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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4794 matches for " Abdul Knowles "
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Implementing International Refugee Law in the People’s Republic of China  [PDF]
Abdul Knowles
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.91005
Abstract: China’s implementation of international refugee law and its asylum policies have long been of interest to numerous state and international non-state actors, especially regarding specific migrant groups in China. Despite China’s high regards for international refugee law and a firm belief in the importance of international protection of refugees and asylum-seekers, international observers often argue that China is not meeting its legal obligations under international refugee law. The finding of this research is, despite China’s past implementation of favorable asylum policies, and improvements in its application of international refugee law, including the beginning stages of drafting a national refugee law; there remains a gap between China’s implementation of international refugee law and international norms. Thus, reforms are needed in China’s asylum practices so that it is consistent with international practices. One key factor for this gap is, China’s current legal framework and policies do not offer a long-term and durable solution for some refugees and asylum-seekers. Additionally, its asylum framework does not provide all conditions expected of a State that is a party to the “Refugee Convention”. Furthermore, China’s asylum policies differ among “persons in need of protection” regarding treatment and reception policy. The next crucial step for China in implementing international refugee law should be completing the drafting and adoption of national refugee law that is in line with the “1951 Refugee Convention” and “1967 Protocol”.
Hardware Architectures for the Orthogonal and Biorthogonal Wavelet Transform
G. Knowles
VLSI Design , 2002, DOI: 10.1080/1065514021000012110
Abstract: In this note, optimal hardware architectures for the orthogonal and biorthogonal wavelet transforms are presented. The approach used here is not the standard lifting method, but takes advantage of the symmetries inherent in the coefficients of the transforms and the decimation/interpolation operators. The design is based on a highly optimized datapath, which seamlessly integrates both orthogonal and biorthogonal transforms, data extension at the edges and the forward and inverse transforms. The datapath design could be further optimized for speed or low power. The datapath is controlled by a small fast control unit which is hard programmed according to the wavelet or wavelets required by the application.
Donepezil in Alzheimer’s disease: an evidence-based review of its impact on clinical and economic outcomes
Joanne Knowles
Core Evidence , 2006,
Abstract: Joanne KnowlesCore Medical Publishing, Knutsford, UKIntroduction: Donepezil is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. It is a specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE); by increasing levels of available acetylcholine, donepezil may compensate for the loss of functioning cholinergic brain cells.Aims: This review evaluates the clinical impact of donepezil by assessing randomized controlled and open-label naturalistic trials, as well as observational studies. A broad perspective is gained of its effectiveness on various outcomes.Evidence review: There is strong evidence that donepezil has efficacy against the three major domains of Alzheimer’s disease symptoms, namely functional ability, behavior, and cognition. The strongest evidence is for improvement or less deterioration in global outcomes and cognition in the short to medium term. There is limited evidence that improved global outcomes are maintained in the long term and clear evidence to support long-term maintenance of cognitive benefits. Also, donepezil appears to maintain function in the long term and there is some level 1 and 2 evidence of improved or limited deterioration in behavior or mood in the short to medium term. Despite donepezil’s effects on major symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, its impact on patients’ quality of life has not been consistently demonstrated, perhaps reflecting the difficulty of assessing this aspect in this patient population. Donepezil may also lessen caregiver burden. Donepezil has some effect on markers of brain function, but more data are needed to confirm a neuroprotective effect. There is limited and conflicting evidence that long-term donepezil treatment delays time to institutionalization. There is some evidence that donepezil may be cost effective, especially when unpaid caregiver costs are considered. Donepezil is generally safe and well tolerated.Clinical value: AChE inhibitors are the only agents recommended for the treatment of cognitive decline in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Donepezil is more effective than placebo and is well tolerated in improving the major symptoms of this disease. Improvements are usually modest, although stabilization of cognitive and functional symptoms with donepezil can also be considered an important clinical outcome. Donepezil may lessen caregiver burden. Donepezil may also be cost effective, especially when unpaid caregiver costs are considered. More data are required from randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up to confirm its
Executable Refinement Types
Kenneth Knowles
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This dissertation introduces executable refinement types, which refine structural types by semi-decidable predicates, and establishes their metatheory and accompanying implementation techniques. These results are useful for undecidable type systems in general. Particular contributions include: (1) Type soundness and a logical relation for extensional equivalence for executable refinement types (though type checking is undecidable); (2) hybrid type checking for executable refinement types, which blends static and dynamic checks in a novel way, in some sense performing better statically than any decidable approximation; (3) a type reconstruction algorithm - reconstruction is decidable even though type checking is not, when suitably redefined to apply to undecidable type systems; (4) a novel use of existential types with dependent types to ensure that the language of logical formulae is closed under type checking (5) a prototype implementation, Sage, of executable refinement types such that all dynamic errors are communicated back to the compiler and are thenceforth static errors.
Stability of Triangular Points of the Generalized Photogravitational Robes Restricted Three-Body Problem  [PDF]
Abdul Razaq Abdul Raheem
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46117
Abstract:

The linear stability of the triangular points was studied for the Robes restricted three-body problem when the bigger primary (rigid shell) is oblate spheroid and the second primary is radiating. The critical mass obtained depends on the oblateness of the rigid shell and radiation of the second primary as well as the density parameter k. The stability of the triangular points depends largely on the values of k. The destabilizing tendencies of the oblateness and radiation factors were enhanced when k > 0 and weakened for k < 0.

