Abstract:
Grover's database search algorithm is the optimal algorithm for finding a desired object from an unsorted collection of items. Although it was discovered in the context of quantum computation, it is simple and versatile enough to be implemented using any physical system that allows superposition of states, and several proposals have been made in the literature. I study a mechanical realisation of the algorithm using coupled simple harmonic oscillators, and construct its physical model for the simplest case of four identical oscillators. The identification oracle is implemented as an elastic reflection of the desired oscillator, and the overrelaxation operation is realised as evolution of the system by half an oscillation period. I derive the equations of motion, and solve them both analytically and by computer simulation. I extend the ideal case analysis and explore the sensitivity of the algorithm to changes in the initial conditions, masses of springs and damping. The amplitude amplification provided by the algorithm enhances the energy of the desired oscillator, while running the algorithm backwards spreads out the energy of the perturbed oscillator among its partners. The former (efficient focusing of energy into a specific oscillator) can have interesting applications in processes that need crossing of an energy threshold for completion, and can be useful in nanotechnological devices and catalysis. The latter (efficient redistribution of energy) can be useful in processes requiring rapid dissipation of energy, such as shock-absorbers and vibrational shielding. I present some tentative proposals.

Abstract:
We calculate the thermopower of monolayer graphene in various circumstances. First we show that experiments on the thermopower of graphene can be understood quantitatively with a very simple model of screening in the semiclassical limit. We can calculate the energy dependent scattering time for this model exactly. We then consider acoustic phonon scattering which might be the operative scattering mechanism in free standing films, and predict that the thermopower will be linear in any induced gap in the system. Further, the thermopower peaks at the same value of chemical potential (tunable by gate voltage) independent of the gap. Finally, we show that in the semiclassical approximation, the thermopower in a magnetic field saturates at high field to a value which can be calculated exactly and is independent of the details of the scattering. This effect might be observable experimentally.

Abstract:
We study the behavior of the defect and heat densities under sudden quenching near the quantum critical points in the two-dimensional Kitaev honeycomb model both in the thermodynamic and non-thermodynamic limits. We consider quenches starting from a quantum critical point into the gapped as well as the gapless phases. We choose points on the lines of anisotropic quantum critical points as well as different points of intersection of these lines as the initial points from where the quenching starts. We find that the defect and heat densities display the expected power-law scalings along with logarithmic corrections to scaling (or cusp singularities) in certain cases. In the vicinity of some of the intersection points the scaling behaviors change, indicating an effective dimensional reduction; the scaling behavior near these points depends on the number of critical lines crossed in the process of quenching. All the analytical predictions are also verified by numerical integration.

Abstract:
The theory for the onset of spin density wave order in a metal in two dimensions flows to strong coupling, with strong interactions not only at the `hot spots', but on the entire Fermi surface. We advocate the computation of DC transport in a regime where there is rapid relaxation to local equilibrium around the Fermi surface by processes which conserve total momentum. The DC resistivity is then controlled by weaker perturbations which do not conserve momentum. We consider variations in the local position of the quantum critical point, induced by long-wavelength disorder, and find a contribution to the resistivity which is linear in temperature (up to logarithmic corrections) at low temperature. Scattering of fermions between hot spots, by short-wavelength disorder, leads to a residual resistivity and a correction which is linear in temperature.

Abstract:
We investigate the effect of marginality on the ground state fidelity and Loschmidt echo. For this purpose, we study the above quantities near the quantum critical point (QCP) of the two-dimensional (2-D) Dirac Hamiltonian in the presence of a mass term which is tuned to zero at the Dirac point. An ideal example would be that of the low-energy carriers in graphene in which a mass term opens up a band gap. This happens to be a marginal situation where the behavior of the fidelity and the echo is markedly different as compared to that in the one-dimensional case. We encounter this marginal behavior near the Dirac point, which is displayed in the absence of a sharp dip in the ground state fidelity (or equivalently in the logarithmic scaling of the fidelity susceptibility). Most importantly, there is also a logarithmic correction to the proposed scaling of the fidelity in the thermodynamic limit which can not be a priori anticipated from the predicted scaling form. Interestingly, a sharp dip in the ground state Loschmidt echo is also found to be absent near this QCP, which is again a consequence of the marginality. We also explain the absence of a sharp dip in both the fidelity and the Loschmidt echo close to the QCP in dimensions greater than two.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of edge states of the two dimensional BHZ Hamiltonian in a ribbon geometry following a sudden quench to the quantum critical point separating the topological insulator phase from the trivial insulator phase. The effective edge state Hamiltonian is a collection of decoupled qubit-like two-level systems which get coupled to bulk states following the quench. We notice a pronounced collapse and revival of the Loschmidt echo for low-energy edge states illustrating the oscillation of the state between the two edges. We also observe a similar collapse and revival in the spin Hall current carried by these edge states, leading to a persistence of its time-averaged value.

