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Phytochemical Properties and Pharmcological Activities of Nicotiana Tabacum: A Review
Aarti Rawat, Rakesh Roshan Mali*
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Tobacco is an agricultural productprocessed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.In Indian agriculture, tobacco has a prominentplace. Tobacco could be developed as an important food crop in combination with its traditional use forsmoking and chewing. Tobacco plants are also used in plant bioengineering, and some of the more than 70species are grown as ornamentals. The chemistry of tobacco is unique with the presence of a widespectrum of chemical compounds of which nicotine, solanesol, malic and citric acid were identified aspotential chemicals which could be recovered and converted to value-added products. The alkaloid nicotineis popularly considered the most characteristic constituent of tobacco but nicotine is not highly addictive onits own. In consumption it most commonly appears in the forms of smoking, chewing, snuffing, or dippingtobacco. Because of the powerfully addictive properties of tobacco, tolerance and dependencedevelop.This situation necessitated to examine the green tobacco crop as a source for recovery ofphytochemicals alone. With the objective of maximizing bio-mass production for optimum recovery ofproteins, nicotine, solanesol and organic acids from green tobacco. Nicotine for treatment of Alzheimerdisease, Parkinson disease, depression and anxiety, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), pain, and obesity.
Van Panchayats as an Effective Tool in Conserving Biodiversity at Local Level  [PDF]
Vardan Singh Rawat, Yashwant Singh Rawat
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.13033
Abstract: Forest vegetation of a community managed forest was studied along four aspects. Quercus leucotrichophora and Pinus roxburghii was the dominant species on each of the two aspects. Across the aspects the total tree density ranged between 193 to 324.3 ind/ha, sapling density between 119 to 258.6 ind/ha and seedling density from 249.98 to 845 ind/ha. The shrub density varied from 199.99 to 406.32 ind/ha and herb density from 9466.66 to 52483.33 ind/ha. The total basal area varied from 0.06 to 7.15 m2/ha at eastern and north facing aspect for Quercus leucotrichophora and Pinus roxburghii respectively showing that the forest is in young stage. Species diversity value for tree layer varied from 0.21 to 1.23 while concentration of dominance value ranged from 0.56 to 0.94. It was noticed that with an increase in species diversity concentration of dominance value decreases indicating inverse relationship between diversity and dominance.
Assessment of Methane Flux from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill Areas of Delhi, India  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL Ramanathan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.24045
Abstract: Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are the major Greenhouse Gases (GHG’s), which emit from landfill areas and contribute significantly to global warming. Moreover, that the global warming potential of methane is 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide and it has highest generation (60%) than other gases. Therefore, there is immense concern for its abatement or utilization from landfill areas. Compared to the west, the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries has higher (40% - 60%) organic waste. This would have potential to emit higher GHG’s from per ton of MSW compared to developed world. Beside that landfills areas in India are not planned or en- gineered generally low lying open areas, where MSW is indiscriminate disposed. This leads to uncontrolled emission of trace gases, foul smell, bird menace, ground and surface water pollution etc. Due to scarcity of land in big cities, mu- nicipal authorities are using same landfill for nearly 10 - 20 years. Hence, the possibility of anaerobic emission of GHG’s further increases. In the present paper we had quantified the methane emission from three MSW landfill areas of Delhi i.e., Gazipur, Bhalswa and Okhla. The results showed that the range of methane emission various in winter from 12.94 to 58.41 and in Summer from 82.69 - 293 mg/m2/h in these landfill areas. The paper has also reviewed the literature on methane emission from India and the status of landfill areas in India.
Wisdom Web: The WWW Generation Next
Aarti Singh
International Journal of Advancements in Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Almost one decade before when Tim Berners Lee coined the idea of semantic web, it looked like a distant dream. Now we are already experiencing the initial waves of semantic web in the form of more intelligent context based searches. However human nature is insatiable which drives us towards exploring potential avenues of betterment. This fact is leading WWW towards transformation from Semantic Web to Wisdom Web. This article highlights the technologies contributing most towards the next generation of WWW and also suggests future direction for Web Personalization.
