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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 278 matches for " Abdullahi Saddiq "
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LLIN Ownership, Utilization, and Malaria Prevalence: An Outlook at the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Akubue Augustine Uchenna
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104280
Background: Malaria is a disease caused by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Nigeria, one of the two epicenters of malaria transmission across the globe, contributes to 40 percent global malaria burden. The disease, considered a global priority, has an annual global death toll of around 400,000 people. The global reduction in malaria burden which is the result of direct scale-up of one of the core malaria interventions using the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), has prevented around 663 million cases of malaria in the sub-Saharan Africa. The most cost-effective evidenced-based strategy against malaria and its unwanted consequences is sleeping under the LLINs; studies have proven this measure to confer adequate protection to the mother and her unborn child. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained during the 2015 Nigeria malaria indicator survey. The eligible participants in the survey were pregnant women and caregivers who had at least a child under the age of five years. The survey was conducted in October and November 2015 across the thirty-six states of the country including the Federal Capital Territory. Using SPSS version 24, correlation and regression analyses were run to check for any significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. Results: The Pearson correlation is 0.866 (α = 0.026, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test, showing positive linear relationships between LLIN use and malaria prevalence across the six geo-political zones in 2015. The ANOVA test shows F value 21.510 (α = 0.017, p < 0.05) and Regression analysis, R-square 0.935; these further shows a significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. In favour of the Alternative Hypothesis, the Null Hypothesis was rejected. However, LLIN ownership and malaria prevalence shows weak correlation with a Pearson correlation of 0.635, (α = 0.175, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test. Conclusion: The outcome of this study once again underscores LLIN as an important prevention tool against malaria and its unwanted consequences. The positive linear correlation on LLIN use and the decline in malaria prevalence underscores the need for governments at all levels to ease up LLIN access to reduce any intervention gaps to further reduce malaria morbidity and mortality and achieve malaria elimination across the country.
Suspected Malaria Outbreak Investigations in Baure LGA, Katsina State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105512
Background: Malaria, a disease that is endemic in Nigeria and contributing up to 25 per cent of infant mortality and 30 per cent of under-five mortality, is among the 17 per cent of the global burden of infectious diseases. Nigeria, which has 27 per cent malaria prevalence, is among the top eleven high-burden countries globally. In September 2018, a team headed by the World Health Or-ganisation in Nigeria investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Baure local government area of Katsina state northwestern Nigeria. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of 30 patients who were presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 10th-24th September 2018. The data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Epicentre of the suspected outbreak to assess the knowledge of the caregivers on malaria control measures and look at the coverage of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) running in the area for the third year. The data were analysed using Excel. Results: Out of the 30 reported cases, 27 (90%) were tested positive for RDT and 3 (10%) were tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), sex distribution F 16 (59%) and M 11 (41%) and CFR 3.7% (1/27). An SMC coverage survey shows that out of 86 HHs, 79 (91.86%) had SMC cards for the last two cycles of 2018. On the knowledge of caregivers on malaria preventive measures, 80% (8/10) were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and 100% (10/10) had knowledge on at least one preventive measure against the disease. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, there is the need for state malaria control programme to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, to strengthen awareness campaigns on the available malaria interventions and to improve access to the interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Universal Access to Malaria Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment as a Strategy toward Disease Control and Elimination: A Critical Look at Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Abdullahi Saddiq, Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105659
Background: As early as 2008 there was a call by the United Nations Secretary General to halt malaria death by ensuring universal coverage of malaria inter-ventions to be attained by 2010. This was echoed by the World Health Assem-bly in 2015 by adopting the Global Technical Strategy or malaria 2016-2030 with universal access to malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment as one of its three pillars. This study had a critical look at the supply and distribution of Artemisin-based Combination Therapy, Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in 2017 with a view to critique the universal coverage of these commodities in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe States in the northeastern geopolitical region of Nigeria. Method: This is a quantitative cross-sectional study using secondary data. The research analyzed the data of malaria intervention commodities received by state malaria elimination programmes from six states across the northeast zone between January and December 2017. Results: The study result showed that RDTs were received and distributed in four of the six states and one state did not receive or distribute any. Commodities for treatment (ACTs) received and distributed showed that only one state had a significant supply and distribution of the commodity, two states had minimal supply and distribution while the other three states had insignificant quantities that did not match the RDT supply and the state that had the highest supply/distribution was the only state supported by the global fund in the northeast zone in 2017. Only one state had a significant quantity of LLINs distributed in 2017. Conclusion: The government of Nigeria and collaborating partners have made concerted efforts to improve access to ACTs, RDTs and LLINs with improvement in levels of intervention across the country. This study however clearly demonstrates the need to intensify efforts in making universal access possible in northeastern Nigeria so that the objectives of the National Malaria Strategic Plan 2014-2020 can be achieved. This comes at a time when donor funding is at cross-roads.
