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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12405 matches for " ATHENA Collaboration "
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Detection of antihydrogen annihilations with a Si-micro-strip and pure CsI detector
I. Johnson,for the ATHENA collaboration
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: In 2002, the ATHENA collaboration reported the creation and detection of cold (~15 K) antihydrogen atoms [1]. The observation was based on the complete reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilations, simultaneous and spatially correlated annihilations of an antiproton and a positron. Annihilation byproducts are measured with a cylindrically symmetric detector system consisting of two layers of double sided Si-micro-strip modules that are surrounded by 16 rows of 12 pure CsI crystals (13 x 17.5 x 17 mm^3). This paper gives a brief overview of the experiment, the detector system, and event reconstruction. Reference 1. M. Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002).
Producing Slow Antihydrogen for a Test of CPT Symmetry with ATHENA
ATHENA Collaboration,M. C. Fujiwara
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: The ATHENA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN aims at testing CPT symmetry with antihydrogen. An overview of the experiment, together with preliminary results of development towards the production of slow antihydrogen are reported.
Coping with Infertility: An Explorative Study of South African Women’s Experiences  [PDF]
Athena Pedro
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.51008
Abstract:

The expectation of getting married and having children is for many individuals a natural part of adult life. Many young people anticipate the prospect of becoming biological mothers and fathers. This expectation of parenthood emanates as individuals and couples are socially groomed to aspire to this social norm. Therefore, infertility can be a very traumatic and tormenting time for many men and women who aspire to conform to these socio-cultural conventions of normative parenthood and who believe that childbearing is central to their lives. Infertility is medically defined as the inability to achieve a pregnancy after a period of at least twelve months of regular sexual intercourse without contraception. For both men and women infertility may present pervasive feelings of incompleteness, a sense of failure and inadequacy. However, infertile women tend to endure a myriad of feeling losses and high levels of suffering and sorrow as a result of their inability to have children. This study explored a sample of South Africa women’s experiences of coping with infertility. Utilising a qualitative methodology, a diverse group of 21 married women who were diagnosed with primary infertility were recruited. Semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women reported emotional turmoil characterised by emotions such as disappointment and shock, anger and frustration, a deep sense of sadness and then progressed to experience a sense of acknowledgement that a problem existed. The findings of this study suggest that severe psychological and emotional strain accompany infertility. The coping strategies employed by these women in the study included social withdrawal and women isolating themselves from social events and social gatherings, avoiding pregnant women and women with children, engaging in escapism strategies on both a psychological level and a physical level. Employing an escapism strategy on a psychological level would involve deliberately thinking about strategies to avoid thinking about infertility, pregnancy or babies. Escapism on the physical level would include engaging in activities like shopping, working longer hours, sleeping more than usual, engaging in activities that would occupy an individual to the extent that they cannot think about

An exploratory study of South African women’s experiences of In Vitro Fertilisation and Embryo Transfer (IVE-ET) at fertility clinics  [PDF]
Athena Pedro, Kelvin Mwaba
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.38063
Abstract: Infertility is considered to be a growing problem worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, at least 20%-50% of couples of reproductive age experience a fertility problem and 30% are diagnosed with infertility. This study explores the experiences of women in South Africa who are involuntary childless and explores their psychological and emotional experiences of In Vitro Fertilisation and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET). Utilising a qualitative methodology, a diverse group of 21 married women diagnosed with infertility and who had undergone at least two cycles of IVF-ET were recruited. Semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women perceived themselves as not conforming to a dominant belief system and as a result felt compelled to explore all the medical options available. They reported emotional turmoil characterised by primary binary emotions of anxiety-excitement and nervousness-optimistic. These emotions were experienced throughout the five stages of the IVF-ET treatment cycles. A synopsis of the psychological and emotional responses to the IVF-ET treatment is discussed. The findings of this study suggest the need for the incorporation of a mandatory psychosocial intervention as part of infertility management. Greater attention to the psychological and emotional repercussions of infertility treatment could lead to a more personalised client-approach which, in turn, would prepare infertile women and couples for the emotional demands of the treatment.
A Qualitative Exploration of South African Women’s Psychological and Emotional Experiences of Infertility  [PDF]
Athena Pedro, Michelle Andipatin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.45040
Abstract:

Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Africa, the study of reproductive health in Africa, has for the most part, not addressed the impact of involuntary childlessness on women. In contrast, the health priority has been on fertility regulation rather than on infertility. In Sub-Saharan Africa, at least 20% - 50% of couples of reproductive age experience a fertility problem and 30% are diagnosed with infertility. This study explored a sample of South Africa women’s psychological and emotional experiences of infertility or involuntary childlessness. Utilising a qualitative methodology, 21 married women who were diagnosed with infertility were recruited. Semi-structured, indepth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women reported emotional turmoil characterised by emotions such as disappointment and shock, anger and frustration, a deep sense of sadness and then progressed to experience a sense of acknowledgement that a problem existed. Within each of these emotional phases the emotions of hope and optimism were present. The findings of this study suggest that severe psychological and emotional tug-of-war effects accompany infertility. Possible coping strategies for women struggling with infertility are discussed.

