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Urinary Tamm-Horsfall Protein and Citrate: A Case-Control Study of Inhibitors and Promoters of Calcium Stone Formation
Gholamreza Pourmand,Hamidreza Nasseh,Abdolfattah Sarrafnejad,Abdolrasoul Mehrsai
Urology Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction: This study aimed to compare urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), citrate, and other inhibitors and promoters of stone formation in calcium stone formers with those in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: From January 2002 to June 2004, 100 calcium stone formers (mean age, 38.6 ± 10.3 years) who had at least 2 episodes of calcium stone formation were compared with 100 healthy individuals (mean age, 33.8 ± 9.7 years). Their 24-hour urine THP (using the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method), citrate, calcium, uric acid, oxalate, and magnesium values were measured and compared. Results: The mean 24-hour urine THP was 3.3 ± 8.1 mg in patients in the study group and 4.6 ± 19.2 mg in controls (P = 0.5). However, THP in individuals with and without bacteriuria was significantly different (15.8 ± 33.6 versus 2.6 ± 10.2, P < 0.001). Mean 24-hour urinary calcium, citrate, and oxalate values were 232.6 ± 95.3 mg and 177.8 ± 82.7 mg (P < 0.001), 132 ± 103.2 mg and 395 ± 258.5 mg (P < 0.001), and 18.9 ± 22.5 mg and 10.4 ± 8.5 mg (P < 0.001) in patients in the study and control groups, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between urinary citrate and promoters of stone formation, including urinary calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, in patients in the control group, but not in patients in the study group. Conclusion: THP in the urine of stone formers is not quantitatively different from that of healthy individuals, but it is different in patients with bacteriuria. Increased urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate, and uric acid in stone formers with no increase in urine citrate may play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent stone formation.
Dendritic Cells Bearing HLA-G Inhibit T-Cell Activation in Type 1 Diabetes
Saeid Abediankenari,Mohammad Bagher Eslami,Abdolfattah Sarrafnejad,Mehrnosh Mohseni
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2007,
Abstract: HLA-G is normally expressed on human trophoblast cells. It is a non-classical MHC molecule class I b. The role of HLA-G in diabetic type 1 is not known.We investigated the role of IFN-β in induction HLA-G expression on the monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC) in diabetes type 1.Treatment of dendritic cell with IFN-β in vitro from diabetic patients (n=20) and normal subjects (n=20) resulted to the production and expression of HLA-G on these cells from both groups. However, comparison of DC from the diabetic patients with DC from the controls revealed lower levels of HLA-G molecules in DC from diabetic patients. Using mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), it was found that DC expressing HLA-G mediated the inhibition of autologous T cell activation.It is concluded that IFN-β can increase HLA-G in DC from diabetic patients; subsequently it may prevent the immune regularly pathway in the diabetic pathogenesis.
CD8+ T Cells as a Source of IFN-γ Production in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami,Hossein Keshavarz,Rosita Edalat,Abdolfattah Sarrafnejad,Tahereh Shahrestani,Fereidoun Mahboudi,Ali Khamesipour
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000845
Abstract: Background In human leishmaniasis Th1/Th2 dichotomy similar to murine model is not clearly defined and surrogate marker(s) of protection is not yet known. In this study, Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ) profile induced by purified CD4+/CD8+ T cells in response to Leishmania antigens were assessed at transcript and protein levels in 14 volunteers with a history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL) and compared with 18 healthy control volunteers. Methodology/Principal Findings CD4+/CD8+/CD14+ cells were purified from peripheral blood using magnetic beads; CD4+/CD8+ T cells were co-cultured with autologous CD14+ monocytes in the presence of soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA). Stimulation of either CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells of HCL volunteers with SLA induced a significantly (P<0.05) higher IFN-γ production compared with the cells of controls. Upregulation of IFN-γ gene expression in CD4+ cells (P<0.001) and CD8+ cells (P = 0.006) of HCL volunteers was significantly more than that of controls. Significantly (P<0.05) higher fold-expression of IFN-γ gene was seen in CD4+ cells than in CD8+ cells. In HCL volunteers a significantly (P = 0.014) higher number of CD4+ cells were positive for intracellular IFN-γ production than CD8+ cells. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, the volunteers have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by a strong reaction to leishmanin skin test and IFN-γ production. The dominant IFN-γ response was the result of expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The results suggested that immune response in protected individuals with a history of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) due to L. major is mediated not only through the expansion of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing CD4+ Th1 cells, but also through IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells.
