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Clustering of childhood mortality in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Ghana
Obed Ernest A. Nettey,Charles Zandoh,Abubakari Sulemana,Robert Adda
Global Health Action , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.5258
Abstract: Background: Childhood mortality in Ghana has generally declined in the last four decades. However, estimates tend to conceal substantial variability among regions and districts. The lack of population-based data in Ghana, as in other less developed countries, has hindered the development of effective programmes targeted specifically at clusters where mortality levels are significantly higher. Objective: This paper seeks to test for the existence of statistically significant clusters of childhood mortality within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) between 2005 and 2007. Design: In this study, mortality rates were generated using mortality data extracted from the health and demographic surveillance database of the KHDSS and exported into STATA. The spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistic by Kulldorff was used to identify significant clusters of childhood mortality within the KHDSS. Results: A significant cluster of villages with high under-five mortality in the south-eastern part of the KHDSS in 2006 was identified. This is a remote location where poverty levels are relatively higher, health facilities are more sparse and these are compounded by poor transport services in case of emergencies. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of the surveillance platform to demonstrate the spatial dimensions of childhood mortality clustering. It is apparent, though, that further studies need to be carried out in order to explore the underlying risk factors for potential mortality clusters that could emerge later.
Demographic patterns and trends in Central Ghana: baseline indicators from the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System
Seth Owusu-Agyei,Obed Ernest A. Nettey,Charles Zandoh,Abubakari Sulemana
Global Health Action , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v5i0.19033
Abstract: Background: The dearth of health and demographic data in sub-Saharan Africa from vital registration systems and its impact on effective planning for health and socio-economic development is widely documented. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems have the capacity to address the dearth of quality data for policy making in resource-poor settings. Objective: This article demonstrates the utility of the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS) by showing the patterns and trends of population change from 2005 to 2009 in the Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South districts of Ghana through data obtained from the KHDSS biannual update rounds. Design: Basic demographic rates for fertility, mortality, and migration were computed by year. School enrolment was computed as a percentage in school by age and sex for 6–18 year-olds. Socio-economic status was derived by use of Principal Components Analysis on household assets. Results: Over the period, an earlier fertility decline was reversed in 2009; mortality declined slightly for all age-groups, and a significant share of working-age population was lost through out-migration. Large minorities of children of school-going age are not in school. Socio-economic factors are shown to be important determinants of fertility and mortality. Conclusion : Strengthening the capacity of HDSSs could offer added value to evidence-driven policymaking at local level.
Making Family Planning Services Relevant to Adolescents: Perspectives from Rural Communities in Central Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Charlotte Tawiah, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Abubakari Sulemana, Emmanuel Mahama, George Adjei, Ellen Boamah, Alex Manu, Stephanie Gyaase, Charles Zandoh, Nelson Amanfo, Kwaku Poku Asante, Timothy Letsa, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411096
Abstract: In lower middle-income countries like Ghana, it is common to find low contraceptive use among adolescents with corresponding high pregnancy outcomes. Evidence points to the fact that the use of contraceptives prevents maternal, neonatal and infant deaths, but in most lower middle-income countries, socio-cultural practices inhibit adolescents’ use. Ensuring the uptake of family planning among adolescents is deemed a necessary means of reducing maternal, neonatal and infant mor-tality. This manuscript seeks to provide contextually relevant approaches to satisfying family planning needs of adolescents in a population lacking it. We employed a qualitative study design from an interpretive paradigm with phenomenology as the methodology to understand societal attitudes towards family planning delivery to adolescents, so as to arrive at contextually appro-priate ways of providing family planning to this needy group. Focused group discussions and in-depth interviews techniques were used in data collection among adolescents, relevant commu-nity opinion leaders and family planning & health services providers. Themes that emerged from data analysis with respect to “perspectives on family planning care delivery to adolescents” and “best ways in addressing adolescents’ family planning needs” are presented, followed by discussion of the issues emerging. A significant and encouraging finding of the study was that opinion leaders and healthcare providers viewed family planning as a means of protecting adolescents against pregnancies and their complications. A key recommendation is for policy makers and political leaders to enact legislations that enable adolescents to have friendly family planning service delivery in all places and at all times.
