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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 590186 matches for " Abdul A. N. Saqib "
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A Thermostable Crude Endoglucanase Produced by Aspergillus fumigatus in a Novel Solid State Fermentation Process Using Isolated Free Water
Abdul A. N. Saqib,Ansa Farooq,Maryam Iqbal,Jalees Ul Hassan,Umar Hayat,Shahjahan Baig
Enzyme Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/196853
Abstract: Aspergillus fumigatus was grown on chopped wheat straw in a solid state fermentation (SSF) process carried out in constant presence of isolated free water inside the fermentation chamber. The system allowed maintaining a constant vapor pressure inside the fermentor throughout the fermentation process. Crude endoglucanase produced by A. fumigatus under such conditions was more thermostable than previously reported enzymes of the same fungal strain which were produced under different conditions and was also more thermostable than a number of other previously reported endoglucanases as well. Various thermostability parameters were calculated for the crude endoglucanase. Half lives (T1/2) of the enzyme were 6930, 866, and 36?min at 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C, respectively. Enthalpies of activation of denaturation ( ) were 254.04, 253.96, and 253.88?K?J?mole?1, at 60°C, 70°C and 80°C, respectively, whereas entropies of activation of denaturation ( ) and free energy changes of activation of denaturation ( ) were 406.45, 401.01, and 406.07?J?mole?1?K?1 and 118.69, 116.41, and 110.53?K?J?mole?1 at 60°C, 70°C and 80°C, respectively. 1. Introduction Endoglucanases (EC constitute a large proportion of the group of enzymes collectively known as cellulases which are the 3rd largest enzymes sold worldwide and have applications in a number of industries [1]. Their demand is increasing fast especially because of the emergence of second-generation-advanced biofuel industries which require tremendous amounts of various enzymes in their processes [2, 3]. In order to decrease process costs and increase the efficiencies, it is desirable to use thermostable enzymes in the industrial processes [3]. However, most cellulases are not stable at high temperatures [4], and a number of efforts are being made in order to obtain thermostable cellulases [3]. Solid state fermentation (SSF) has long been used for the production of cellulases and other enzymes or bioproducts [5]. It was recently shown that A. fumigatus produced a more thermostable endoglucanase using SSF than that produced through a submerged process [6]. SSF is carried out in the absence or nearly absence of free water in the fermentation medium [5, 7]. In many of the reported experiments, moisture level of the substrate is neither monitored nor controlled after the onset of the SSF process. Even when monitored, it is often estimated “off-line” thus creating technical problems regarding determining the actual water activity ( ) of the substrate medium [8]. The problems can be overcome by designing a system which would
Uptake of Hormonal Implants Contraceptive in Zaria, Northern Nigeria  [PDF]
N. H. Madugu, M. A. Abdul, U. Bawa, B. Kolawole
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.55039

Objective: To document our experience on the use of Jadelle/Implanon contraceptives that was recently introduced into Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria, Nigeria. It is pertinent to generate data on the experiences in the use of this contraceptive in a cross sectional study within Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Method: Data on consecutive clients that accepted Jadelle/ Implanon from June 2009 to November 2013 at ABUTH were extracted from their cards and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Out of a total of 11,502 clients that were for contraception during the period under review, 798 accepted Jadelle/Implanon accounting for 7% of the total clients. All the clients were married. About 67.8% were Muslims while 27.2% were Christians and 5% belong to other sect. 4140 (36%) had tertiary education. Most of the client has been on one form of modern contraception; only 16% were first time users who accepted implant after counselling. 37% of the?clients are full time housewives. The discontinuation rate was found to be 26% for Jadelle and 19%?for Implanon. No pregnancy was recorded during this period. Conclusion: Jadelle/Implanon account for 7% of contractive uptake and a high discontinuation rate was found among the users.

Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
K. Latif,M. Jaffar,N. Javaid,M. N. Saqib,U. Qasim,Z. A. Khan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: This work focusses on analyzing the optimization strategies of routing protocols with respect to energy utilization of sensor nodes in Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs). Different routing mechanisms have been proposed to address energy optimization problem in sensor nodes. Clustering mechanism is one of the popular WSNs routing mechanisms. In this paper, we first address energy limitation constraints with respect to maximizing network life time using linear programming formulation technique. To check the efficiency of different clustering scheme against modeled constraints, we select four cluster based routing protocols; Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network (TEEN), Stable Election Protocol (SEP), and Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC). To validate our mathematical framework, we perform analytical simulations in MATLAB by choosing number of alive nodes, number of dead nodes, number of packets and number of CHs, as performance metrics.