THESAURUS FOR INDIAN LANGUAGES AND CONVERSION RULES DURING DESIGN OF PUNJABI THESAURUS
Aarti Tayal
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: This paper is an attempt to discuss thesaurus already available in Indian languages and conversion rules during design of Punjabi thesaurus. Basically this paper is divided into four sections. In first section try to give introduction about varieties of thesaurus and brief introduction to thesaurus, ontology and dictionary. In next section, provide information about already built thesaurus for Indian languages. After that, give details of conversion rules which is basic necessity to provide correct result when user work under different-different fonts. Keywords- thesaurus, ontology, dictionary, Indian languages, conversion rules
Reducing Failure Probability of cloud storage services using Multi-Clouds
Veena Rawat
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Any information is valuable as long as it has related data. If related data are not put together, the information is meaningless as unrelated data has no value. The mapped information is required only by authenticated users. So there is no necessity to store related information together. If the relations of a database are fragmented into chunks and these chunks are stored at different cloud service providers, it could prevent from any privacy breach and the data stored will be secure. It would also reduce the data transfer costs as the entire data is not always required, for e.g. during updates. Also, instead of storage of chunks at a single CSP, if each chunk or fragment is stored at multiple CSPs it ensures availability and also permits concurrent access. Additionally, it would prevent financial loss during cloud outages and also prevent data lock-in. Replicating data chunks at multiple clouds situated at geographically different locations would also have an additional decrease in response time. The work attempts to select multiple cloud service providers within a given budget so as to ensure maximum availability of data. The entire data can be stored at each of the data centers selected depending on the budget when there is no security or privacy issue. Data can also be stored in chunks by replicating each data chunk at two or more cloud service providers. Different chunks can be replicated at different service providers. The work also attempts to select various cloud service providers to ensure maximum valid data chunks within a given budget.
Primary Angiosarcoma of the Tongue: A Case Report  [PDF]
Vineet Chadha, Digvijay Singh Rawat, Beni Prasad
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2012.12011
Abstract: Sarcomas are rare tumors of head and neck region and constitute less than 1% of all cancers in this region. Primary angiosarcoma of the oral cavity is an extremely rare malignancy with few reported cases in literature till now. We present a case of a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed as angiosarcoma after appropriate histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation.
Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC) from Selected Indian Cities—A Case Study for Its Sustainable Utilisation  [PDF]
Manju Rawat, AL. Ramanathan, T. Kuriakose
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.42019
Abstract:

Utilisation of Municipal Solid Waste is important to curb the ever rising demand of scarce land for its disposal. Changing life style patterns, particularly in urban areas, has led to increase in generation of MSW. Municipal solid waste from Indian cities estimated to have 40% - 60% organic matter, which could be recycled as compost. The most suitable way to recycle it with low investment is aerobic composting using windrow method. With the compliance of Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000, many cities in India are making compost with organic portion of MSW. Before applying MSWC for agricultural uses, it is important to inventories heavy metals in compost to assess its toxicity. In the present study the compost samples were quantified for its toxicity from three highly populated cities of India, i.e., Delhi (Capital of India), Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and Bangalore (Karnataka). The MSWC samples were analysed for total heavy metals and in extractable fractions. Few samples were found with higher concentration of metals then the prescribed limits for its application as compost in Indian MSW rules, whereas, samples have not showed significant heavy metals concentration in extractable fractions. Therefore, studied MSW compost samples had demonstrated its suitability to use as green compost.

VirulentPred: a SVM based prediction method for virulent proteins in bacterial pathogens
Aarti Garg, Dinesh Gupta
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-62
Abstract: In the present study we propose a bacterial virulent protein prediction method based on bi-layer cascade Support Vector Machine (SVM). The first layer SVM classifiers were trained and optimized with different individual protein sequence features like amino acid composition, dipeptide composition (occurrences of the possible pairs of ith and i+1th amino acid residues), higher order dipeptide composition (pairs of ith and i+2nd residues) and Position Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) generated Position Specific Scoring Matrices (PSSM). In addition, a similarity-search based module was also developed using a dataset of virulent and non-virulent proteins as BLAST database. A five-fold cross-validation technique was used for the evaluation of various prediction strategies in this study. The results from the first layer (SVM scores and PSI-BLAST result) were cascaded to the second layer SVM classifier to train and generate the final classifier. The cascade SVM classifier was able to accomplish an accuracy of 81.8%, covering 86% area in the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) plot, better than that of either of the layer one SVM classifiers based on single or multiple sequence features.VirulentPred is a SVM based method to predict bacterial virulent proteins sequences, which can be used to screen virulent proteins in proteomes. Together with experimentally verified virulent proteins, several putative, non annotated and hypothetical protein sequences have been predicted to be high scoring virulent proteins by the prediction method. VirulentPred is available as a freely accessible World Wide Web server – VirulentPred, at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/virulent/ webcite.Virulence of a bacterial pathogen is its relative ability to cause a disease usually described in terms of number of infecting bacteria, the route of its entry into the host body and intrinsic bacterial virulence factors. The bacterial virulence factors are commonly virulent proteins, carbohydrates and other
INNOVATIVE TRENDS IN TOURISM MANAGEMENT – NEED OF THE HOUR
AARTI MESHRAM,SUNITA BORKAR
Golden Research Thoughts , 2013, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Tourism is the temporary short term movement of people to destinations outside the place where they normally live and work and, includes the activities they indulge in at the destination as well as all facilities and services specially created to meet their needs. It not only means travelling to a particular destination but also includes all activities undertaken during the stay, be it day visits and excursions. Tourism is the vital breath in any human activity while making a prolonged journey from place to place, it is a human desire to make round of places of interest – Religious, Spiritual, Natural Beautiful places, Monuments, Ancient Cities, Historical sites , Pilgrimage centre's, and places that arouse curiosity.
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