Family Planning Needs of Adolescents in Predominantly Rural Communities in the Central Part of Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Obed Ernest Nettey, Emmanuel Mahama, Charlotte Tawiah, Ellen Boamah, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephanie Gyaase, Samuel Afari Asiedu, Alexander Manu, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.56030
Abstract: The manuscript presents findings of a descriptive analysis of data from a cross-sectional study of adolescents aimed at identifying their family planning needs and the best approaches to addressing them in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana. Data for the paper were from the family planning module of a sexual and reproductive health survey carried out by the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in 2011. Adolescents in this study recorded high marital (1.6% females and 0.4% males) and pregnancy rates (11.5% females and 1.5% males). Their knowledge of contraceptive methods was high (87.7% females and 82% males), but utilization was low (17.9% females and 6% males). Most study participants viewed family planning as important to their health and wellbeing (59.6% females and 58.6% males). A minority of adolescents were of the perception that contraceptive use was solely the responsibility of women (41.1% females and 32.4% males); and that the use of contraceptives could lead to promiscuity among women (43.8% females and 42.5% males). Those adolescents who previously had unwanted pregnancies would have accepted some help in preventing it (33.1% females and 9.1% males). Recommendations made by respondents included creating a friendly atmosphere by care providers for family planning services delivery to adolescents. Other suggestions were ensuring that family planning services are available and accessible to adolescents, and educating adolescents on the diverse methods available.
Adolescents’ Willingness and Intentions to Use Contraceptives in Rural Ghana  [PDF]
Sulemana Abubakari, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, George Adjei, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Robert Adda, Francis Dzabeng, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311029
Abstract: Efforts made to improve the availability and access to family planning services to adolescents in Ghana have not yielded the desired results. Adolescents in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area are no exception. This study explored contraceptive use intentions, preferences and their determinants among adolescents in rural Ghana. This was to contribute evidence towards achieving universal access to reproductive health. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect Sexual and Reproductive Health data in the Kintampo districts in 2011. A total of 1805 female adolescents were randomly sampled from a resident female adolescent population of 16,795. This study used intention and/or willingness of adolescents to use contraceptives as the outcome variable and the explanatory variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were done. The findings indicated 54.3% of adolescents’ were willing to use contraceptives. Injectable was the most preferred contraceptive method among adolescents (48.6%); this was followed by the pill (29.6%) with the least being foam or jelly (0.2%). The most commonly cited reason for not intending to use contraception was adolescents’ opposition to family planning (31.5%) followed by a fear of side effects (25.8%). Age and education influenced adolescents’ willingness to use contraceptives in the future. Formal education of the young generation coupled with knowledge of contraceptive methods could yield positive outcomes for contraceptive use and ultimately reproductive health of the adolescent population in the near future.
Exploring the Effect of Venture Capital Instruments and Control Mechanisms on Growth of Venture Capital Fund: Empirical Evidence from Ghana  [PDF]
Suweiba Sulemana, Haibo Chen
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.71013
The study investigated the effect of venture capital instruments and control mechanisms on the growth of venture capital fund for 100 venture capital firms in Ghana by employing a stepwise multiple linear regression. We found a positive and significant relationship between growth of venture capital fund and the two-distinct set of independent variables (venture capital instruments and control mechanisms). The variables, convertible redeemable preference, preferred equity and debt, and preferred and common equity contribute significantly as venture capital instruments to the growth of venture capital, while conversion control right, performance option and warranty option were identified as control mechanisms that significantly affect the growth of venture capital.
Family Planning Awareness, Perceptions and Practice among Community Members in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephaney Gyaase, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Robert Adda, Abena Konadu Yawson, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Martha Abdulai, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwame Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Francis Dzabeng, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyeman, Frank Baiden, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.31001
Abstract: Family planning is known to prevent maternal deaths, but some social norms, limited supplies and inconsistent use makes this difficult to achieve in most low- and middle-income countries. In spite of the high fertility levels in most sub-Saharan African countries and the potential economic benefits of family planning, its patronage remains very low in the sub-region. This study was with the objective of identifying the levels of awareness, utilization, access to and perceptions about family planning and contraception. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, with data collected from multiple sources using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Relevant findings included a marked disconnect between family planning/contraceptive knowledge and use. The pills and injectables were the most frequently used, but females in the study population poorly patronised emergency contraception. Supplies of most family planning methods were found to be health facility based, requiring clients to have to necessarily go there for services. Some respondents harboured perceptions that family planning was the responsibility of females alone and that it fuelled promiscuity among female users. Recommendations made include ensuring that health facilities had adequate staff and expertise to provide facility-based family planning services and also to disabuse the minds of community members of the negative perceptions towards family planning.
