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A new recorded species of PhyscomitriumBrid. (Funariaceae) from Xinjiang——Physcomitrium sphaericum (Ludw.) Fürnr.

,ZHANG Longfeng,MARIPAT Yusup,ATIGUL Molla,MAMTIMIN Sulayman

- , 2018,
Abstract: 该文报道了葫芦藓科(Funariaceae)立碗藓属一新疆新记录种—立碗藓[Physcomitrium sphaericum (Ludw.) Fürnr.].通过光学显微镜和扫描电子显微镜对植株体、叶片、茎、孢蒴、孢子等重要结构进行拍照,并对其特征进行描述.
Letter to the Editor  [PDF]
Md. Mamun Molla
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2014.21001
Abstract: Letter to the editor
Determinates of Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhea with Special Emphasis to Exclusive Breastfeeding in North Achefer District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Case Control Study  [PDF]
Molla Gedefaw, Resom Berhe
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52014
Abstract: Studies showed that exclusive breast feeding reduced infant morbidity and mortality. In low income countries such as Ethiopia where under-five mortality is very high, the role of exclusively breastfeeding could be even more critical. However, studies assessing the place of exclusive breast freeing in the prevention of childhood illnesses in our area are scarce. The aim of the study was to identify determinant factors of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. An institution based case control study was conducted in Achefer District in July, 2012. The cases were 122 children of 7 - 24 months old who had repeated attack of diarrhoea or pneumonia over three months prior to the survey while controls were 122 children who visited well baby clinic for vaccination. Data were collected by using pre-tested and structured questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Logistic regression was performed, and strength of associations was estimated using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. About 83% of the controls and only 12.3% of the cases were exclusively breast fed. Children who were exclusively breast fed were 83 times less likely to develop pneumonia or diarrhea than those who were not exclusively fed. Marital status, monthly income, prelacteal feeding, and late initiation of breast feeding were found to have statistically significant association with childhood diarrhea and pneumonia. This study brought local evidence that exclusive breast feeding had a protective effect against common childhood infectious diseases—pneumonia and diarrhoea—in the study area. Therefore, culture sensitive and plausible health education is recommended to strengthen exclusive breast feeding practices in order to decrease mortality and morbidity of infants and children from pneumonia and diarrhoea.
Determinates of Regain in Body Mass Index among Malnourished Aids Patients on Therapeutic Food in Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Molla Gedefaw, Moges Tariku
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52016
Abstract: Although its utilization is greatly disputed, ready-to-use therapeutic food has been started as clinical nutrition care and treatment for malnourished adult AIDS patients since 2011 in Amhara National Regional State. However, factors determining the intended outcome (weight gain) have not been properly investigated. The main objective of the study was to assess improvement in body mass index and to identify its determinant factors. A retrospective cohort study design was conducted. Cluster sampling was employed to select health facilities in which the service was provided in the region. Of the 44 health facilities, nine were selected using lottery method, and all patients receiving the care in these health institutions were included in the study. Using tailored structured checklist, data were collected, organized and cleaned. Using paired T-test existence of difference between the mean of body mass index at admission and at 3rd visit was measured. Finally analysis of association between some selected independent variables with the outcome variable was done using logistic regression model at 95% CI and p < 0.05. Of 431 study participants, 175 (40.6%) study participants’ body mass index was improved (≥18.5 kg/m2). Paired T-test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between mean of body mass index at admission and at the 3rd visit. Good ready-to-use therapeutic food treatment adherence (AOR 11.145; 95% CI 6.556, 18.946), moderate acute malnutrition at admission (AOR 6.71; 95% CI 2.618, 17.195), good ART adherence (AOR 2.136; 95% CI, 1.269, 3.595) and being male (AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.052, 2.850) have a statistically significant contribution for body mass index improvement. The study identifies factors that determine gain in body mass index among AIDS patients on ready-to-use therapeutic food. However, although the study revealed a statistically significant difference between body mass index during enrolment, and after three months, we disagreed with the right and left utilization of imported food because of lack of sustainability, and aid dependency. We rather recommend interventions that encourage households to produce food with similar outcomes from locally available food staff.
Integrated Watershed Management and Sedimentation  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74043

Environmental development and protection measures such as feasibility studies, land-use planning and soil and water conservation are some of the issues that need to be considered in watersheds management. Apparently, integrated watershed management is emerging as an approach for the sustained development and management of natural resources. The integral enactment of different environmental frameworks, strategies and policies could positively impact watershed- based developmental approaches. Sediment which is brought through water erosion can hamper the proper functioning of waterways as well as the quality of water in dams. Knowhow on soil erosion and the sedimentation process is among the requisites that need to be considered for the control of sedimentation. Other elements like climate, edaphic factors, land management, topography, and land cover, etc. will also determine the sedimentation process. Integrated Watershed Management approach is a worthy approach to manage the ecological, social and economic watershed development challenges in countries like Ethiopia. Thus, this article is intended to assess watershed characteristics that will help to explore the possibilities of reducing sedimentation and its related effects.

