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Simulation of Oxygen-steam Gasification with CO2 Adsorption for Hydrogen Production from Empty Fruit Bunch
Murni M. Ahmad,Abrar Inayat,Suzana Yusup,Khalik M. Sabil
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Current study focuses on the process development of hydrogen production via gasification of Empty fruit bunch (EFB) with in-situ adsorption of CO2 based on equilibrium modeling approach. The process flowsheet simulation is performed using iCON, PETRONAS process simulation software. This work investigates the influence of the temperature within the range of 600 to 1000C and steam/biomass ratio between 0.1 to 1.0 on the hydrogen yield and product gas composition. The importance of different reactions involved in the system is also discussed. Using the simulation, the optimal operating conditions are predicted to be at 800C and steam/biomass ratio of 0.6. Hydrogen yield of 149g kg-1 of EFB can be obtained at 1000C. The preliminary economic potential per annum of the oxygen-steam gasification system coupled with in situ CO2 adsoprtion is RM 6.64x106 or approximately USD 2x106.
Heat Integration Study on Biomass Gasification Plant for Hydrogen Production
Murni M. Ahmad,Mohd F. Aziz,Abrar Inayat,Suzana Yusup
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The world is facing global warming crisis and environmental problem due to usage of fossil fuels as major energy source. Therefore, the potential of hydrogen as an alternative, sustainable, renewable source of clean energy is highly regarded. This project aimed to develop a process simulation model of a heat-integrated flowsheet for a biomass gasification plant for hydrogen production using ASPEN PLUS software. Heat integration study has been performed on the plant flowsheet using pinch analysis and was carried out in SPRINT, The University of Manchester Process Integration Software. The minimum temperature difference was set to be 10 K. Based on the study, it was found that the minimum hot utilities required was 0.1642 kW while the minimum cold utilities required was 0.0545 kW. The maximum heat recovery from the process was 0.8413 kW. Using problem table algorithm, the pinch temperature was determined to be at 628.5C. Three heat exchangers were proposed in the heat exchanger network design. Calculations recorded savings of approximately 72% in hot utilities and 88% in cold utilities via the heat integration analysis.
Simulation of Integrated Pressurized Steam Gasification of Biomass for Hydrogen Production using iCON
Murni M. Ahmad,Chai K. Chiew,Abrar Inayat,Suzana Yusup
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Energy in the form of biomass has been used to produce heat, electricity, steam and petrochemicals due to the zero net carbon emission. With regards to the environmental concerns, hydrogen offers a competitive edge over the fossil fuel as an alternative clean energy. Currently, production of hydrogen from biomass using a pressurized system is not being extensively analyzed and developed. Thus, process and flowsheet development of pressurized gasification process of biomass coupled with carbon dioxide adsorption for hydrogen production were investigated using a PETRONAS iCON simulation model. The effect of parameters such as pressure, temperature and steam/biomass ratio on the hydrogen yield was investigated. Hydrogen yield was predicted to be increasing with pressure, temperature and steam/biomass ratio in this high pressure gasification system.
Biomass Steam Gasification with In-Situ CO2 Capture for Enriched Hydrogen Gas Production: A Reaction Kinetics Modelling Approach
Abrar Inayat,Murni M. Ahmad,Suzana Yusup,Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib
Energies , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/en3081472
Abstract: Due to energy and environmental issues, hydrogen has become a more attractive clean fuel. Furthermore, there is high interest in producing hydrogen from biomass with a view to sustainability. The thermochemical process for hydrogen production, i.e. gasification, is the focus of this work. This paper discusses the mathematical modeling of hydrogen production process via biomass steam gasification with calcium oxide as sorbent in a gasifier. A modelling framework consisting of kinetics models for char gasification, methanation, Boudouard, methane reforming, water gas shift and carbonation reactions to represent the gasification and CO2 adsorption in the gasifier, is developed and implemented in MATLAB. The scope of the work includes an investigation of the influence of the temperature, steam/biomass ratio and sorbent/biomass ratio on the amount of hydrogen produced, product gas compositions and carbon conversion. The importance of different reactions involved in the process is also discussed. It is observed that hydrogen production and carbon conversion increase with increasing temperature and steam/biomass ratio. The model predicts a maximum hydrogen mole fraction in the product gas of 0.81 occurring at 950 K, steam/biomass ratio of 3.0 and sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.0. In addition, at sorbent/biomass ratio of 1.52, purity of H2 can be increased to 0.98 mole fraction with all CO2 present in the system adsorbed.
