab as needed $3,333/QALY. Sensitivity analysis of the treatment costs of medical and ocular adverse events demonstrated minimal impact on relative cost-effectiveness. Conclusion: At current prices, monthly bevacizumab is the most cost-effective anti-VEGF AMD treatment protocol. Ranibizumab is as cost effective as bevacizumab at a maximum price of $158 per dose.
Bevacizumab vs. Ranibizumab in Preserving or Improving Vision in Patients with Wet, Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Cost-effectiveness Review
Chukwuemeka C. Nwanze,Abumere Akinwale,Ron A. Adelman
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics , 2012,
Abstract:
Fermentation and post fermentation changes in cashew wine
TO Akinwale
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 1999,
Abstract:
Should there be Specific Policies to Protect the Welfare of Older People in Britain?
Flourish Itulua-Abumere
Open Access Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.11131/2013/100003
Abstract: Older people have always been a major focus for social policy and because the UK is an ageing society, their importance to the subject is likely to increase further. Like other modern welfare systems, the British welfare state originated in pension provision for older people and totally this group are the main users of the health and social services and the main recipients of social security spending. Compared with unemployed people and lone parents, older people are often viewed as a group that “deserves” specific social policy and especially, social security. However, it is sometimes said that the true test of a civilized society is how it treats its older and vulnerable groups. Despite this group's position as one of the most deserving of welfare, there are still widespread awareness of the many negative images of old age. In common with other western societies, Britain is a country in which age discrimination, or ageism, is widespread (Alcock et al, 2006).
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulima Nervosa Critical Analysis of It's Treatment: Implications and Interventions
Flourish Itulua-Abumere
Open Access Journal of Science and Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.11131/2013/100007
Abstract: The diagnostic consideration of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa has been given much focus over the last two decades than previously, as clinicians have become more aware of the frequency of these disorders and the difficulties associated with their treatment. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as known in the DSM-IV as eating disorders are characterized by physically and/or psychologically harmful eating patterns. Although the psychological explanation of what we now call anorexia nervosa have been known about for centuries, it has only recently attracted much interest, due to greater public knowledge and increased incidence (according to Gross and MclLveen 2006, the latter claim has been disputed). Most people suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa start by fasting. Anorexia nervosa is a deliberate self-starvation. A person whose body weight is less than expected for his or her body height and weight is considered to be anorexic. In contract, bulimia involves binge eating a large quantity of food followed by purging by self-induced vomiting, enemas, laxatives, or diuretics.
Integrating the traditional and the modern conflict management strategies in Nigeria
AA Akinwale
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2010,
Abstract: The study examines the modalities for integrating traditional and modern conflict management strategies in Nigeria using an analysis of relevant documents as well as Black’s Social Control Theory and Thomas-Kilmann’s Model of Conflict Management. The successful amalgamation of diverse groups has radically shifted from being a platform for peaceful coexistence to an arena of violent conflicts due to the matrix of social inequality and the state attempts to undermine the power of traditional social control systems. The police and military have been used to suspend several violent conflicts in Nigeria, but they have been unable to build peace despite their coercive power. The social structure and deep-seated grievances that generate violence have not been addressed and the crowding out of traditional methods of social control from official policies has left room for escalation of violent conflicts. The most disturbing of these conflicts are ethno-religious and resource-control conflicts, which have both resulted in monumental destruction of peoples and properties and exposed different parts of Nigeria to crisis. It is argued that a policy-driven synergy of useful traditional and modern strategies for conflict management will result in lasting peace in Nigeria.
