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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 194277 matches for " Aarti D. Rohira equal contributor "
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Maf1 Is a Novel Target of PTEN and PI3K Signaling That Negatively Regulates Oncogenesis and Lipid Metabolism
Beth M. Palian equal contributor,Aarti D. Rohira equal contributor,Sandra A. S. Johnson equal contributor,Lina He,Ni Zheng,Louis Dubeau,Bangyan L. Stiles,Deborah L. Johnson
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004789
Abstract: Maf1 was initially identified as a transcriptional repressor of RNA pol III-transcribed genes, yet little is known about its other potential target genes or its biological function. Here, we show that Maf1 is a key downstream target of PTEN that drives both its tumor suppressor and metabolic functions. Maf1 expression is diminished with loss of PTEN in both mouse models and human cancers. Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, Maf1 reduces anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in mice. PTEN-mediated changes in Maf1 expression are mediated by PTEN acting on PI3K/AKT/FoxO1 signaling, revealing a new pathway that regulates RNA pol III-dependent genes. This regulatory event is biologically relevant as diet-induced PI3K activation reduces Maf1 expression in mouse liver. We further identify lipogenic enzymes as a new class of Maf1-regulated genes whereby Maf1 occupancy at the FASN promoter opposes SREBP1c-mediated transcription activation. Consistent with these findings, Maf1 inhibits intracellular lipid accumulation and increasing Maf1 expression in mouse liver abrogates diet-mediated induction of lipogenic enzymes and triglycerides. Together, these results establish a new biological role for Maf1 as a downstream effector of PTEN/PI3K signaling and reveal that Maf1 is a key element by which this pathway co-regulates lipid metabolism and oncogenesis.
Revisiting an Old Riddle: What Determines Genetic Diversity Levels within Species?
Ellen M. Leffler ,Kevin Bullaughey equal contributor,Daniel R. Matute equal contributor,Wynn K. Meyer equal contributor,Laure Ségurel equal contributor,Aarti Venkat equal contributor,Peter Andolfatto,Molly Przeworski
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001388
Abstract: Understanding why some species have more genetic diversity than others is central to the study of ecology and evolution, and carries potentially important implications for conservation biology. Yet not only does this question remain unresolved, it has largely fallen into disregard. With the rapid decrease in sequencing costs, we argue that it is time to revive it.
Diced Triplets Expose Neurons to RISC
Dobrila D. Rudnicki equal contributor ,Russell L. Margolis equal contributor ,Christopher E. Pearson equal contributor ,Wlodzimierz J. Krzyzosiak equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002545
Abstract:
Arabidopsis Homologs of Retinoblastoma-Associated Protein 46/48 Associate with a Histone Deacetylase to Act Redundantly in Chromatin Silencing
Xiaofeng Gu equal contributor,Danhua Jiang equal contributor,Wannian Yang equal contributor,Yannick Jacob,Scott D. Michaels,Yuehui He
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002366
Abstract: RNA molecules such as small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and antisense RNAs (asRNAs) trigger chromatin silencing of target loci. In the model plant Arabidopsis, RNA–triggered chromatin silencing involves repressive histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone H3 lysine-9 methylation, and H3 lysine-27 monomethylation. Here, we report that two Arabidopsis homologs of the human histone-binding proteins Retinoblastoma-Associated Protein 46/48 (RbAp46/48), known as MSI4 (or FVE) and MSI5, function in partial redundancy in chromatin silencing of various loci targeted by siRNAs or asRNAs. We show that MSI5 acts in partial redundancy with FVE to silence FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a crucial floral repressor subject to asRNA–mediated silencing, FLC homologs, and other loci including transposable and repetitive elements which are targets of siRNA–directed DNA Methylation (RdDM). Both FVE and MSI5 associate with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDA6) to form complexes and directly interact with the target loci, leading to histone deacetylation and transcriptional silencing. In addition, these two genes function in de novo CHH (H = A, T, or C) methylation and maintenance of symmetric cytosine methylation (mainly CHG methylation) at endogenous RdDM target loci, and they are also required for establishment of cytosine methylation in the previously unmethylated sequences directed by the RdDM pathway. This reveals an important functional divergence of the plant RbAp46/48 relatives from animal counterparts.