Sustainable Land Management  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.74045

In one way or another, one out of three people are being affected by land degradation. It is estimated that, about every year, 75 billion tonnes of soil material are being lost worldwide as a result of land degradation. Recent findings also showed that about 2 billion hectares of land were severely degraded, in some cases in an irreversible way, all these caused a severe damage to local ecologies as well as contributed a lot for climate change and its associated effects on the wellbeing of humanity. Apart from this, the major portion of most developing countries population are still dependent on the un-mechanized and primitive forms agriculture, livestock production, forestry and fishery, and their livelihood and options for economic development are directly linked to the quality of the land and its resources. The objective of this article is to reaffirm the role of Sustainable Land Management in the process of agricultural development, the main source of livelihood in the developing countries. The paper initially explored the basic concept and principles of sustainable management. Causes of land degradation, the prime challenge of sustainable land management and development are also dealt in detail.

Household Energy Demand and Its Impact on the Ecological Capital of Nech Sar National Park, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Molla Mekonnen Alemu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.710112
Abstract: Household energy demand is among the prime problems that cause deforestation. The use of fuel wood in the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America is be-lieved to play a key role for the razing of forests and the degradation of associated biodiversity and other land resources. High population growth, increased energy demand, urbanization, infrastructure development, etc. are among the factors that exacerbate the current rate of deforestation in Ethiopia. This growing demand is also posing a threat to the remaining natural capital and associated wildlife of the country’s national parks. NechSar national park, a jewel in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia is not in different to this threat. The issue is calling for an urgent interference in the provision of environment friendly energy sources, afforestation programmes, raising the level of awareness on climate change, etc. This study is therefore, aimed at exploring the level of household energy demand interference on the woody vegetation of NechSar Park and promoting the use of environment friendly and energy saving technologies in the vicinity of the park area and beyond.
Sovereign Debt Crisis in Europe: A Different Crisis with a “Less Than Different” Impact on Bangladesh?  [PDF]
Molla Mursaleen Shiraj, Afrin Islam
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24057
Abstract: Global economy is going through another round of rough patches. Right after an economic turmoil that originated in the USA, the global economy is experiencing a debt crisis in the EU region. Even though there are certain differences in the nature of the crisis, the possibility of an economic disaster around the world looms over. Bangladesh suffered from the previous financial crisis with a time lag. The country also fears a similar lagged blow from the EU crisis as that region is one of her major trading partners. Export, Aid, FDI and remittance of Bangladesh are feared to suffer from the EU sovereign debt crisis but the impact might not be immediate in case of this crisis as well.
Embankment and Changing Micro-Topography of Lower Ajoy Basin in Eastern India
HR Molla
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2011,
Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of river embankment on the physical environment of the river. Different types of flood control measures are in practice. Embankment is supposed to be an important structural measure of flood control. The performance of embankment varies from case to case. It is quite effective for short term flood alleviation, but it puts a question regarding the long term viability of the embankment and become harmful to the adjacent floodplain. Morphology of the river as well as the micro-topography of the floodplain undergoes great changes as a result of confinement of river flow due to construction of embankment. With this concept in background a geomorphological study has done in the Lower Ajoy Basin of Eastern India. The chronological study about cross-sections of some selected sites of the river, have proved the reduction of the channel depth. Huge sandsplays over the floodplain after the breaching of embankments have changed the micro-morphological character. The present study is to find out the extent of change in the micro-topography caused by Ajoy embankment. Key Words: Embankment, Floodplain, Micro-topography, Sandsplays,
Current Status of Antenatal Care Utilization in the Context of Data Conflict: The Case of Dembecha District, Northwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Molla Gedefaw, Bilal Muche, Mekonen Aychiluhem
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.44027
Abstract: Good antenatal care (ANC) is one of the most important health care aspects known to reduce maternal mortality. In Ethiopia, regional and national data at times do not concur thus data from district to district level decision making are needed. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the prevalence and correlates of ANC service utilization. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women. Multistage sampling was used. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was data collection tool. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 for windows. Logistic regression was used to assess possible association among variables. Odds ratio at 95% confidence interval was used to measure strength, and statistical significance of associations. Prevalence of ANC service utilization was 57%. Of these, more than 80% of them received ANC for ≥4 times. This finding is more similar to the regional report (68%) than that of EDHS (2011) for Amhara Region (34%). Marital status, educational status and income were important predictors for ANC service utilization. The most outstanding finding of this study was that more than 20% and 60% of mothers received antennal care, and information about antenatal care from health extension workers. Antenatal care utilization is still low. Single, divorced, or separated mothers were less likely to utilize ANC while economically better off, and literate mothers were more likely to use ANC services than their counterparts. The finding of this study is in line with the annual reports from the Regional health bureau and disagrees with Ethiopian demographic health survey—EDHS-(2011). Therefore, districts should be encouraged to make decisions based on their own locally generated data than based on EDHS data which could at times be discouraging for districts with better performance. Further strengthening of Health Extension Program is recommended.
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