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Extension of Zhu's solution to Lotto's conjecture on the weighted Bergman spaces
Abebaw Tadesse
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171204201260
Abstract: We reformulate Lotto's conjecture on the weighted Bergman space Aα2 setting and extend Zhu's solution (on the Hardy space H2) to the space Aα2.
Treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Sebsibe Tadesse, Takele Tadesse
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65044

Evaluating the outcomes of DOTS program is essential for recognizing and amending system failures before the incidence and proportion of resistant isolates rise. In this study, we seek to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis treatment success rate in Dabat, northwest Ethiopia. Medical records of 1305 pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients registered from 2007 to 2012 at two health centers in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia, were reviewed. Treatment outcomes and forms of tuberculosis were assessed according to WHO guidelines. Descriptive analyses were performed using frequencies and percentages. Treatment success rate was observed in 1146 (87.8%) patients. Out of these, 534 (89.1%) of the males and 612 (86.7%) of the females were successfully treated. It was also true in 338 (87.8%) of the smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 473 (85.7%) of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and 335 (91.0%) of the extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients. In conclusion, treatment success rate in the current study was slightly higher than the WHO international updated target for the period 2011 to 2015. However, this doesn’t mean that there will be no need for further enhancement of supervision and monitoring techniques, strengthening counseling and health education programs, and improving the quality of laboratory diagnostic services.

Prescribing Pattern for Skin Diseases in Dermatology OPD at Borumeda Hospital, North East, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Abebaw Tegegne, Fentaw Bialfew
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2018.61001

Introduction: Skin diseases are the major contributors of disease burden in society. Dermatological therapy ultimate goal is achieved by administering the safest and least number of drugs. The problem gets compounded with the inappropriate and irrational use of medicines. Therefore, periodic prescription audit in the form of prescribing patterns is away to improve irrational prescription. The objective of this study to assess the prescription patterns of dermatological agents in Borumeda hospital. Method: Hospital based retrospective cross sectional study in which prescribing patterns of dermatological agents are assessed. A total of 385 samples of patient record prescription from November/1/2016 to December/30/2016, and the sample were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Sample prescriptions were reviewed using structural data collection format. The Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result: Regarding rout of administration, the maximum number of drugs was prescribed topically (66.2%). Topical steroids were the most commonly prescribed drugs (25.3%). Use of generic prescribing in single drug prescribing was 81.7%. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was higher (26.3%, 20.8%) in both male and female respectively followed by scabies in male with 12.2% and Acne vulgaris (12.9%) in female. Number of drugs per prescription was higher (2.46) than WHO standard (<2). Conclusion: The current study reveals that topical corticosteroids were commonly prescribed drugs in the dermatology unit and the prescribing practice imitates incidence of polypharmacy.

Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Community and Importance of Camel and other Livestock Species in Tahitay-Adiyabo District, Tigray Region in the Northern Periphery of Ethiopia  [PDF]
Yosef Tadesse
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2019.92019
Abstract: The study was undertaken in the northern periphery of the country, Tigray region, north-west Tigray zone, Tahitay Adiyabo district from February to March, 2017. For this study, four Kebeles were selected purposively based on the presence of two major community groups (Tigrayans and Kunama) and presence of camel species and other livestock species. Seventy-two (72) households per district, of which 38 households from two kebeles for Kunama community and 34 households from two kebeles for Tigrayan community groups were selected randomly. A software package of SAS (2008) was employed to generate descriptive statistics for qualitative and quantitative data. As the study revealed, three-fifth and two-fifth of the respondents in the study area were illiterate and attended primary education respectively. The two community groups were significantly (P < 0.05) different on educational status and Tigriyans respondents were more educated than the other counterpart. More than 2/3 children (7 - 17 years of age) of the respondents in the study area were attended school. Exceptionally, more than 75% of the children for Tigriyan community group in the district were attended school whereas 3/5th of Kunama community children were attended school education. Average family size per household in the study area was 6.22 ±
Palliative care provision for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Abebaw Yohannes
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-5-17
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide [1,2]. Studies in the US have reported death rate from COPD doubled in the past two decades while significant decline occurred in deaths rate from other chronic diseases, for example, chronic heart disease and stroke [3,4]. The trends of increasing annual death rate of COPD was also marked by the first time the number of women dying from COPD surpassed men [5] in contrast to demographic changes in the general population. In the same period healthcare utilization was exponentially growing because patients with severe COPD were hospitalized three to four times per year and utilization of intensive care units for patients admitted with acute exacerbations of COPD in developed countries [1,4-6]. In the US in 2005, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute reported that the annual direct medical costs for COPD were about $21.8 billion and indirect costs (restricted days, lost workdays, and productivity) estimated at $17 billion respectively [7]. Au and co-workers [8] examined retrospectively patients who died in the previous six-months with advanced stage COPD in comparison with lung cancer patients and their healthcare utilization. They found that patients with COPD had 'twice the odds of being admitted to an intensive care unit and received fewer opiates and benzodiazepine compared with patients with lung cancer'. The total direct medical costs were $4,000 higher for COPD patients compared with lung cancer patients because of the intensive care unit utilization [8]. A recent population survey that investigated the health status of COPD patients in five European countries and US have reported that a significant but minority of European Union patients reported that their 'health status was worse than death' because of significant impairment in physical daily activities, severe dyspnoea, fatigue, pain and psychological morbidity due to anxiety and depressive symptoms [9].
Birth outcome and correlates of low birth weight and preterm delivery among infants born to HIV-infected women in public hospitals of Northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Bekana Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57A4004

Background: HIV-positive pregnant women are at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, data on birth outcome among HIV-infected women are limited in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to identify the adverse birth outcomes and associated factors of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PD) among HIV-infected women. Methods: A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted. All deliveries from HIV-infected women from September 1, 2009 to April 30, 2012 were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to explore the potential risk factors for LBW and PD. Result: Out of 416 singleton infants born to HIV-infected mothers, the prevalence of LBW and PD was 89 (21.4%) and 69 (16.6%), respectively. The baseline maternal CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3, maternal body mass index (BMI) below 18.5, maternal anemia and maternal exposure to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) were factors significantly associated with LBW. On the other hand, a baseline maternal CD4 level below 200/ mm3, having no Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) intervention during pregnancy, maternal BMI less than 18.5, maternal Eclamsia during pregnancy, and mothers being on HAART before pregnancy were factors associated with preterm delivery. Conclusion: There was a significant prevalence of low birth weight and preterm delivery among infants born to HIV-positive mothers. The programme for PMTCT services should maximize the need for an early identification of those mothers with predicted complications.

