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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 947 matches for " AV Ramachandran "
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Biochemical alterations induced by the acute exposure to combination of chlorpyrifos and lead in Wistar rats
H Krishna,AV Ramachandran
Biology and Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos, a well known organophosphorus insecticide and heavy metal lead, was challenged to Wistar rats tostudy their interactive effects on biochemical parameters (clinical pathology) after acute exposure via oral gavaging.Hematology and clinical chemistry parameters were estimated after 14 days of exposure. In addition, serum butryland RBC cholinesterase was estimated on days 3rd and 15th of experimentation. The study was conducted using twodifferent dose levels of chlorpyrifos and lead acetate and grouped into seven groups. The parameters of hematologyand serum chemistry were analysed through automatic analyzers. No treatment related or interactive effects werenoticed in hematology values except for the reduced RBC, Hb content and HCT values in lead treated animals at1000mg/kg. A significant decrease in both serum and RBC cholinesterase enzymes were noticed in animals treatedwith chlorpyrifos at 50 mg/kg and in combination group (chlorpyrifos 50 + lead 1000 mg/kg), and increased inhibitionalong with delayed recovery was observed in the animals of combination group (i.e., chlorpyrifos plus lead).Chlorpyrifos in presence of lead increases the inhibition of both serum and RBC cholinesterase enzymes. The longlasting or persistence effects of CPF along with and lead may result in impaired cognitive functions of brainconsidering the role of cholinesterases in neuronal architecture of brain and other normal functioning of nervoussystem. Therefore, simultaneous exposure to a combination of chlorpyrifos and lead is considered to be moredangerous than to an exposure of either alone. In addition, serum chemistry revealed changes in concentrations ofglucose and sodium owing to lead treatment.
Assessment of chlorpyrifos and lead acetate combination on neurobehavioral aspects in Wistar rats after subchronic dietary exposure
H Krishna,AV Ramachandran
Biology and Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos, and heavy metal, lead, were studied for their interactive effects onneurobehavioral aspects in Wistar rats when exposed for a period of 90 consecutive days through experimental diet.The tests used for the assessment of neurobehavioral changes were include functional observation battery, gripstrength measurement, foot splay measurement and motor activity. The study was designed using two different doselevels of chlorpyrifos and lead acetate and grouped into seven groups including concurrent controls. Neurobehavioralobservations were performed at the end of 4 and 13 weeks of exposure and after 4 weeks of recovery period.Repeated dietary exposure at a dose level of 10 ppm of chlorpyrifos (i.e., equivalent to 1mg/kg body weight/day) andin a combination of 10 ppm chlorpyrifos plus 500 ppm of lead acetate (i.e., equivalent to 44.0mg/kg body weight/day)to groups of animals revealed mild cholinergic symptoms and decreased rearing counts at the end of week 4. Inaddition, combination group animals (Chorpyrifos plus Lead) treated at the low dose level (Chlorpyrisfos-1ppm andlead-50 ppm) also revealed reduction in the vertical movements. The lack of persistence and/or cumulative effects ofthese changes after 13 weeks of exposure is due to tolerance induced by the chlorpyrifos. The rearing movementsmeasured in the open field are considered to be more indicative of exploratory behaviour and emotional tendenciesthan of general motor activity. A decrease in rearing counts of combination group animals (Chorpyrifos plus Lead)treated at the low dose level after week 4 was noticeable, irrespective of sex, suggests that even at low dose levels,the combination of chlorpyrifos and lead produces behavioral changes. However, many higher levels of tests fordetection of cognitive functions should also be considered. No other behavioral changes were noticed in the studiedbehavioral tests.
Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, ameliorates high fat diet-induced alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in rats
Jadeja, RN;Thounaojam, MC;Ansarullah,;Devkar, RV;Ramachandran, AV;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010000100023
Abstract: the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze dried extract of clerodendron glandulosum coleb., verbenaceae, leaves (fecg) on alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, lipid and cholesterol metabolizing enzymes in target tissues and fecal total lipids and bile acid contents were evaluated in fecg treated normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats. these results were compared with synthetic hypolipidemic drug lovastatin (lvs). results indicate that fecg was able to positively regulate induced experimental hyperlipidemia by significant alteration in plasma and tissue lipid profiles. these results can be attributed to reduced absorption, effective elimination and augmented catabolism of lipids and cholesterol possibly due to high content of saponin and phytosterols in c. glandulosum. use of c. glandulosum extract as a potential therapeutic agent against hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia is indicated.
