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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2274 matches for " AW; "
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Abstract Nature of Money and the Modern Equation of Exchange  [PDF]
Mieczys?aw Dobija
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.22019
Abstract: The essence of money economy reveals an abstract triad: capital – labor – money, where capital is an ability of doing work, labor is a transfer of the capital to products, and wages receivables correctly define money earned by the employees. The only proper money creating process is through labor. Money is a certification of work done; therefore labor is always self-financing. Using this theoretical framework, Governments can eliminate budget deficit, reduce direct taxes and unemployment while avoiding inflation. If the compensation paid in the public sector comes from the funds collected by taxation the economy works as a scarcity machine. In the reshaped economic system the Central Bank directly transfers salaries earned by the public sector employees to their bank accounts. Then the budgets are balanced, the direct taxes are limited, and the public debt no longer grows. The modern equation of exchange involves labor productivity as a fundamental economic ratio.
Magnetic Field Induction and Time Intervals of the Electron Transitions Approached in a Classical and Quantum-Mechanical Way  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211161
Abstract: The motion of electron wave packets of a metal is examined classically in the presence of the magnetic field with the aim to calculate the time intervals between two states lying on the same Fermi surface. A lower limiting value of the transition time equal to about 10–18 sec is estimated as an average for the case when the states are lying on the Fermi surface having a spherical shape. Simultaneously, an upper limit for the electron circular frequency in a metal has been also derived. A formal reference of the classical transition time to the time interval entering the energy-time uncertainty relations known in quantum mechanics is obtained.
Amniotic fluid embolism: literature review and an integrated concept of pathomechanism  [PDF]
Mieczys?aw Uszyński
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.14034
Abstract: Literature concerning procoagulant activity of the amniotic fluid and pathomechanism of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) was surveyed and a new concept of its pathogenesis, called the integrated concept of AFE, was presented. According to this concept, two components of the amniotic fluid are involved: (i) apoptosis-affected amniotic cells showing a special role in the initiation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and (ii) leukotrienes (formerly called slow-reacting substances), inducing bronchial and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle contraction. Although each of these components initiates a different pathogenic pathway, they both lead to the formation of a mechanical barrier on blood flow through the lungs (amniotic debris + microemboli) and/or functional barrier (pulmonary vasoconstriction). An old dilemma, concerning indications for heparin therapy in AFE was recalled in the light of the new concept.
Labor Productivity vs. Minimum Wage Level  [PDF]
Mieczys?aw Dobija
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25086
Abstract: Recognition of the abstract nature of capital has liberated some new possibilities for alternative human capital research. Human capital, that is to say the human ability of doing work, is under the authority of all fundamental laws established in respect of the general notion of capital as spontaneous, and possessing random diffusion and limited growth. The phenomenon of human capital’s natural dispersion is a starting point for the theory of minimum wage, which ought to be sufficient to counterbalance the natural thinning out of the initial human capital of an employee. In practice, the legal minimum wage is fixed at different levels, and sometimes it is very low. Labor productivity is one fundamental factor that enables the establishment of a proper minimum wage level. Each human capital is vanquished by spontaneous and random diffusion, which averages 8% of the initial capital. Therefore the 8% rule is applicable to each employee no matter how educated and experienced he or she is. The results show that the level and fairness of the legal minimum wages is conditioned by labor productivity measured by ratio Q. This ratio should be at least 3.0 so the minimum wage could set off spontaneous random diffusion of employee’s human capital.
Relation between the Intervals ΔE and Δt Obtained in the De-Excitation Process of Electrons in Metals  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.33030
Abstract: A relation between the intervals of energy and time, derived in a former paper and associated with the electron transitions on the Fermi surface of a metal, is examined in comparison with the experimental data. These data are obtained from the de-excitation process of electrons in metals. A comparison between theory and experiment demonstrated that the new relation between energy and time is fitted much better for the experimental results than the well-known relation due to the Heisenberg theory.
Quantum of the Magnetic Flux Characteristic forExperiments Performed on the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effects  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.411A1003

Experimentally the plateaus characteristic for the integer quantum Hall effect is obtained in vicinity of specific values of the magnetic induction. The paper demonstrates that the ratios of these induction values to carrier concentration in the planar crystalline samples approach systematically the quanta of the magnetic flux important for the behavior of superconductors. Moreover, the same quanta can be deduced from the Landau levels theory and their application in the magnetoresistance theory gives results being in accordance with experiments. The quanta of the magnetic flux similar to those for the integer quantum Hall effect can be obtained also for the fractional quantum Hall effect. This holds on condition the experimental ratio of the magnetic flux to carrier concentration is multiplied by the filling factor of the Landau level.

The Global Currency Area a Way to Constructively End the Era of Reserve Currency  [PDF]
Mieczys?aw Dobija
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.54029

An integrative currency area that is able to unify countries with different levels of labor productivity leads to a global currency area with only one currency. In such a scenario, the reserve money system would obviously disappear. This concept, linked with the correct view that money is a receivable for labor done, offers a new vision of globalization. This paper considers the necessary fundamentals of a global currency area and a post-exchange rate world economy. The study explores a new financial framework as well as the significance of the labor productivity ratio in macroeconomic control.

Bohr’s Spectrum of Quantum States in the Atomic Hydrogen Deduced from the Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514127

A modified uncertainty principle coupling the intervals of energy and time can lead to the shortest distance attained in course of the excitation process, as well as the shortest possible time interval for that process. These lower bounds are much similar to the interval limits deduced on both the experimental and theoretical footing in the era when the Heisenberg uncertainty principle has been developed. In effect of the bounds existence, a maximal nuclear charge Ze acceptable for the Bohr atomic ion could be calculated. In the next step the velocity of electron transitions between the Bohr orbits is found to be close to the speed of light. This result provides us with the energy spectrum of transitions similar to that obtained in the Bohr’s model. A momentary force acting on the electrons in course of their transitions is estimated to be by many orders larger than a steady electrostatic force existent between the atomic electron and the nucleus.

Circular Scale of Time and Energy of a Quantum State Calculated from the Schrödinger Perturbation Theory  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.515152
Abstract: The main facts about the scale of time considered as a plot of a sequence of events are submitted both to a review and a more detailed calculation. Classical progressive character of the time variable, present in the everyday life and in the modern science, too, is compared with a circular-like kind of advancement of time. This second kind of the time behaviour can be found suitable when a perturbation process of a quantum-mechanical system is examined. In fact the paper demonstrates that the complicated high-order Schrodinger perturbation energy of a non-degenerate quantum state becomes easy to approach of the basis of a circular scale. For example for the perturbation order N = 20 instead of 19! ≈ 1.216 × 1017 Feynman diagrams, the contribution of which should be derived and calculated, only less than 218 ≈ 2.621 × 105 terms belonging to N = 20 should be taken into account to the same purpose.
Circular Scale of Time as a Way of Calculating the Quantum-Mechanical Perturbation Energy Given by the Schrödinger Method  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.44022
Abstract: The Schrodinger perturbation energy for an arbitrary order N of the perturbation has been presented with the aid of a circular scale of time. The method is of a recurrent character and developed for a non-degenerate quantum state. It allows one to reduce the inflation of terms necessary to calculate known from the Feynman’s diagrammatical approach to a number below that applied in the original Schrodinger perturbation theory.
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