Livelihoods and environmental challenges in coastal communities of Nigeria
AA Akinwale
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Several socio-economic activities such as construction, farming, gas flaring, oil exploration and transportation have affected the physical environment in Nigeria. These activities constitute major sources of revenue for the majority of Nigerians. Yet, there is disconnection between adverse consequences of the above-mentioned socio-economic activities and the need to protect the environment. Though Nigerian governments have established environmental protection agencies, environmental challenges remain high in Nigeria. This situation can be adduced to several years of neglect and poor socio-economic conditions in Nigeria where people largely contravene environmental laws with impunity in their struggle for survival. How do socio-economic activities influence the coastal environment in Nigeria? What are local contributions to environmental protection in Nigeria? These questions were addressed within interpretive theories complemented by 32 Focus Group Discussions among youth and community leaders in eight coastal communities in Lagos State of Nigeria. Respondents were purposively selected from the coastal communities in Lagos State, Nigeria. Results showed a consensus on the dilemma in socio-economic activities of coastal communities with minor variations. Fishing, farming, sand digging and trading were popular occupations in the study areas. Dissenting views were expressed concerning implications of socio-economic activities on the coastal environment. Fishermen claimed that sand digging created hindrances to fishing activities, while sand diggers complained about pollution associated with chemicals found on the water. Farmers confessed that they practised bush burning which could adversely affect the environment. However, awareness of environmental laws was generally low. This finding indicates that law enforcement mechanisms for the implementation of environmental laws are weak in Nigeria. Beyond the activities of the environmental protection agencies established by the Nigerian governments, local measures for environmental protection include temporary withdrawal from aquatic environment and sanction of defaulters. The study concludes that with contamination of natural resources coastal livelihoods have become persistently deplorable. Therefore, combined efforts are essential for controlling environmental challenges in coastal communities.
Repression of Press Freedom in Nigerian Democratic Dispensations
AA Akinwale
Africa Development , 2010,
Abstract: The Nigerian socio-political environment influences press freedom with adverse implications for education, information, entertainment and surveillance. A theoretical recognition of the press as the “fourth estate” connotes the capacity of the press to monitor the tiers of government (the legislature, the executive and the judiciary). However, the state monitors the press in Nigeria in a manner that negates the principle of the fourth estate. This article examines the repression of press freedom in Nigerian democratic dispensations. Using questionnaires and indepth interviews, data were drawn from 440 members of staff of selected print and electronic press organisations in Lagos and Oyo states of Nigeria. Results showed that although the press facilitated the development of democracy, challenges to press freedom were frequent. Respondents largely confirmed that the press kept the public informed, entertained and enlightened, and it set standards and established values for public conduct. The findings showed that the proposed Freedom of Information Bill (FIB) would empower the press and promote democracy in Nigeria if passed into law and implemented. Therefore, it was recommended that press organisations should pursue their professionalism and the ethics of journalism rather than succumb to socio-political forces influencing the quantity and quality of information made available to the public. Political leaders in Nigeria should accommodate public opinion and press reports on necessities for socioeconomic development before making any public interest decision.
Result on the Convergence Behavior of Solutions of Certain System of Third-Order Nonlinear Differential Equations  [PDF]
Akinwale L. Olutimo
International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Application (IJMNTA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijmnta.2016.51005
Abstract: Convergence behaviors of solutions arising from certain system of third-order nonlinear differential equations are studied. Such convergence of solutions corresponding to extreme stability of solutions when \"\"relates a pair of solutions of the system considered. Using suitable Lyapunov functionals, we prove that the solutions of the nonlinear differential equation are convergent. Result obtained generalizes and improves some known results in the literature. Example is included to illustrate the result.
Interrelationships between grain yield and other physiological traits of cowpea cultivars
AS Oladejo, RO Akinwale, IO Obisesan
African Crop Science Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Adequate knowledge of the interrelationships among physiological traits is essential in planning and evaluating breeding programmes for cowpea improvement. The objective of this study was to determine the interrelationships among physiological traits of thirty cowpea cultivars and identify suitable traits for indirect selection for improved crop yield. The study was conducted for two consecutive growing seasons at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Teaching and Research Farm, Ile-Ife in Nigeria. Combined analysis of variance, cluster analysis and genotype-bytrait (GT) analysis were carried out on the measured traits. Results showed significant genotype differences for all phenological and morphological traits, except grain yield and associated yield components. The GT biplot analysis revealed close associations among the phenological traits. Grain yield was positively correlated with all morphological traits except the two peduncle traits and negatively correlated with flowering traits. IT98-131-1 was the best cultivar based on multiple traits and was identified as the ideal cultivar that can be used as a reference check. Seed growth rate, yield growth rate, yield per plant, and pod weight were identified as traits that are most appropriate for indirect selection for improved grain yield of cowpea.
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