Antioxidant rich flavonoids from Oreocnide integrifolia enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion and protects pancreatic β-cells from streptozotocin insult
Ansarullah, Bhavna Bharucha, Mitesh Dwivedi, Naresh C Laddha, Rasheedunnisa Begum, Anandwardhan A Hardikar, AV Ramachandran
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-126
Abstract: We carried out bioassay guided fractionation using RINmF and C2C12 cell line for glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and glucose uptake potential of fractions. Further, the bioactive fraction was challenged for its GSIS in cultured mouse islets with basal (4.5 mM) and stimulated (16.7 mM) levels of glucose concentrations. The Flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) was exposed to 2 mM streptozotocin stress and the anti-ROS/RNS potential was evaluated. Additionally, the bioactive fraction was assessed for its antidiabetic and anti-apoptotic property in-vivo using multidose streptozotocin induced diabetes in BALB/c mice.The results suggested FRF to be the most active fraction as assessed by GSIS in RINm5F cells and its ability for glucose uptake in C2C12 cells. FRF displayed significant potential in terms of increasing intracellular calcium and cAMP levels even in presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX in cultured pancreatic islets. FRF depicted a dose-dependent reversal of all the cytotoxic manifestations except peroxynitrite and NO formation when subjected in-vitro along with STZ. Further scrutinization of FRF for its in-vivo antidiabetic property demonstrated improved glycemic indices and decreased pancreatic β-cell apoptosis.Overall, the flavonoid mixture has shown to have significant insulin secretogogue, insulinomimetic and cytoprotective effects and can be evaluated for clinical trials as a therapeutant in the management of diabetic manifestations.Despite being one of the oldest diseases, a composite therapy has eluded the world to date for diabetes mellitus and, WHO has declared it as a chronic disease. It is proving to be a serious life threatening heterogeneous metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms and afflicting nearly an estimated 191 million people in 2000 and expected to affect an estimated 306 million by 2030 [1,2]. The metabolic derangements characteristic of diabetes in general is primarily a consequence of re
Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb methanolic extract determined using different in vitro models
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas , 2010,
Abstract: El potencial antioxidante del extracto metanólico de Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (MESR) fue evaluada por modelos in vitro tales como peroxidación lipídica, quelación de metales y potencial reductor. Su capacidad de neutralizar radicales libres fue determinada in vitro en ensayos de DPPH, superóxido (.O2), peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2), óxido nítrico (NO.) and el radical hidroxil (HO.). MESR mostró una inhibición dosis dependiente de la peroxidación lipídica, (IC50= 92.15±1.21 ug/ml), una quelación efectiva de metales (IC50=65.69±1.22 ug/ml) y un alto potencial reductor (ODmax=1.20±0.27). MESR neutralizó eficientemente el DPPH (IC50=63.23±1.59 ug/ml), .O2 (IC50=142.36±2.59 ug/ml), H2O2 (IC50=125.96±3.00 ug/ml), NO. (IC50=85.36±2.01 ug/ml) y HO. (IC50=90.45±1.88 ug/ml) de una manera dosis dependiente. Los resultados pueden ser atriuidos a la presencia en el MESR de polifenoles (35.60±1.20 mg/ml polifenoles equivalentes al ácido gálico), flavanoides (26.94±0.94 mg/ml flavanoides equivalentes a la quercetina) y ácido ascórbico (28.71±1.14 mg/ml). Estas observaciones sugieren actividades antioxidante y neutralizante de radicales libres en MESR que a aden una nueva dimensión a sus conocidas aplicaciones terapéuticas.