Lots Quality Assurance Survey (LQAS) as a Strategy to Achieving Quality LLIN Campaigns: The Nigerian Experience  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Dr. Abdullahi Saddiq, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Dr. Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104484
Background: Nigeria, in its quest to scale up coverage and utilization of LLINs as a strategy for malaria control, had the first long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) mass campaign across the country between 2009-2013. The NMEP with support from its RBM partners successfully distributed over 57.7 million LLINs during the period representing over 90% of the national target. In spite this, and to achieve universal coverage, the country maintained a continuous distribution through multiple channels and in particular the antenatal care outlets and the expanded programme on immunization. The Nigerian government, with support from the Global Fund and through the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and the Society for Family Health (SFH) and with technical support from the World Health Organization, once again launched the LLIN replacement campaign in some states across the country. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five states that conducted the LLIN replacement campaign using the lots quality assurance survey (LQAS) tool developed by the World Health Organization. The period of the survey across the states is between August and December 2017. The LQAS questionnaires were administered to households (HHs) by the WHO field officers trained on the use of the tool at least one week after the campaign. A total of 240 HHs were selected from 24 settlements (clusters) in 24 wards of six LGAs (lots) from each of the five (5) states that rolled out the campaign. Data collected were double entered, cleaned, crosschecked, and the results analysed using the SPSS version 24. Results: With a total of 9740 people surveyed from 1200 HHs across the five states, the average redemption rate was 95.5% (95% CI, 91.6% - 98.8%), average retention rate was 98.4% (95% CI, 97.0% - 99.8%), average hanging rate was 82.6% (95% CI, 80.0% - 85.5%), and an average card ownership of 83.5% (95% CI, 78.6% - 88.2%). While the main source of information 35.4% (95% CI, 21.8% - 49.0%) about the LLIN campaign was the health workers, the reasons for those missed out were mainly due to team performance 32.2% (95% CI, 26.8% - 37.4%) and net cards not issued 27.4% (95% CI, 23.2% - 32.0%). Similarly, the Pearson correlation (0.942, α 0.017, p < 0.05, 2-tailed test), the ANOVA test (F value of 23.751, α 0.017, p < 0.05), and Regression analysis (R-square 0.888 and Durbin-Watson 2.487), all shows significant relationships between LLIN redemption and usage with a resultant rejection of the Null Hypothesis. Conclusion: The outcome of this research underscores the need to adopt and scale up the use of the LQAS tool to assess the quality of LLIN campaigns within the shortest possible time. While the LQAS has been in use by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization cluster during polio campaigns, this is the first time that the tool was deployed by the WHO malaria unit as a strategy to identify post LLIN campaign gaps immediately after implementation. The scaling up of this strategy would undoubtedly improve LLIN campaigns that would be conducted in the remaining states across the country so as to ensure that Nigeria achieve LLIN universal access in line with the Global Technical Strategy (GTS) framework toward malaria elimination.
Quality Assurance (QA) Tool in Public Health Campaigns: A Look at the 2017 LLIN Replacement Campaign in Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Abdullahi Saddiq, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104701
Background: Although there are various malaria intervention measures, the long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are considered as the most cost-effective intervention measure for malaria endemic countries. In line with the Global Technical Strategies, and as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the other available malaria preventive measures to achieve malaria control and elimination in especially the malaria endemic countries include the intermittent prophylactic treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), intermittent prophylactic treatment in infants (IPTi), indoor residual spray (IRS), seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC), and recently the use of malaria vaccine. This study examines the role of quality assurance (QA) tool as deployed by WHO in the 2017 LLIN replacement campaigns in the states that implemented the campaign in Nigeria—Adamawa, Edo, Imo, Kwara, and Ondo. For the purpose of this study, the QA tool examined four components during the campaign—logistics, strategies, technical, and demand creation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the QA checklist developed and applied by the WHO professional officers intra campaign between April and December 2017. In each of the states, a total of six LGAs were randomly selected using the EPI risk status (AFP performance indicators and the routine immunization coverage). The findings from the QA checklist tool were analyzed using the SPSS version 24 and the results discussed accordingly. Results: The results looked at general and specific issues across the five states. While the general issues are more in Kwara state in comparison to the other four states—logistics (15%), strategies (12%), technical (13%), and demand creation (7%), the specific issues are almost same across the five states; these specific issues are poor crowd control (12%), early closure of distribution sites (14%), mix-up of data at the distribution sites (15%), poor communication medium between supervisors and teams at the field (11%), safety concerns by the recipients (10%), lack of adequate knowledge on the LLIN usage (9%), inadequate LLIN storage sites (13%), and inadequate plans for LLIN movement between the distribution points (16%). In spite this; all the five states had at least 80% in the area of programme ownership. Conclusion: On the overall, the study further underscores the importance of using quality assurance checklists in public health campaigns as they help ensure that campaigns meet the minimum required standard.
Modernist Arabic Literature and the Clash of Civilizations Discourse
Saddiq Mohammad Gohor
Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities , 2009,
Abstract: The paper explores the incorporation of western and Christian traditions, assimilated from western culture and literature in contemporary texts, written by Muslim/Arab poets and addressed to predominantly Muslim communities, in order to disrupt the clash of civilizations narrative and underline the attempt of post WWII Arab poets, led by Badr Shaker Al-Sayyab, to be engaged into trans-cultural dialogues with western masters particularly T.S Eliot. The paper argues that Arab poets, from ex-colonized countries, attempted to build bridges with the West by construction of a poetics that takes as its core the cultural/religious traditions of the European colonizers. Unlike writers from the ex-colonies, in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and the West Indies who reconstruct western texts in order to subvert them, post WWII Arab poets integrated the religious heritage of what is traditionally categorized as an alien/hostile civilization into the Arab-Islamic literary canon.
Utilization of Milk as an Oral Contrast Agent in CT Scan of the Abdomen  [PDF]
Asma Badawood, Nisreen Alsioufi, Samar Fathuddin, Nabeel Mishah, Saddiq Jastaniah
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/act.2015.43005
Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate using the whole milk as alternative oral contrast for the as-sessment of gastrointestinal CT enterography. Fifty patients undergo (18 female and 32 male) aged from 21 to 79 years (mean 45 years) undergo abdominal CT at the department of diagnostic radiology of King Abdulaziz University Hospital. They receive 1 - 1.5 liter whole milk. Siemens SOMATOM definition CT Scan Machine with 64 slices and dual source was utilized to image all pa-tients in research population group where iodinated oral contrast media was replaced by a whole milk available in the local market. Patients were scanned as per the routine protocol used for CT Abdomen at KAUH-CT Unit: Helical Mode with 0.7 Pitch was performed on all paints in supine po-sition using a 16-detector row scanner (Bright Speed S, General Electric-Milwaukee Wisconsin, USA). The following parameters were applied: collimation of 16 × 0.625 (1.25 - 3.75) mm, pitch of 3, Slice thickness: 5 mm, gantry rotation time of 400 mAs, tube voltage of 120 KV and scan time 11.05 second. The images of all cases were reviewed by two qualified radiologists. Conclusion: The present study suggested that whole milk was found to be an effective alternative negative contrast for the assessment of the jejunum, ileum and terminal ileum in CT enterography. It was excellent for gastric imaging and we recommended replacing milk as negative oral contrast since it is available and cost effective. Further research to be conducted with modified milk drinking timing for better large bowel distention.