A Comparative Study Of The Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay And Culture Method In Symptomatic Pulmonary Nocardiosis
Eshraghi S,Sarrafnejad,Taheri Roudsari H
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Pulmonary Nocardiosis is an infrequent infection whose incidence seems to be on the rise due to a higher degree of clinical suspicion and to an increasing number of immunosuppressive factors. The present investigation was carried out to detect Nocardiosis in immunocompromised patients confined in the pulmonary ward of Tehran’s Shariati Training Hospital through the use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and bacterial culture methods. The comparison of the two methods and the correlation between the antibody titer and the statistical and epidemiological data were also investigated. Materials and Methods: 101 patients with advanced symptomatic pulmonary infection were studied in the course of a twenty-month period. Individual patients’ sputum, BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) and blood sera were tested. From each sample three thin smears were prepared for microscopic observations. The samples were cultured in Sabouraud’s dextrose, blood and paraffin agar. The detection of antibody against Nocardia asteroides was carried out in all study groups, using the IFA method. The medical history of patients was also obtained through questionnaires for further analysis. Results: Nocardia asteroides was isolated from only one patient suffering from Wagner vasculitis with an antibody titer of in serum. The 41 patients suspected for Nocardiosis with an antibody titer ranging from to , detected by IFA method, included 26 (63.4%) men and 15 (14.8%) women. The age of the patients varied from 7-80 years. Those with reasonable antibody titers included 15 (36.5%) housewives and 9 (21.9%) workers. Furthermore, in-vitro investigation for the differentiation of the isolates was performed and confirmed the notion that the organism which grew on the primary media was, indeed, the Nocardia asteroids complex. Conclusion: Our results revealed that the broncho-pulmonary infections, which occur in high-risk patients -T-cell deficiencies, long term corticosteroid therapy, immunocompromised hosts, HIV infection, organ transplantation- was an important index for the primary diagnosis of Nocardiosis. As the important finding of the present research, the antibody titer of could be proposed as the criterion for the diagnosis of the infection. The probability of Nocardiosis was proposed when antibody titer was less or more than .
HLA Class II Allele and Haplotype Frequencies in Iranian Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Control Group
Abdolfattah Sarafnejad,Farideh Khosravi,Kamran Alimoghadam,Saied Dianat
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2006,
Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated some significant differences in HLA allele frequencies in leukemic patients and normal subjects. We have analyzed HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in 60 Iranian patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and 180 unrelated normal subjects. Blood samples were collected after obtaining informed consents. From the patients and control DNA extraction and HLA typing were performed using PCR-SSP method. Significant positive association with the disease was found for HLA-DRB1*11 allele (35% vs. 24.7%, p=0.033). Two alleles including HLA-DRB4 and –DQB1*0303 were found to be significantly decreased in patients compared to controls. Regarding haplotype analysis, no significant association was found between case and control groups. It is suggested that HLA-DRB1*11 allele plays as a presumptive predisposing factor while the HLA-DRB4 and –DQB1*0303 alleles are suggested as protective genetic factors against acute myelogenous leukemia. Larger studies are needed to confirm and establish the role of these associations with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Prooxidant - Antioxidant Balance In CAD Patients
F Nabatchian,N Einollahi,N Dashti,F Sarrafnejad
Payavard Salamat , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Aim: The balance between ROS generation and antioxidant activity is critical to the pathogenesis of oxidative stress related disorders. In this study the prooxidant - antioxidant balance and its correlation with lipid profile and uric acid was determined to evaluate the PAB as a prognostic factor for CAD.Materials and Methods: Seventy - two patients and sixty eight healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The values of PAB were determined by using standard solutions and ELISA method. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, HDL - cholesterol and uric acid were measured by enzymatic method.Results: The PAB values of CAD patients and control group were 70.01±3.36 (HK unit) and 66.40 ± 2.84 (HK unit) respectively. There was no significant difference between PAB values among the two groups (P= 0.41). There was no significant difference between uric acid levels among the two groups (P= 0.46). There was a significant correlation between the uric acid values among patients and healthy volunteers and PAB values (P <0.01). There was a significant correlation between the TG, values among patients and healthy volunteers and PAB values (P<0.05).Conclusion: This study showed oxidative stress could be used as a significant risk predictor in the coronary artery disease patient
Comparison of ELISA and histopathologic and bacteriologic findings in diagnosis of helicobacter pylori in gastro-intestinal disorders
Mirsalehian A,Ebrahimi Daryani N,Sarrafnejad A,Rastegarian H
Tehran University Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (H.Pylori) is the most common human infection in the world. This agent has a strong role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. Therefore introducing of simple and cost effective tests are important for diagnosis of H.Pylori infections. ELISA has been considered as an alternative test compare with biopsy, histological staining, culture and urease test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection. In this investigation, 111 patients referred to GI endoscopy department of Imam Khomeini Hospitals for U.G.I problems which were evaluated for H.Pylori infection. Culture and histological staining (GIMSA and H & E) were used as a gold standard test compare with ELISA-IgG and urease test. Sensitivity and specificity for ELISA were 90%, 93% respectively. This report suggests that ELISA is a cost effect and valid test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection
M.H. Harirchian,A. Sarrafnejad,M. Ghaffarpour H. Ghelichnia
Acta Medica Iranica , 2008,
Abstract: Acute idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) is the most common disorder of the facial nerve. Most patients recover completely, although some have permanent disfiguring facial weakness. Many studies have attempted to identify an infectious etiology for this disease. Although the cause of Bell's palsy remains unknown, recent studies suggest a possible association with Herpes Simplex Virus-1(HSV-1) infection. In this case-control study we investigated the presence of DNA of HSV in the saliva of 26 patients with Bells palsy in first and second weeks of disorder compared to normal population who were matched in sex, age, as well as history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and labial herpes. In the case group 3 and 7 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV in first and second weeks of disease respectively compared to 4 in controls. It means that there was not any relationship between Bell's palsy and HSV in saliva either in first or in second week. Two and 6 of positive results from the sample of first and second weeks were from patients with severe (grade 4-6) Bell's palsy. Although the positive results were more in second week in patient group and more in severe palsies, but a significant relationship between Bell's palsy or its severity and positive PCR for HSV was not detected (P >0.05).
Autoantibodies against modified low density Lipoprotein in patients with coronary heart disease and normal individuals
"Mohammadi R,Doosti M,Javadi E,Sarrafnejad A
Acta Medica Iranica , 2001,
Abstract: Different classes of autoantibodies against two antigenic forms of modified low density lipoprotein (mod-LDL) were detected in 140 patients by indirect ELISa method. Investigated autoantibodes included total immunoglobulins (IgT). Immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) against oxidized LDL with copper ions (ox-LDL) and modified LDL with malondialdehyde (mal-LDL) (IgT-O) IgT against mal-LDL (IgT-M), IgG against ox-LDL (IgG-O), IgM against ox-LDL (IgM-o), and IgM against mal-LDL (IgM-M) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in patient with coronary atherosclerosis than normal individuals, whereas titer of IgG against mal-LDl (IgG-M) didn’t show any significan difference between these groups. In this study, no correlation was found between autoantibody titers and severity of coronary artery stenosis. The results indicate that titers of these autoantibodies are dependent on an active atherogenic process.
F. Zaini,N. Jafari-Aryan,A. Sarrafnejad,P. Kordbacheh M. Safara
Acta Medica Iranica , 2007,
Abstract: "nThe increasing incidence of systemic candidiasis, which parallels the use of invasive and immunosuppressive medical procedures, necessitates development of rapid and cost effective tests for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Therefore in this study 85 mice were first immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide and then infected by Candida albicans NCPF 3153. Other 85 mice were employed as control. The case and control mice were bled and then autopsied. Hearts and kidneys were checked by direct, histopathological and cultural examination for systemic candidiasis. The 85 sera from histological proven cases and 85 control mice were adsorbed with heat killed blastospores of same strain of C. albicans. Anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in case and control mice. In addition, sera from 35 mice with proven cryptococcosis were also tested. While 84 mice with proven systemic candidiasis (100%) had anti-germ tube antibodies, these antibodies were absent in all controls and mice with cryptococcosis. The specificity was 100%, indicating a high degree of discrimination was possible between systemic candidiasis and cryptococcosis in the mice studied. It must be concluded that anti-germ tube responses did not appear to be significantly reduced in immunocompromised mice.
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