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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 301 matches for " Abdoulaye Sankhon "
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Application of resistant starch in bread: processing, proximate composition and sensory quality of functional bread products from wheat flour and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) flour  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Sankhon, Issoufou Amadou, Wei-Rong Yao
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B023

Application of resistant starch prepared from parkia flour was produced by replacement of wheat flour with 0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% Parkia flour. Processing, proximate composition, digestibility of resistant starch in bread and sensory quality were evaluated. Resistant starch was significantly (p < 0.05) increased as Parkia flour level increase in all breads. The resistant starch prepared from Parkia flour was 47.21%. However, wheat bread was 1.47% and Parkia bread 18.52% to 22.28% baked of (200℃ at 45 min) with 2.16% wheat bread and 31.74% to 35.05% Parkia bread baked of (130℃ at 90 min). Supplementation of wheat flour with Parkia flour 0 - 40% increased the crude protein content significantly (p < 0.05) from (7.89% - 15.68%), ash from (0.91% - 2.54%) and crude fiber (1.41% - 4.97%). Color of the bread treatments was remarkably affected by addition of different levels of Parkia flour. Therefore, Parkia flour could be added to wheat flour up to 15% without any observed detrimental effect on bread sensory properties. Sensory evaluation results indicated that bread with 5% to15% Parkia flour were rated the most acceptable and there was no significant difference in terms of acceptability compared to the control. This could be used to improve the nutritional quality of bread especially in developing countries were malnutrition is prevalent.

The Yield Improvement of Resistant Starches from Africa Locust (Parkia biglobosa): The Influence of Heat-moisture, Autoclaving-cooling and Cross-linking Treatments
Abdoulaye Sankhon,Wei-Rong Yao,Heya Wang,He Qian
American Journal of Food Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Native paprika starch was treated by heat-moisture treatment (HMT), autoclaving-cooling (Aut-cd) with and without anhydride acetic acid/adipic acid (Aut-acid) and sodium trimetaphosphate/sodium (STMP/STPP) tripolyphosphate cross-linking to produce Resistant Starch (RS). The resistant starch yield, crystalline structure, as well as other physicochemical properties of the modified starch was investigated. The yield of resistant starch was 36.33 and 50.16%, by HMT and Aut-col, respectively, whereas 48.56 and 50.16%, respectively were obtained by Aut-acid and STMP/STPP. The scanning electron microscopy images clearly illustrated that the granular structure of native parkia starch was disrupted and a continuous network with irregular shape was formed after HMT and autoclaving-cooling cycles. The subsequent chemical cross-linking appeared to make the network structure more compact and dense. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that B- and V types coexisted in all the modified parkia starches and the DSC results also showed that the formation of amylose double helices could contribute to the changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns. The RS-rich powder presented crystalline due to the process of heat moisture and autoclaving-cooling cycles with cross-linking treatment induced starch retrogradation. The procedure proposed might be used for production of a RS-rich powder from parkia starch with high resistant starch level and functional properties.
Influence of Process Conditions on Digestibility of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Starch
Abdoulaye Sankhon,Wei-Rong Yao,Issoufou Amadou,Heya Wang
American Journal of Food Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This study describes the isolation, digestibility and effect of process conditions on the Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean) starch digestibility. Parkia starch fractions are: Total Starch (TS), Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS), Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) and Resistant Starch (RS). The results indicate that processing conditions can be changed to effectively control the relative content of SDS and RS in Parkia starch products. Amylose is the molecular basis of RS while amylopectin is the main constituent of SDS and plays a key role in the structure and digestibility of SDS. This methodology may enable process modifications to influence the functional digestibility properties of prepared Parkia starch products.