Karyotypic Determinants of Chromosome Instability in Aneuploid Budding Yeast
Jin Zhu equal contributor,Norman Pavelka equal contributor,William D. Bradford,Giulia Rancati equal contributor ,Rong Li
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002719
Abstract: Recent studies in cancer cells and budding yeast demonstrated that aneuploidy, the state of having abnormal chromosome numbers, correlates with elevated chromosome instability (CIN), i.e. the propensity of gaining and losing chromosomes at a high frequency. Here we have investigated ploidy- and chromosome-specific determinants underlying aneuploidy-induced CIN by observing karyotype dynamics in fully isogenic aneuploid yeast strains with ploidies between 1N and 2N obtained through a random meiotic process. The aneuploid strains exhibited various levels of whole-chromosome instability (i.e. chromosome gains and losses). CIN correlates with cellular ploidy in an unexpected way: cells with a chromosomal content close to the haploid state are significantly more stable than cells displaying an apparent ploidy between 1.5 and 2N. We propose that the capacity for accurate chromosome segregation by the mitotic system does not scale continuously with an increasing number of chromosomes, but may occur via discrete steps each time a full set of chromosomes is added to the genome. On top of such general ploidy-related effect, CIN is also associated with the presence of specific aneuploid chromosomes as well as dosage imbalance between specific chromosome pairs. Our findings potentially help reconcile the divide between gene-centric versus genome-centric theories in cancer evolution.
Identification of a Tissue-Selective Heat Shock Response Regulatory Network
Eric Guisbert equal contributor,Daniel M. Czyz equal contributor,Klaus Richter equal contributor,Patrick D. McMullen,Richard I. Morimoto
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003466
Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is essential to survive acute proteotoxic stress and has been studied extensively in unicellular organisms and tissue culture cells, but to a lesser extent in intact metazoan animals. To identify the regulatory pathways that control the HSR in Caenorhabditis elegans, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen and identified 59 genes corresponding to 7 positive activators required for the HSR and 52 negative regulators whose knockdown leads to constitutive activation of the HSR. These modifiers function in specific steps of gene expression, protein synthesis, protein folding, trafficking, and protein clearance, and comprise the metazoan heat shock regulatory network (HSN). Whereas the positive regulators function in all tissues of C. elegans, nearly all of the negative regulators exhibited tissue-selective effects. Knockdown of the subunits of the proteasome strongly induces HS reporter expression only in the intestine and spermatheca but not in muscle cells, while knockdown of subunits of the TRiC/CCT chaperonin induces HS reporter expression only in muscle cells. Yet, both the proteasome and TRiC/CCT chaperonin are ubiquitously expressed and are required for clearance and folding in all tissues. We propose that the HSN identifies a key subset of the proteostasis machinery that regulates the HSR according to the unique functional requirements of each tissue.
U87MG Decoded: The Genomic Sequence of a Cytogenetically Aberrant Human Cancer Cell Line
Michael James Clark equal contributor,Nils Homer equal contributor,Brian D. O'Connor equal contributor,Zugen Chen equal contributor,Ascia Eskin,Hane Lee,Barry Merriman,Stanley F. Nelson
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000832
Abstract: U87MG is a commonly studied grade IV glioma cell line that has been analyzed in at least 1,700 publications over four decades. In order to comprehensively characterize the genome of this cell line and to serve as a model of broad cancer genome sequencing, we have generated greater than 30× genomic sequence coverage using a novel 50-base mate paired strategy with a 1.4kb mean insert library. A total of 1,014,984,286 mate-end and 120,691,623 single-end two-base encoded reads were generated from five slides. All data were aligned using a custom designed tool called BFAST, allowing optimal color space read alignment and accurate identification of DNA variants. The aligned sequence reads and mate-pair information identified 35 interchromosomal translocation events, 1,315 structural variations (>100 bp), 191,743 small (<21 bp) insertions and deletions (indels), and 2,384,470 single nucleotide variations (SNVs). Among these observations, the known homozygous mutation in PTEN was robustly identified, and genes involved in cell adhesion were overrepresented in the mutated gene list. Data were compared to 219,187 heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms assayed by Illumina 1M Duo genotyping array to assess accuracy: 93.83% of all SNPs were reliably detected at filtering thresholds that yield greater than 99.99% sequence accuracy. Protein coding sequences were disrupted predominantly in this cancer cell line due to small indels, large deletions, and translocations. In total, 512 genes were homozygously mutated, including 154 by SNVs, 178 by small indels, 145 by large microdeletions, and 35 by interchromosomal translocations to reveal a highly mutated cell line genome. Of the small homozygously mutated variants, 8 SNVs and 99 indels were novel events not present in dbSNP. These data demonstrate that routine generation of broad cancer genome sequence is possible outside of genome centers. The sequence analysis of U87MG provides an unparalleled level of mutational resolution compared to any cell line to date.