Towards Semantic Mutation Testing of Aspect-Oriented Programs  [PDF]
Abdul Azim Abdul Ghani
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.610A002
Abstract:

Aspect-oriented programs have received much attention from software testing researchers. Various testing techniques and approaches have been proposed to tackle issues and challenges when testing aspect-oriented programs including traditional mutation testing. In traditional mutation testing of aspect-oriented programs, mutants are generated by making small changes to the syntax of the aspect-oriented language. Recently, a new approach known as semantic mutation testing has been proposed. This approach mutates the semantics of the language in which the program is written. The mutants generated misunderstandings of the language which are different classes of faults. Aspect-oriented programming presents itself with different properties that can be further explored with respect to semantic mutation testing. This paper describes various possible scenarios that semantic mutation testing strategy might have particular value in testing aspect-oriented programs.

Spatial Negative Priming, but Not Inhibition of Return, with Central (Foveal) Displays  [PDF]
Eric Buckolz, Lyndsay Fitzgeorge, Stephanie Knowles
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39101
Abstract: The view persists that the inhibition of return (IOR) and the spatial negative priming (SNP) phenomena may be produced by a common “orientation inhibition” mechanism (e.g., Christie & Klein, 2001), held to arise during the processing of peripherally delivered (parafoveal) visual events. Both IOR and SNP effects are present when responding to recently to-be-ignored distractor events is delayed. Since an SNP effect has been produced using centrally located distracters (visual angle of about 2.5? or less), a common mechanism view would require that these locations generate orientation inhibition, which then cause of the SNP effect. We report past results and an experiment that reject the common mechanism view. Subjects completed four tasks; two, 1-response tasks, using either central (Task 1) or peripheral (Task 2: IOR) event locations, and two, 4-response tasks, again, using central (Task 3: SNP-central) or peripheral (Task 4: SNP-peripheral) locations. Trials occurred in pairs; first the prime (a target or a distractor), then the probe (target only). Critically, neither distractor- nor target-occupied prime locations produced either inhibitory (SNP effect) or positive after-effects, respectively, in Task 1. Seemingly, centrally located events do not generate orientation inhibition and so, unlike the IOR effect, this inhibition does not cause the SNP-central phenomenon.
A New Expression for Rhotrix  [PDF]
Abdul Mohammed
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2014.42011
Abstract:
This paper presents a new technique for expressing rhotrices in a generalize form. The method involves using multiple array indexes as analogous to matrix expressions, unlike the earlier method in the literature, which can only be functional in a single array computational environment. The new rhotrix look will encourage the study of rhotrix algebra and analysis from a better perspective. In addition, computing efficiency and accuracy will also be improved, particularly when the operations in rhotrix space over the new expression are algorithmatized for computing machines.
The lexicalisation of magic: the self-conscious fairytale The lexicalisation of magic: the self-conscious fairytale
Murray Knowles,Kirsten Malmkjaer
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper we show how, on the one hand, the Grimm brothers used their material to promote and uphold a particular ideology and how Hans Christian Andersen, on the other hand, used his stories to undermine one ideology and promote another. Both sets of stories contain magical elements, and we focus in particular on the role which the lexicalisation of magic plays in accomplishing the respective writers' purposes. In this paper we show how, on the one hand, the Grimm brothers used their material to promote and uphold a particular ideology and how Hans Christian Andersen, on the other hand, used his stories to undermine one ideology and promote another. Both sets of stories contain magical elements, and we focus in particular on the role which the lexicalisation of magic plays in accomplishing the respective writers' purposes.
An Investigation of Students’ Attitudes and Motivations Toward Online Learning
Evelyn Knowles,Dennis Kerkman
InSight : A Journal of Scholarly Teaching , 2007,
Abstract: This study investigated students’ attitudes and motivations toward online learning. Students in the online course, Introduction to the Visual Arts, were asked to complete questionnaires administered during the first and last week of the online course. A group of questions on Attitude was asked on both surveys. Questions on Interest, Self-management, and Locus of Control were asked only at the beginning of the course. The end of class survey included questions on Study Process Approach. Students in the study were found to have a strong internal Locus of Control. A significant correlation was found between a more internal locus of control and relying on surface strategies for learning. Another significant result was found on the Attitude pre- and post-course comparison regarding missing interaction with other students and getting more information through an online course. Generally, students’ attitude toward online learning was more positive during the last week of the course than in the first week. The study showed that this online course provided a sufficient amount of student to instructor interaction, a high amount of student to material interaction, and a low amount of student to student interaction.
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