Pyramidal and Granule Cells Distribution through Hippocampal Fields: An Index for Sensory Information Processing  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Ba
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.55018
Abstract: Background: This work aims at investigating the histology of hippocampus formation as structural model of information processing. The study addressed the question whether the pattern of cellular type distribution within hippocampal fields could be used as support of information processing in the hippocampus. Method: Pyramidal-shaped neurons presenting both cytoplasm and nucleus outlined clearly were measured systematically on brain slides, using a light microscope connected to a microcomputer equipped with a scanner software for measuring particles. Morphological types of cells were identified following class sizes and their distribution determined through hippocampal fields. Results: A battery of statistical tests: Sturges’ classification, class sizes distribution around overall mean, Bartlett’s sphericity test, principal components analysis (PCA) followed by correlations matrix analysis and ANOVA allowed two cellular groups to be identified in the hippocampus: large and small pyramidal-shaped cells. Conclusion: The results show that sensory information processing in the hippocampus could be built on two classes of pyramidal neurons that differed anatomically with probably different physiological functions. The study suggests combination ensembles clustering large and small pyramidal cells at different rates, as fundamental signaling units of the hippocampus.
Multi-Scale Characteristics of Precipitation and Temperature over West Africa Using SMHI-RCA Driven by GCMs under RCP8.5  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Sarr
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.63024
Abstract: In this paper, we use simulations from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) regional climate model (RCM) version 3.5 (SMHI-RCA3.5) following a multi-GCM boundary forcing approach. The model is run at a horizontal resolution of 50 km on the CORDEX-AFRICA domain. Key characteristics of precipitation, mean temperature and its extremes (minimum and maximum temperature) have been investigated over West Africa and on 3 designed sub-domains, the Sahel (SAH), the Senegal-Gambia (SEN) and the Gulf of Guinea (GOG). The analysis covers a historical period 1981-2005 and two future time slices, an intermediate term (IT) 2031-2055 and a fat term (FT) 2071-2095, under the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5). The regional climate model RCA, forced by the reanalysis ERA-Interim, 6 CMIP5 GCMs and their ensemble, reproduces realistically the climatology of precipitation and temperatures over West Africa. Compared to observed datasets GPCP for precipitation and CRU for temperature, the ensemble outperforms both other GCMs and the verification model (ERA-Interim). The major biases in precipitation are the early onset over the Sahel and the little dry season (LDS), from mid-July to mid-September over the Gulf of Guinea, and a few models either overestimate and/or reflect rather poorly. The strong warming in extreme temperatures (minimum and maximum) combined with the drying mainly over Western Sahel (SEN) found in this study will very likely impact notably a vital sector like agriculture, both during the near and far terms.
Imagination and Thematic Reality in the African Novel: A New Vision for African Novelists  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Hakibou
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/als.2018.61002
Abstract: The present study on the topic “Imagination and thematic reality in the African novel: a new vision to African novelists” aims to show the limitation of the contribution of the African literary works to the good governance and development process of African countries through the thematic choices and to propose a new vision in relation to those thematic choices and to the structural organisation of those literary works. The study is carried out through the theory of narratology by Genette (1980) and the narrative study by Chatman (1978) as applied to the novels by Chinua Achebe, essentially on the notion of order by Genette and the elements of a narrative by Chatman. It is a thematic and structural analysis that helps the researcher to be aware of the limitation of the contribution of African fiction to the good governance of African States and their real development, for the reason that themes and the structural organisation of those works are past-oriented. In such a context, readers are supposed to decode the different messages so as to put forth the necessary behaviour from the depicted ones. But, when one compares the literary effort of the novelists with the actual positive change, one realises that the gap is still obvious. This brought the researcher to the proposal of a new thematic orientation that does not depict societal misbehaviour but rather builds an ideal society in which the character embodies what the African society should be, African society which is here our particular concern so as to be able to make up the challenge of globalisation. This is not to deny the “fictionality” of the novels, but to reinforce it with stories that are not only past-oriented. This change may constitute a new source of attraction for African future literary works.
The Geodynamic Context of the Cenozoic Volcanism of the Cap-Vert Peninsula (Senegal)  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Ndiaye, Papa Malick Ngom
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.512124
Abstract: The Cenozoic alkaline volcanism of the Senegalo-Mauritania sedimentary basin presents an episodic long-lasting volcanic activity from the Eocene-Oligocene boundary up to the Quaternary. Two volcanic episodes are usually distinguished on stratigraphical grounds: a Miocene one and a Quaternary one separated by a period of quiescence of several million years corresponding to the main phase of lateritic weathering. The Tertiary lavas are highly silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks ranging from nephelinites to basanites. They contain nepheline and fassaite-type clinopyroxene in their mineralogy. The Quaternary lavas are more evolved with Hy-normative in comparison to the Tertiary ones; they are composed of basanites and medium to coarser-grained dolerites. The distribution of the REE and other incompatible elements are typical of alkaline lavas with generally strong LREE enrichment without significant Eu anomaly. The Cenozoic Cap-Vert lavas have OIB (oceanic islands basalts)-affinities as shown by their relatively radiogenic Nd and unradiogenic Sr characters closed to the HIMU-OIB. This suggests a HIMU-type end member in the magma sources which is fairly comparable to those erupted in the Canaries and Cape Verde archipelagoes during the same period.
Les associations en milieu urbain dakarois: classification et capacités développantes
Abdoulaye Niang
Africa Development , 2000,
Abstract: In Senegal, urban associations are extremely evolutionary in concept and practice and pervade every aspect of urban space. They shift and adjust, in both their forms and objectives, to the social and institutional demands of their ever-changing environment, as well as to the new opportunities provided by same. Urban associations in Senegal offer solutions that increasingly meet individual and collective needs, which makes them appear as efficient local development tools, especially when members and communities strongly identify themselves with their native homeland. Résumé Les associations en milieu urbain sont évolutives et manifestent une grande tendance à la totalisation : leurs formes et leurs objectifs changent pour s'adapter aux exigences sociales et institutionnelles de leur environnement en constante transformation, ainsi qu'aux opportunités nouvelles que celui-ci leur offre. De ce point de vue, les associations offrent des solutions de plus en plus en adéquation avec les besoins individuels et collectifs, ce qui fait d'elles des instruments efficaces du développement local surtout si les membres et la collectivité s'identifient fortement à leur terroir. (Africa Development: 2000 25(1&2): 99-160)
La littérature-monde dans l’évolution des French studies. Vers des Transnational French studies?
Abdoulaye Imorou
COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature , 2012,
Abstract: Transnational French Studies. Postcolonialism and Littérature-monde est le premier volume d’une nouvelle série publiée par la Society for Francophone Postcolonial Studies. Cette série a pour ambition de proposer, à travers une livraison annuelle, a sort of état présent on the evolution of research ranging across various expressions of Francophone Postcolonial Cultures (e.g. literature, film, music, history) . Ce premier volume, qui réunit presque une vingtaine de contributions, interroge, ...
Right Internal Jugular Vein Ectasia in African Woman: A Report of 2 Cases  [PDF]
Seydou Togo, Moussa Abdoulaye Ouattara, Sékou Koumaré, Mody Abdoulaye Camara, Sadio Yena
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.610062
Abstract: Internal jugular vein (IJV) ectasia is a rare benign disease. It commonly presents as a unilateral, soft, compressible neck swelling that mostly involves the right side. It is usually a childhood disease and believed to be of congenital origin. Accurate diagnosis from careful history, physical examination and radiological study can be made. We report here two cases of IJV ectasia in African adults with right lateral neck mass dilating when increase intrathoracic pressure. Because of its rarity, this entity is frequently ignored or misdiagnosed. This case report intends to stress the importance of keeping IJV ectasia as differential diagnosis in mind in case of lateral neck swellings to avoid invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. The asymptomatic case management of IJV ectasia is conservative with long-term surveillance.
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