Guidelines Based Software Engineering for Developing Software Components  [PDF]
Muthu Ramachandran
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.51001
Abstract: Software guidelines have been with us in many forms within Software Engineering community such as knowledge, experiences, domain expertise, laws, software design principles, rules, design heuristics, hypothesis, experimental results, programming rules, best practices, observations, skills, algorithms have played major role in software development. This paper presents a new discipline known as Guidelines Based Software Engineering where the aim is to learn from well-known best practices and documenting newly developed and successful best practices as a knowledge based (could be part of the overall KM strategies) when developing software systems across the life cycle. Thereby it allows reuse of knowledge and experiences.
Left Atrial Myxoma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.51002
Abstract: Atrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors. More than 90% are solitary. A large myxoma occupying in the left atrium producing mitral stenosis and regurgitation was demonstrated by 2D echocardiographic images in this case. It remained asymptomatic for a long period with a survival up to the age of 75 years in an elderly female.
Isolated Patent Ductus Arteriosus in an Elderly Female, Aged 65 Years—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.75033
Abstract: Aim: To report a case of longer-lived patent ductus arteriosus with features of pulmonary arterial hypertension up to the age of 65 years in an elderly woman. Introduction: The clinical recognition of patent ductus arteriosus with severe pulmonary hypertension is difficult. Only 60% of adults presented with a continuous murmur in a recent series. Asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus tolerated for many years and may not require closure. Case Report: A 65 years old female presented with dyspnea had signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension with enlarged pulmonary artery and its branches, atrial fibrillation along with a continuous murmur in the left second intercostal space. Echocardiography revealed a 13 mm size patent ductus arteriosus and a bidirectional with predominant left-to-right shunt. Patient was managed conservatively and symptoms got improved with medical therapy. Conclusion: Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in the setting of pulmonary hypertension is challenging. Early repair can mitigate the development of pulmonary hypertension and reverse vasculopathy in more advanced disease. Maternal aspirin ingestion should be avoided in pregnancy since it causes constriction of fetal ductus.
Tropical Coronary Artery Disease and Arrhythmogenic Potentials—The Changing Pattern towards Endomyocardial Fibrosis—An Analysis  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.76036
Abstract: Aim: To analyse the increasing burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) in tropical and subtropical belts of the Equator since it remains blurred and carries a grim prognosis. Introduction: Endomyocardial fibrosis [EMF] is a tropical febrile disorder, confined to peculiar and limited geographical areas. Plaque buildup in endocardium and coronary arteries, causing ischemic injury and arrhythmic episodes, is a vanishing mystery in its pathogenesis and emphasizing alternative routes for understanding and treatment of this enigmatic disease. Case Report: 15 cases in various age groups were reported with potential complications of coronary artery disease and arrhythmias, associated with endocardial lesions, the characteristic feature of endomyocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: The narrowing of coronary arteries as a result of thickening of the walls, spasm, inflammation, plaques and its rupture produce ischemic episodes which can occur slowly or suddenly in a devastating pattern with arrhythmogenic potentials. The important steps to prevent and decrease the risk of CAD is to reduce the chance of getting this disorder by epidemiological measures with an advice of blood thinning medications such as small daily dose aspirin, antibiotics in susceptible individuals and revascularization in established myocardial infarction.
Native Aortic Valve Endocarditis—A Case Report  [PDF]
Ramachandran Muthiah
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2018.79043
Abstract: Introduction: To report a case of isolated “endocarditic” aortic regurgitation in a 17-year old female with infective vegetations on aortic valve. Case Report: A 17-year old female was admitted with features of heart failure and a febrile illness. Blood cultures were negative and ECG revealed normal. Echocardiography revealed a “kissing-type” of vegetation on the bicuspid aortic valve with severe aortic regurgitation and a dilated left ventricle with moderate dysfunction. Conclusion: The management of aortic insufficiency occurring in infective endocarditis may differ and the presence of intractable pulmonary edema or shock is a clear indication for prompt valve replacement. The traditional diagnostic criteria are insufficient to diagnose infective endocarditis and the modified Duke criteria provide high sensitivity and specificity over 80% for the diagnosis of native valve endocarditis with positive blood cultures.
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