Abstract:
The hyperscaling property implies that spatially isotropic critical quantum states in $d$ spatial dimensions have a specific heat which scales with temperature as $T^{d/z}$, and an optical conductivity which scales with frequency as $\omega^{(d-2)/z}$ for $\omega \gg T$, where $z$ is the dynamic critical exponent. We examine the spin-density-wave critical fixed point of metals in $d=2$ found by Sur and Lee (Phys. Rev. B 91, 125136 (2015)) in an expansion in $\epsilon = 3-d$. We find that the contributions of the "hot spots" on the Fermi surface to the optical conductivity and specific heat obey hyperscaling (up to logarithms), and agree with the results of the large $N$ analysis of the optical conductivity by Hartnoll et al. (Phys. Rev. B 84, 125115 (2011)). With a small bare velocity of the boson associated with the spin density wave order, there is an intermediate energy regime where hyperscaling is violated with $d \rightarrow d_t$, where $d_t = 1$ is the number of dimensions transverse to the Fermi surface. We also present a Boltzmann equation analysis which indicates that the hot spot contribution to the DC conductivity has the same scaling as the optical conductivity, with $T$ replacing $\omega$.

Abstract:
We show how Majorana end modes can be generated in a one-dimensional system by varying some of the parameters in the Hamiltonian periodically in time. The specific model we consider is a chain containing spinless electrons with a nearest-neighbor hopping amplitude, a p-wave superconducting term and a chemical potential; this is equivalent to a spin-1/2 chain with anisotropic XY couplings between nearest neighbors and a magnetic field applied in the z-direction. We show that varying the chemical potential (or magnetic field) periodically in time can produce Majorana modes at the ends of a long chain. We discuss two kinds of periodic driving, periodic delta-function kicks and a simple harmonic variation with time. We discuss some distinctive features of the end modes such as the inverse participation ratio of their wave functions and their Floquet eigenvalues which are always equal to +/- 1 for time-reversal symmetric systems. For the case of periodic delta-function kicks, we use the effective Hamiltonian of a system with periodic boundary conditions to define two topological invariants. The first invariant is a well-known winding number while the second invariant has not appeared in the literature before. The second invariant is more powerful in that it always correctly predicts the numbers of end modes with Floquet eigenvalues equal to +1 and -1, while the first invariant does not. We find that the number of end modes can become very large as the driving frequency decreases. We show that periodic delta-function kicks in the hopping and superconducting terms can also produce end modes. Finally, we study the effect of electron-phonon interactions (which are relevant at finite temperatures) and a random noise in the chemical potential on the Majorana modes.

Abstract:
Near the sample edge, or a sharp magnetic field step the drift of two-dimensional electrons in a magnetic field has the form of skipping/snake orbits. We show that families of skipping/snake orbits of electrons injected at one point inside a 2D metal generically exhibit caustics folds, cusps and cusp triplets, and, in one extreme case, a section of the batterfly bifurcation. Periodic appearance of singularities along the $\pm B$-interface leads to the magneto-oscillations of nonlocal conductance in multi-terminal electronic devices.

Abstract:
The proposed semiclassical theory predicts two types of oscillations in the flow of current injected from a point source near a ballistic p-n junction in graphene in a strong magnetic field. One originates from the classical effect of bunching of cyclotron orbits of electrons passing back and forth across the p-n interface, which displays a pronounced dependence on the commensurability between the cyclotron radii in the n- and p-regions. The other effect is caused by the interference of monochromatic electron waves in p-n junctions with equal carrier densities on the two sides and it consists in magneto-oscillations in the current transmission through the interface with periodicity similar to Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations.