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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17 matches for " Abdourahamane Konare "
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Assessment of Regional Climate Models over C?te D'Ivoire and Analysis of Future Projections over West Africa  [PDF]
Kouakou Kouadio, Abdourahamane Konare, Adama Diawara, Bernard Kouakou Dje, Vincent Olanrewaju Ajayi, Arona Diedhiou
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.52005
Abstract: The ability of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in AMMA-ENSEMBLES project is assessed over six meteorological stations in Côte d’Ivoire. The ensemble mean of the models is also used for the prediction of climate change over West Africa. The study focused on two periods: the period 1995-2005, the present-day simulations, is used to evaluate the skills of the models over the country and the years 2010-2013, for assessment of the future climate change scenario used. The results show that the skills of the models vary from one station to another and from one season to another. None of the models considered, presents an excellent performance over the entire country and in all the seasons. Generally, the ensemble mean of all the models presents better results when compared with the observation. These results suggest that the choice of any model for study over the country may depend on the focus of interest: intensity or variability of the rain and also on area of interest. The projection for 2020-2040, future climate change over West Africa shows that the Sahel exhibits a tendency to be drier while wetter Guinean coast is observed.
A New Enhanced Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index: HYBRID
Adama Ouattara,Bruce E. Frazier,Abdourahamane Konare
Online Journal of Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: First-order soil brightness effects are accounted for with orthogonal indices and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Indices (SAVI) and particularly true at very low Leaf Area Indices (LAI). However, they have limited dynamic range and they fail to account for residual soil brightness effects observed at intermediate LAI. The objective of the study is to devise an index from existing ones that would overcome these shortfalls. First, a graphical method is shown to give a general formulation for the orthogonal vegetation indices (i.e., ADVI). Then, from the analysis of ADVI, it is shown that ratio and orthogonal are functionally equivalent under certain conditions. Finally, by combining ADVI and SAVI, the new hybrid index (HYBRID) obtained is the least affected by soil brightness effects at all LAI values, has the greatest dynamic range, is the most sensitive to LAI changes, saturates at very high LAI and seems to evolve linearly with LAI.
Multicultural Education in USA: Place of Ethnic Minorities
DICKO Abdourahamane
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n12p36
Abstract: It has become more obviously about the trends of the United States public schools’s diversification and the trends have led to the “figure crisis” which calls out to the effective education of minority students. Consequently a new field named Multicultural Teacher Education has been constructed by combining education and multicultural education. As to pursure the multicultural teacher education’s balance between theory and practice, the essay illustrates the way of attachment methods, field experience, service learning and actuality, besides the principle of practice on the multi-cultural background.
Debate on the Multiculturalism: Issues and Particularism
DICKO Abdourahamane
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n1p32
Abstract: In its appearances and its contemporary manifestation, the challenges provoked by the thrust of cultural identities have up to half a century of history. Since the 60s, it unveiled the broad social fragility and the problem of coexistence between cultures in democratic countries. This challenge has shacked the dictatorial, the authoritarian regimes, in particular when it alludes to the religious organizations, or national liberation groups. And it taps well our countries, under the shape of religious, nationalist movements, either still fights which recover from what we call indigenism. Faced with this challenge, we cannot formulate summary hypotheses. We are not any more at the beginning phase made by unknowns: we are engaged deeply in conflicts, tensions and transformations which we know already are not ephemeral .It does not obviously mean that their expressions are stabilized, or that their senses are fixed to the long term. To bring knowledge and more clarity on the nature of the problems in cause and on the way they are envisage in the public debate. We suggest analyzing in what the multiculturalism is a solution of the identical crises. Produce knowledge on the cultural differences, their production, their transformation and their reproduction; examine the problems which they generate in the social life, the meanings which they dress for the interested and for others; report their difficulties and their internal tensions: all is within the competence of the sociological analysis and requires as such specific theoretical and methodological tools. To return our coherent and practical work we are going to support our reflection with a case study, at least comparative between several multiculturalists’ models in particular French, American, Canadian and British. This exercise will allow us to kick away hypotheses which will be used as runway to the scientific community and to all society in the grip of the identical crises. However, the elaboration of a theoretical frame of the multiculturalists question stays a preliminary tool. As mentioned theoretical frame elaboration will serve as support of reflection .It will allow us to seize better the notion of the multiculturalism .it will include three main trunk dimensions which are: the Definition of the multiculturalism, the management of the multiculturalism and the identical tensions connected to the vertical and horizontal inheritances. According to Amnesty International multiculturalism is defined as a policy to maintain and to value the various cultures and the communities living within a society.
Capability of Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Estimating Soils Carbon, Potassium and Phosphorus  [PDF]
Bakamba dite Djeneba Sacko, Souleymane Sanogo, Hamidou Konare, Abdramane Ba, Tiéman Diakite
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2018.85012
Abstract: The spectroscopy technique has many advantages over conventional analytical methods since it is fast and easy to implement and with no use of chemical extractants. The objective of this study is to quantify soil total Carbon (C), available Phosphorus (P) and exchangeable potassium (K) using VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. A total of 877 soils samples were collected in various agricultural fields in Mali. Multivariate analysis was applied to the recorded soils spectra to estimate the soil chemical properties. Results reveal the over performance of the Principal Component Regression (PCR) compared to the Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR). For coefficient of determination (R2), PLSR accounts for 0.29, 0.42 and 0.57; while the PCR gave 0.17, 0.34 and 0.50, respectively for C, P and K. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates the potential of the VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in analyzing the soils chemical properties.
Assessment of Domestic Wastewater Management Practices in the Communal District I of Maradi City, Niger Republic  [PDF]
Ousmane Laminou Manzo, Hassidou Saidou, Salamatou Abdourahamane Illiassou, Saoudé Tidjani Idrissa
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.38006
Abstract: Wastewater treatment is a problem with much acuity in the city of Maradi in general, and particularly in the Communal District I of Maradi. It is for this reason that the present study was conducted which deals with wastewater sanitation. The main objective of this study conducted through a survey is to investigate in the domestic wastewater sanitation in the Communal District I of Maradi city. Specifically, the study aims to estimate the amount of wastewater produced by households and to analyze the sanitation system at household and at district levels. The wastewater management practices in this district were assessed through a descriptive cross sectional study in which a total of 129 households were selected by sample distribution technique in the district neighborhoods and studied using interviewer and administered questionnaires at communal and household levels. The results of the study showed that the amount of domestic wastewater generated is quite large, about 32.27 m3 per person per day, and this comes from several sources including showers, laundry, dishwashing and income generating activities. The results also revealed that the unhealthy state of the Communal District I of Maradi is related to the absence of a wastewater treatment system, the methods and practices used in its management, and the population is also largely responsible for this unhealthy state and not willing to participate to a sanitation project.
Sensitivity of Solar Photovoltaic Panel Efficiency to Weather and Dust over West Africa: Comparative Experimental Study between Niamey (Niger) and Abidjan (C?te d’Ivoire)  [PDF]
Alima Dajuma, Saleye Yahaya, Siaka Touré, Arona Diedhiou, Rabani Adamou, Abdourahamane Konaré, Mariama Sido, Michel Golba
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2016.54012
Abstract: Energy demand is increasing while we are facing a depletion of fossils fuels, the main source of energy production in the world. These last years, photovoltaic (PV) system technologies are growing rapidly among alternative sources of energy to contribute to mitigation of climate change. However, PV system efficiency researches operating under West African weather conditions are nascent. The first objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of common monocrystalline PV efficiency to local meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, solar radiation) in two contrasted cities over West Africa: Niamey (Niger) in a Sahelian arid area and Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire) in atropical humid area. The second objective is to quantify the effect of dust accumulation on PV efficiency in Niamey (Niger). The preliminary results show that PV efficiency is more sensitive to high temperature change especially under Niamey climate conditions (warmer than Abidjan) where high ambient temperatures above 33°C lead to an important decrease of PV efficiency. Increase of relative humidity induces a decrease of PV efficiency in both areas (Niamey and Abidjan). A power loss up to 12.46% is observed in Niamey after 21 days of dust accumulation.