Prescribing Pattern of Analgesic Drugs at Boru Meda Hospital, North East, Amhara, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Abebaw Tegegne, Wondesen Gashaw, Dawit Kidane
Pain Studies and Treatment (PST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/pst.2017.54004
Introduction: Pain is the sensory and emotional experience, which altered human health and well-being. When pain does not resolve, it may be associated with a serious disease, condition, or injury that needs timely medical care and also irrational prescribing of analgesics, which is possible to lead to unwanted side effects. Therefore, this study has been intended to evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics drugs at Boru Meda Hospital. Method: A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 200 prescriptions containing analgesic were systematically collected by using well designed and pretested Data collection format. The necessary information was extracted from the prescription sheets by trained pharmacists and later analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Result: Regarding prescribed analgesic acetaminophen 115 (36.9%) was the most prescribed, and then followed diclofenac 83 (26.6%) and Ibuprofen 64 (20.5%). The maximum number of analgesic drugs was administered to patients by oral rout (75%), which is followed by parenteral (19%). About dosing approach 94% acetaminophen prescribed as needed (PRN) based, whereas ibuprofen 59.4% and tramadol 40% were prescribed as twice a day (bid) based. Acute fibril illness (13.6%) was the highest reason for prescribing analgesics. Conclusion: Majority of the prescription analgesics drugs were prescribed as PRN dosing approaches with a very large percentage of oral medications. Some of the prescriptions revealed irrational prescribing of analgesics, in accordance of clinical indication, frequency of administration and combination of analgesic.
GIS Based Soil Loss Estimation Using RUSLE Model: The Case of Jabi Tehinan Woreda, ANRS, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tadesse Amsalu, Abebe Mengaw
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.511054
Soil degradation in the form of soil erosion is a serious and continuous environmental problem in Jabi Tehinan Woreda. Uncontrolled land use, deforestation, over cultivation, overgrazing and exploitation of biomass for firewood, construction and other household uses due to increasing population ultimately lead to severe soil erosion. The impact of natural hazards like erosion can be minimized and ultimately controlled by disaster preparedness maps. Therefore, the overall objective of this paper is to quantify and map an estimated soil loss by examining different topographic and anthropogenic factors for the planning and implementations of sustainable soil conservation and management system in the study area. This study had integrated Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques to quantify and map erosion vulnerable areas using RUSLE model. Slope gradient, slope length, soil type, soil conservations techniques, cover management and rainfall variables were used as input model parameters/variables. The data had been collected and analyzed from different land sat imageries, SRTM data, topomaps and point interpolations of primary data. Finally, the aggregated effects of all parameters had been analyzed and soil loss from the area was calculated using RUSEL models. After analyzing all model parameters, areas in steeper slope with Lithosols, Eutric Nitosols, Orthic Luvisols, croplands, bare lands and river banks have been identified as the most erosion vulnerable areas. Quantitatively, an estimated annual soil loss in Jabi Tehinan Woreda ranges from nearly 0 in south and central parts of the area to 504.6 t/ha/yr in steeply sloping mountainous areas of the north and north-eastern parts of the catchments.
Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in Superconducting HoMo6S8  [PDF]
Tadesse Desta, Gebregziabher Kahsay
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.51004
Abstract: This work focuses on the theoretical investigation of the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in the superconducting HoMo6S8. By developing a model Hamiltonian for the system and using the Green’s function formalism and equation of motion method, we have obtained expressions for superconducting transition temperature (Tc), magnetic order temperature (Tm), superconductivity order parameter (D) and magnetic order parameter (η). By employing the experimental and theoretical values of the parameters in the obtained expressions, phase diagrams of energy gap parameter versus transition temperature, superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter are plotted separately. By combining the phase diagrams of superconducting transition temperature versus magnetic order parameter and magnetic order temperature versus magnetic order parameter, we have demonstrated the possible coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in superconducting HoMo6S8.<
Contributing Factors to Long Working Hours: Case Study of Waiters in Dire Dawa Administration  [PDF]
Gizachew Girma, Tadesse Moges
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.63017
Abstract: The need to create and maintain industrial peace, in one hand, protect the fragile interest of workers on the other side to boost economic development have been critical issues which have attained significant consideration from states. To that end, they introduced at international and national levels different set of legislations regulating employment relations. Among other things, working time limit has meticulously been introduced to safeguard the rights of workers, who are generally with the lesser bargaining power, and make the labor more productive. Ethiopia has accepted this notion of delimitating working hours, and adopted legislations. However, it has become a public secret that such rules have not been maintained in practice and that the enforcement mechanism appeared meager. Though researches have been made in different part of the world; in Ethiopia, particularly in Dire Dawa, the factors contributing for long working hours have not been addressed. There are, however, indicators that particularly waiters are working for longer hours than what the law stipulates. In a town dubbed as industrial corner, this factor should not be left unconsidered if the aspired objective of the labour regulation is really to be met. This research, hence, took the first step in studying the existence of this violation, and investigating the contributing factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires and interviews, and samples were taken using stratified systematic sampling method. Data were analyzed through quantitative (descriptive analysis and logistic regression model) and qualitative techniques. Then, job insecurity, lack of legal awareness, culture of the work, salary, tips, dependents, and level of education have been found out to be contributing factors, and their level of significance has also been established. It has also revealed that the absence of strong enforcement mechanisms contributed for the apparent non-adherence to the rules so delimiting working hours.
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