Nipbl and Mediator Cooperatively Regulate Gene Expression to Control Limb Development
Akihiko Muto,Shingo Ikeda,Martha E. Lopez-Burks,Yutaka Kikuchi equal contributor,Anne L. Calof equal contributor ,Arthur D. Lander equal contributor ,Thomas F. Schilling equal contributor
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004671
Abstract: Haploinsufficiency for Nipbl, a cohesin loading protein, causes Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), the most common “cohesinopathy”. It has been proposed that the effects of Nipbl-haploinsufficiency result from disruption of long-range communication between DNA elements. Here we use zebrafish and mouse models of CdLS to examine how transcriptional changes caused by Nipbl deficiency give rise to limb defects, a common condition in individuals with CdLS. In the zebrafish pectoral fin (forelimb), knockdown of Nipbl expression led to size reductions and patterning defects that were preceded by dysregulated expression of key early limb development genes, including fgfs, shha, hand2 and multiple hox genes. In limb buds of Nipbl-haploinsufficient mice, transcriptome analysis revealed many similar gene expression changes, as well as altered expression of additional classes of genes that play roles in limb development. In both species, the pattern of dysregulation of hox-gene expression depended on genomic location within the Hox clusters. In view of studies suggesting that Nipbl colocalizes with the mediator complex, which facilitates enhancer-promoter communication, we also examined zebrafish deficient for the Med12 Mediator subunit, and found they resembled Nipbl-deficient fish in both morphology and gene expression. Moreover, combined partial reduction of both Nipbl and Med12 had a strongly synergistic effect, consistent with both molecules acting in a common pathway. In addition, three-dimensional fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that Nipbl and Med12 are required to bring regions containing long-range enhancers into close proximity with the zebrafish hoxda cluster. These data demonstrate a crucial role for Nipbl in limb development, and support the view that its actions on multiple gene pathways result from its influence, together with Mediator, on regulation of long-range chromosomal interactions.
A Link between Virulence and Homeostatic Responses to Hypoxia during Infection by the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
Cheryl D Chun equal contributor,Oliver W Liu equal contributor,Hiten D Madhani
PLOS Pathogens , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030022
Abstract: Fungal pathogens of humans require molecular oxygen for several essential biochemical reactions, yet virtually nothing is known about how they adapt to the relatively hypoxic environment of infected tissues. We isolated mutants defective in growth under hypoxic conditions, but normal for growth in normoxic conditions, in Cryptococcus neoformans, the most common cause of fungal meningitis. Two regulatory pathways were identified: one homologous to the mammalian sterol-response element binding protein (SREBP) cholesterol biosynthesis regulatory pathway, and the other a two-component-like pathway involving a fungal-specific hybrid histidine kinase family member, Tco1. We show that cleavage of the SREBP precursor homolog Sre1—which is predicted to release its DNA-binding domain from the membrane—occurs in response to hypoxia, and that Sre1 is required for hypoxic induction of genes encoding for oxygen-dependent enzymes involved in ergosterol synthesis. Importantly, mutants in either the SREBP pathway or the Tco1 pathway display defects in their ability to proliferate in host tissues and to cause disease in infected mice, linking for the first time to our knowledge hypoxic adaptation and pathogenesis by a eukaryotic aerobe. SREBP pathway mutants were found to be a hundred times more sensitive than wild-type to fluconazole, a widely used antifungal agent that inhibits ergosterol synthesis, suggesting that inhibitors of SREBP processing could substantially enhance the potency of current therapies.
Evidence for Restriction of Ancient Primate Gammaretroviruses by APOBEC3 but Not TRIM5α Proteins
David Perez-Caballero equal contributor,Steven J. Soll equal contributor,Paul D. Bieniasz
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000181
Abstract: Because of evolutionary pressures imposed through episodic colonization by retroviruses, many mammals express factors, such as TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins, that directly restrict retroviral replication. TRIM5 and APOBEC restriction factors are most often studied in the context of modern primate lentiviruses, but it is likely that ancient retroviruses imposed the selective pressure that is evident in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 genes. Moreover, these antiretroviral factors have been shown to act against a variety of retroviruses, including gammaretroviruses. Endogenous retroviruses can provide a ‘fossil record’ of extinct retroviruses and perhaps evidence of ancient TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiviral activity. Here, we investigate whether TRIM5 and APOBEC3 proteins restricted the replication of two groups of gammaretroviruses that were endogenized in the past few million years. These endogenous retroviruses appear quite widespread in the genomes of old world primates but failed to colonize the human germline. Our analyses suggest that TRIM5α proteins did not pose a major barrier to the cross-species transmission of these two families of gammaretroviruses, and did not contribute to their extinction. However, we uncovered extensive evidence for inactivation of ancient gammaretroviruses through the action of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Interestingly, the identities of the cytidine deaminases responsible for inactivation appear to have varied in both a virus and host species–dependent manner. Overall, sequence analyses and reconstitution of ancient retroviruses from remnants that have been preserved in the genomes of modern organisms offer the opportunity to probe and potentially explain the evolutionary history of host defenses against retroviruses.
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