CT Brain in Children: Evaluation of the Clinical and Radiological Findings  [PDF]
Awad Elkhadir, Mohamed Gotb, Deema Hussein, Mohamad Saka, Saddiq Jastaniah
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2016.61008
Abstract: This study was done to the review and documentation of brain CT investigations in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2012 including CT findings for brain based on justifications for scan. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the situation of requesting CT brain versus the reporting findings. A retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Radiology, KAUH between 1 January and 31 December 2012. There were 417 children scanned by CT for brain, their data were reviewed and analyzed from radiology records to form the sample of the study. The study revealed that high percentages of radiological findings for CT brain did not confirm the clinical diagnosis. The percentages of such cases which observed in the three departments of emergency, inpatient and outpatient were 68.4%, 53.6% and 49.4% respectively. This result shows that a percentage of children were given unnecessary exposure to radiation among those who received CT brain from the radiology department in KAUH. From the study, it is concluded that most brain CT done for children were not justification as well as there were more brain CT findings not confirmed the clinical diagnosis, although the brain CT may be significant in most of the cases. Hence, there is a big concern about the increasing requests for unnecessary brain CT. Therefore, the paediatricians should be more careful in requesting of brain CT unless it is indispensible.
Psychological effects of parenting children with autism prospective study in Kuwait  [PDF]
Abdullahi Fido, Samira Al Saad
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32A002

Background: Recent reports suggest that the prevalence of autism in the Arab world ranges from 1.4 cases per 10,000 children inOmanto 29 per 10,000 children in theUnited Arab Emirates. While these rates are lower than those of the developed world, which are 39 per 10,000 for autism and 77 per 10,000 for all forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it does not necessarily mean the condition is less prevalent in the Arab world. Objectives: Studies of parents with children with autism suggest that 35% - 53% of mothers with children show various degrees of depressive symptoms. However, many of these studies were conducted in western countries which still make little inferences about the prevalence of these stresses in Arab countries uncertain. No data are available on the use of the BDI on parents of children with autism in Kuwait. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of parental depression in families of children with autism and in control families. Subjects and Methods: The participants in this study were 120 mothers and fathers of autistic children whose children were attending the Kuwait Autism Center at the time of this study. They were asked to complete the Arabic translated version of the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). It consists of 21 symptoms or attitudes commonly seen in patients suffering from depression. The symptoms are rated from “0”to “3”in intensity. The following cut-off points of depressive symptoms were used when interpreting the results in the present study: the range of scores from 0 to 9 indicates no depression, 10 - 20 dysphoria and over 20 depression. Results: The mean standard deviation scores for the mothers of autistic children were 21.2 ÷ 2.9 and 10.3 ÷ 2.1, (p = 0.001) for the control mothers respectively. No significant difference were observed across the samples of fathers other than slight increase for the autistic group. Marital status did not affect the number of mothers of the autism groups who had elevated depression scores, but single mothers in both groups had higher elevated depression scores than mothers living with partners, (x2 = 6.4, p < 0.005). Out of mothers with autistic children, 32.3% had depression and 41.5% had dysphoria while, 10% of control mothers had depression and 16% had dysphoria, x2 = 6.3 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: It is clear from our findings that mothers of autistic children have higher parenting-related stress and psychological distress as compared to

Collective Action, and the Problems of Short-Term Government of Somalia  [PDF]
Abdullahi Ali Mohamed, Lihua Yang
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2015.43007
Abstract: Since the end of the Said Barre era in Somalia, the country has been in constant political chaos. Among causes of the problems is a draft constitution with ambiguities in its clauses, power struggle between different political and clan leaders, lack of good leadership to steer the country forward and foreign intervention that at most times leads to problems within the government. Given these problems, the country has been operating in a short-term mode. Some of the problems the short-term government faces are high insecurity mainly because of terrorism, corruption fueled by non-accountability, lack of trust amongst the leaders and politicians and an economic recession. At the center of these problems are the President and the Prime Minister. The paper applies the game theory of collective action to solve the problem between “the President” and “the Prime Minister”.
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