On Probability of Link Availability in Original and Modified AODV, FSR and OLSR Using 802.11 and 802.11p
S. Sagar,N. Javaid,J. Saqib,Z. A. Khan,U. Qasim,M. A. Khan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs) comprise on wireless mobile nodes that are communicating with each other without any infrastructure. Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) is a special type of MANETs in which vehicles with high mobility need to communicate with each other. In this paper, we present a novel framework for link availability of paths for static as well as dynamic networks. Moreover, we evaluate our frame work for routing protocols performance with different number of nodes in MANETs and in VANETs. We select three routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). Furthermore, we have also modified default parameters of selected protocols to check their efficiencies. Performance of these protocols is analyzed using three performance metrics; Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO) and End-to-End Delay (E2ED) against varying scalabilities of nodes. We perform these simulations with NS-2 using TwoRayGround propagation model. The SUMO simulator is used to generate a random mobility pattern for VANETs. From the extensive simulations, we observe that AODV outperforms among all three protocols.
Analysis and Modeling Experiment Performance Parameters of Routing Protocols in MANETs and VANETs
S. Sagar,N. Javaid,Z. A. Khan,J. Saqib,A. Bibi,S. H. Bouk
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, a framework for experimental parameters in which Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), effect of link duration over End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO) in terms of control packets is analyzed and modeled for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANETs) and Vehicular Ad-Hoc NETworks (VANETs) with the assumption that nodes (vehicles) are sparsely moving in two different road. Moreover, this paper contributes the performance comparison of one Proactive Routing Protocol; Destination Sequenced Distance vector (DSDV) and two reactive protocols; DYnamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-Demand (DYMO). A novel contribution of this work is enhancements in default versions of selected routing protocols. Three performance parameters; PDR, E2ED and NRO with varying scalabilities are measured to analyze the performance of selected routing protocols with their original and enhanced versions. From extensive simulations, it is observed that DSR outperforms among all three protocols at the cost of delay. NS-2 simulator is used for simulation with TwoRayGround propagation model to evaluate analytical results.
Growth Kinetics of Wildlife E. coli Isolates in Soil and Water  [PDF]
Meghan A. Gallagher, Raghupathy Karthikeyan, Saqib Mukhtar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328098
Abstract: Bacteria are the major cause of surface water contamination in the United States. US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) uses the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process to regulate the E. coli loads from fecal sources in a watershed. Different point and non-point sources can contribute to the fecal contamination of a waterbody including municipal and on-site wastewater treatment plants, livestock, birds, and wildlife. Unfortunately, wildlife sources in many rural watersheds are poorly characterized. E. coli is also known to persist in waterbodies when no known fecal sources are present. In this study, E. coli from wildlife fecal material was enumerated and the fate of E. coli under different environmental factors was studied. No growth was observed in soil at 4% moisture content and in water at 10℃. The highest E. coli growth was recorded in water at 30℃. It can be seen from these results that there was variation in the fate of E. coli under different environmental conditions. The fate of E. coli in the environment is a complex process and is influenced by many factors and their interactions, making it difficult to predict. The findings from this study along with additional studies can be used to improve the accuracy of model predictions to estimate the E. coli loads in watersheds.
M. Athar, A. Shakoor, G. Muhammad, M.N. Asi, and M. Saqib
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Domesticated and/or caged peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and other fancy birds suffer from a variety of disease conditions due to unnatural habitat and suboptimal managemental practices. The present article scribes glossoptosis (downward displacement of tongue) in four juvenile peafowls caused by kite-flying read wrapped around the base of tongue and terminating somewhere in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The condition was characterized by difficulty in swallowing, chronic inappetance, gasping and a fading body condition. Severing of the proximal part of thread through crop and then unwinding it from the base .the tongue affected an instant relief. As far as could be ascertained, the condition under reference has not been reported heretofore in birds especially in peafowls.
M. N. Asi, M. Saqib, A. Shakoor, M. Athar and G. Muhammad
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2000,
Abstract: no abstract
Fixed Point Results for Generalized Contractive Multimaps in Metric Spaces
Abdul Latif,Afrah A. N. Abdou
Fixed Point Theory and Applications , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/432130
Abstract: The concept of generalized contractive multimaps in the setting of metric spaces is introduced, and the existence of fixed points for such maps is guaranteed under certain conditions. Consequently, our results either generalize or improve a number of fixed point results including the corresponding recent fixed point results of Ciric (2008), Latif-Albar (2008), Klim-Wardowski (2007), and Feng-Liu (2006). Examples are also given.
Fixed Points of Generalized Contractive Maps
Abdul Latif,Afrah A. N. Abdou
Fixed Point Theory and Applications , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/487161
Abstract: We prove some results on the existence of fixed points for multivalued generalized w-contractive maps not involving the extended Hausdorff metric. Consequently, several known fixed point results are either generalized or improved.
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