Community perceptions of malaria and malaria treatment behaviour in a rural district of Ghana: implications for artemisinin combination therapy
Kwaku P Asante, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Ruth Owusu, Elizabeth Awini, Abubakari Sulemana, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Robert Adda, Owusu Boahen, Sylvester Segbaya, Emmanuel Mahama, Constance Bart-Plange, Daniel Chandramohan, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-409
Abstract: Two surveys were conducted; a cross-sectional survey of 729 randomly selected household heads (urban-362, rural-367) and 282 women with children < 5 years (urban-121, rural-161) was conducted in 2006. A district wide survey was conducted in 2007 to assess awareness of AS-AQ. These were complemented with twenty-eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and 16 key informant interviews (KII) among community members and major stakeholders in the health care delivery services. All nine (9) health facilities and five (5) purposively selected drug stores were audited in order to identify commonly used anti-malarials in the study area at the time of the survey.Majority of respondents ( > 75%) in the sampled survey mentioned mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Other causes mentioned include environmental factors (e.g. dirty surroundings) and standing in the sun. Close to 60% of the household heads and 40% of the care-givers interviewed did not know about AS-AQ. The community respondents who knew about and had ever taken AS-AQ perceived it to be a good drug; although they mentioned they had experienced some side effects including headaches and body weakness. Co-blistered AS-AQ was available in all the government health facilities in the study area. Different formulations of ACTs were however found in urban chemical shops but not in rural chemical stores where monotherapy antimalarials were predominant.The knowledge of fever as a symptom of malaria is high among the study population. The awareness of AS-AQ therapy and its side-effect was low in the study area. Community education and sensitization, targeting all categories of the population, has to be intensified to ensure an efficient implementation process.It has been estimated that about 3000 malaria deaths occur among African children each day [1], with about 0.5 billion clinical malaria cases and 2-3 million severe malaria episodes occurring annually [2]. The children who do not die from the severe form of malaria may suff
IEC 61850 SCL Validation Using UML Model in Modern Digital Substation  [PDF]
Byungtae Jang, Alidu Abubakari, Namdae Kim
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.98009
Abstract: The IEC 61850 standard stipulates the Substation Configuration Description Language (SCL) file as a means to define the substation equipment, IED function and also the communication mechanism for the substation area network. The SCL is an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) based file which helps to describe the configuration of the substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) including their associated functions. The SCL file is also configured to contain all IED capabilities including data model which is structured into objects for easy descriptive modeling. The effective functioning of this SCL file relies on appropriate validation techniques which check the data model for errors due to non-conformity to the IEC 61850 standard. In this research, we extend the conventional SCL validation algorithm to develop a more advanced validator which can validate the standard data model using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). By using the Rule-based SCL validation tool, we implement validation test cases for a more comprehensive understanding of the various validation functionalities. It can be observed from the algorithm and the various implemented test cases that the proposed validation tool can improve SCL information validation and also help automation engineers to comprehend the IEC 61850 substation system architecture.
A Study on Unified Testing Method for IEC 61850 Based Server with Focus on Setting Group Function  [PDF]
Namdae Kim, Alidu Abubakari, Byungtae Jang
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.910012
Abstract: The digital substation system consists of an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) which requires information for the supervision, protection, and control, as well as a client operating system for substation operation. IEC 61850 communication standard has been defined for information exchange between heterogeneous digital devices in such substations. Currently, the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) digital substation system uses unbuffered reporting and Generic Object Oriented Substation Events (GOOSE) communication functions for monitoring, protection and control automation. However, it is expected that the Setting Group function will be needed to operate adaptive intelligent substation system. The Setting Group function is advantageous in that it is possible to change the setting of the IED in one unified way through the client operating system, rather than changing the correction value of an IED through different manufacturer-based engineering tools. In order to utilize the Setting Group function of the IED in real substation scenario, it is necessary to test both the communication function with the host operating device and the electric functional test to ensure that correction value is properly changed. In this paper, we introduce the IEC 61850 Setting Group function, and propose a method that can integrate communication function and electrical function test of an IED conforming to the setting group functionality. We also tested the Setting Group function of the actual IED device through the proposed integrated functional test method and analyzed the results. We were able to simplify the process of testing both the electrical and communication signals in digital substations.
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