High Pressure Oxydesulphurisation of Coal—A Parametric Study
Moinuddin Ghauri,Abrar Inayat,Muhammad Tariq Bashir,Salmiaton B. Ali,Keith R. Cliffe
Energies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/en6041930
Abstract: The current study is focused on controlling sulphur emissions by pre-treating coal to remove sulphur prior to combustion using the oxydesulphurisation technique. Three British coals were chosen for the study. Working with these coals gave a better insight to the oxydesulphurisation reactions for pyritic and organic sulphur. Effect of air and oxygen pressure in a fixed time interval on sulphur removal was studied by series of experimental runs at various temperatures. Heating value recoveries were significant. Increase in oxygen content is reported as a measure of carbon loss. The coal samples were analyzed according to British standard methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the sulphur removal was enhanced with the increase in air pressure, particularly up to 100 bars, with only a small decrease in calorific value at a particular temperature. Increasing temperature was witnessed to be more important in sulphur removal than increasing pressure.
Abrar Maqbool
The Professional Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Intussusception is commonly discussed as a paediatric problem. A study of 34 cases is presented asencountered in a general surgical unit. Only 50% belonged to paediatric age group. M:F ratio is 2:1.50% had ileocaecal intussusception whereas 38% were of Ileoileal type. In isolated small bowelintussusception Meckel’s was responsible in 5 of 13 cases. 7 out of 34 cases had gangrene of gut. 2infants with ileo-caeco-colic intussusception were treated successfully with hydrostatic pressure usingbarium enema while another was found reduced at operation after the enema. All but two were explored.13 had simple operative reduction, 15 had resection anastomosis of gut whereas 4 had resectionexteriorization.
Abrar Maqbool
The Professional Medical Journal , 1995,
Abstract: A study of nine cases is presented who had previously undergone laparotomy but ended up having retainedforeign bodies. All nine were operated primarily elsewhere, four had emergency cesarian section, one hadintestinal surgery. The others had been operated for laminectomy, prostatectomy, herniorrhaphy and one hadan incision and drainage for injection abscess. Seven of them came back within six months of primary surgery,another presented months later with sub acute intestinal obstruction and one presented five years later withretention of urine. Four had complained of abdominal masses three had discharging sinuses one had sub acuteintestinal obstruction and another presented with vesical calculus. All were operated and recovery was uneventfulin all with no mortality.
Performance Evaluation to Enable Institutionalisation of Technology
Abrar Haider
Communications of the IBIMA , 2008,
Abstract: Technology implementation involves understanding of the structure of the technology, the reasons for choosing particular technology and its implementation approaches, assumptions about the context in which technology is to be used, and previous experiences with technology adoption. However, information systems implementation in engineering organizations generally disregards human, contextual, and organizational elements and is driven by the needs of individual departments rather than in response to the strategic needs of the entire organization. This paper presents an account of information systems implementation in a public sector transport organization. The case emphasizes the importance of ex-post or ex-ante evaluation of technology as well as the context of their implementation. It highlights that evaluation of information systems should not be treated as an isolated process, which is often left to auditors. In fact, it is a strategic activity that requires participation from a wider organizational community, which provides core justifications for investments in information systems as well as roadmaps for their implementation and institutionalization in the organization.
Unit Invariance as a Unifying Principle of Physics
Abrar Shaukat
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: A basic principle of physics is the freedom to locally choose any unit system when describing physical quantities. Its implementation amounts to treating Weyl invariance as a fundamental symmetry of all physical theories. In this thesis, we study the consequences of this "unit invariance" principle and find that it is a unifying one. Unit invariance is achieved by introducing a gauge field called the scale, designed to measure how unit systems vary from point to point. In fact, by a uniform and simple Weyl invariant coupling of scale and matter fields, we unify massless, massive, and partially massless excitations. As a consequence, masses now dictate the response of physical quantities to changes of scale. This response is calibrated by certain "tractor Weyl weights". Reality of these weights yield Breitenlohner-Freedman stability bounds in anti de Sitter spaces. Another valuable outcome of our approach is a general mechanism for constructing conformally invariant theories. In particular, we provide direct derivations of the novel Weyl invariant Deser--Nepomechie vector and spin three-half theories as well as new higher spin generalizations thereof. To construct these theories, a "tractor calculus" coming from conformal geometry is employed, which keeps manifest Weyl invariance at all stages. In fact, our approach replaces the usual Riemannian geometry description of physics with a conformal geometry one. Within the same framework, we also give a description of fermionic and interacting supersymmetric theories which again unifies massless and massive excitations.
Dominant dimensions of two classes of finite dimensional algebras
Muhammad Abrar
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the dominant dimension of two important classes of finite dimensional algebras, namely, hereditary algebras and tree algebras. We derive an explicit formula for the dominant dimension of each class.
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