Changes in Vegetation and Rainfall over West Africa during the Last Three Decades (1981-2010)  [PDF]
Adama Bamba, Bastien Dieppois, Abdourahamane Konaré, Thierry Pellarin, Ahmed Balogun, Nadine Dessay, Bamory Kamagaté, Issiaka Savané, Arona Diédhiou
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.54028
Abstract: The decadal variability of rainfall and vegetation over West Africa have been studied over the last three decades, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 denoted as 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Climate Research Unit (CRU) monthly precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA), all covering the period 1981-2010 have been used. This study aimed to assess the changes in the land surface condition and the spatio-temporal distribution of rainfall over West Africa region. The relationship between rainfall and vegetation indices over this region was determined using Pearson’s correlation. Also, the decadal comparison between rainfall and NDVI over the region was based on the significant t-test and the Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that significant return to wet conditions is observed between decade 1980s and decade 1990s over West Africa, and also during decade 2000s with the exception of central Benin and the western Nigeria. Meanwhile, a regreening of the central Sahel and Sudano-Sahel regions is noted. From 1990s to 2000s, this regreening belt is located in the South and the coastal areas: the Guinea Coast, Sudano-Guinea and western Sahel regions. A northward displacement of this re-greening belt is also detected. Thus, a linear relationship occurs between rainfall and NDVI in the Sudanian savannah region, but it is not the case in the rest of West Africa. This may suggest that the re-growth of vegetation in the Sudanian savannah region may be linked to rainfall supplies. Therefore, re-greening over Sahel region in 1990s is related to rainfall recovery. However, this re-greening was not sustained in the decade 2000s due to a slight decrease in rainfall.
Combustion particulate emissions in Africa: regional climate modeling and validation
A. Konare,C. Liousse,B. Guillaume,F. Solmon
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Africa, as a major aerosol source in the world, plays a key role in regional and global geochemical cycles and climate change. Combustion carbonaceous particles, central in this context through their radiative and hygroscopic properties, require ad hoc emission inventories. These inventories must incorporate fossil fuels FF (industries, traffic,...), biofuels BF (charcoal, wood burning,... quite common in Africa for domestic use), and biomass burning BB regularly occurring over vast areas all over the African continent. This latter, subject to rapid massive demographic, migratory, industrial and socio-economic changes, requires continuous emission inventories updating, so as to keep pace with this evolution. Two such different inventories, L96 and L06 with main focus on BB emissions, have been implemented for comparison within the regional climate model RegCM3 endowed with a specialized carbonaceous aerosol module. Resulting modeled black carbon BC and organic carbon OC fields have been compared to past and present composite data set available in Africa. This data set includes measurements from intensive field campaigns (EXPRESSO 1996, SAFARI 2000), from the IDAF/DEBITS surface network and from MODIS, focused on selected west, central and southern African sub-domains. This composite approach has been adopted to take advantage of possible combinations between satellite high-resolution coverage of Africa, regional modeling, use of an established surface network, together with the patchy detailed knowledge issued from past short intensive regional field experiments. Stemming from these particular comparisons, one prominent conclusion is the need for continuous detailed time and spatial updating of combustion emission inventories apt to reflect the rapid transformations of the African continent.
Intercontinental Transport and Climatic Impact of Saharan and Sahelian Dust
N'Datchoh Evelyne Touré,Abdourahamane Konaré,Siélé Silué
Advances in Meteorology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/157020
Abstract: The Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa are important sources of dust particles into the atmosphere. Dust particles from these regions are transported over the Atlantic Ocean to the Eastern American Coasts. This transportation shows temporal and spatial variability and often reaches its peak during the boreal summer (June-July-August). The regional climate model (RegCM 4.0), containing a module of dust emission, transport, and deposition processes, is used in this study. Saharan and Sahelian dusts emissions, transports, and climatic impact on precipitations during the spring (March-April-May) and summer (June-July-August) were studied using this model. The results showed that the simulation were coherent with observations made by the MISR satellite and the AERONET ground stations, within the domain of Africa (Banizoumba, Cinzana, and M’Bour) and Ragged-point (Barbados Islands). The transport of dust particles was predominantly from North-East to South-West over the studied period (2005–2010). The seasonality of dust plumes’ trajectories was influenced by the altitudes reached by dusts in the troposphere. The impact of dusts on climate consisted of a cooling effect both during the boreal summer and spring over West Africa (except Southern-Guinea and Northern-Liberia), Central Africa, South-America, and Caribbean where increased precipitations were observed.
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