Survey on Public Key Cryptography Scheme for Securing Data in Cloud Computing  [PDF]
J. Athena, V. Sumathy
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2017.83005
Abstract: Numerous advancements in the Information Technology (IT) require the proper security policy for the data storage and transfer among the cloud. With the increase in size of the data, the time required to handle the huge-size data is more. An assurance of security in cloud computing suffers various issues. The evolution of cryptographic approaches addresses these limitations and provides the solution to the data preserving. There are two issues in security assurance such as geographical distribution and the multi-tenancy of the cloud server. This paper surveys about the various cryptographic techniques with their key sizes, time required for key/signature generation and verification constraints. The survey discusses the architecture for secure data transmissions among the devices, challenges raised during the transmission and attacks. This paper presents the brief review of major cryptographic techniques such as Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA), Dffie Hellman and the Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) associated key sizes. This paper investigates the general impact of digital signature generation techniques on cloud security with the advantages and disadvantages. The results and discussion section existing in this paper investigate the time consumption for key/signature generation and verification with the key size variations effectively. The initialization of random prime numbers and the key computation based on the points on the elliptic curve assures the high-security compared to the existing schemes with the minimum time consumption and sizes in cloud-based applications.
Chromaticism: A theoretical construction or a practical transformation?
Katsanevaki Athena
Muzikologija , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/muz1111159k
Abstract: Chromaticism is a phenomenon which is shared by different musical cultures. In the Balkans it is evident both in ecclesiastical and traditional music. In antiquity it was attested by ancient Greek writers and was described in theory. It is also apparent in different forms in ancient Greek musical fragments. Nevertheless it is disputed whether it represents a theoretical form (genus) or reflects a musical practice and its formation. Apart from any theoretical analysis of ancient Greek testimony, ethnomusicology can contribute to an explanation by classification and interpretation of various forms in which chromaticism is found in the Balkans. In Northwestern Greece many different forms can offer us various melodic paths that, if followed by vocal or instrumental musical practice, result in special chromatic melodic movements. Such movements reveal the genesis of tense chromatic and actually reveal some implications about the differences between the two chromatic shades (tense and soft) in traditional and ecclesiastical music.
PENGARUH MEDAN LISTRIK DAN MEDAN MAGNET (MM) TERHADAP FUNGSI JANTUNG DAN PEMBULUH DARAH PEKERJA OPERASIONAL PEMELIHARAAN GARDU INDUK TEGANGAN EKSTRA TINGGI PENYALURAN DAN PUSAT PENGATURAN BEBAN (P3B) JAWA-BALI
Athena Athena,Hendro M.,Freddy K.
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: A research regarding the effects of electric field (EF) and magnetic field (MF) over the personnel heart function of the Operation and Maintenance of the Extra High Voltage Substation and its Network, the Central Electric Operation and Distribution in Jawa - Bali managed by PT PLN (Persero) has been done. This study is part of a research with the broader aspect performing by checking the personnel health problem in general. The research design was a cross sectional study by comparing groups of the exposed workers to electric and magnetic fields, and the non-exposed workers. Each group consists of 166 samples. The exposed workers were operators in operation and maintenance field, non-strained and strained maintenance workers, whereas the non-exposed workers were administration personnel. Data was collected by performing physical health and laboratory examinations, interviews and measuring the strength of EF and MF in the working areas. The ECG examination showed that 9.8 % out of them sujforing heart dis-function (7.4% ischemic disfunction and 2.4 % impulse dis-function). The exposed workers did have the higher percentage in impulse dis-function, which may caused by electric and magnetic field exposure from the extra high voltage substation electric network, since the heart impulse relates to electrical system in human body, even though the result of its statistical test was not significant enough (p>0. 05). Furthermore, field measurement result showed that the highest strength of electric and magnetic field of the extra high voltage substation was 34.67 kV/m (electric field) and 56.0 μT (magnetic field). The levels of EF at some points in the extra high voltage substation (switchyard) were exceeded the limit recommended by both The Ministry of Health Regulation 261/1998 regarding The Health Condition of Working Environment and The National Standard of Indonesia 04-0659-2003 regarding the Limit of EF and MF of SUTT/SUTET, however the levels of magnetic field still lower than that of requirement enacted by the both regulations. Keywords: electric field, magnetic field, function of heart.
KANDUNGAN LOGAM BERAT (Hg, Cd, dan Pb) DALAM AIR TANAH PADA PERUMAHAN TIPE KECIL DI JABOTABEK
Athena Athena,A. Tri Tugaswati,Sukar Sukar
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: A survey of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) in drinking water at small and very small houses was conducted in Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi (Jabotabek), in 1992. The purpose of this study was to get information about water quality and environmental condition of water sources at low cost housing and very low cost housing in Jabotabek. Forty to sixty water samples were taken from each location and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mercury concentration was analyzed using Cold Vapor Technique, whereas Cd and Pb were analized using The Air-acetylene method. Water samples were collected in dry season and rainy season. Interview of the owners of the house and of environmental observation of the water sources were done to get information about the condition of drinking water sources. The highest concentration of mercury detected in Jakarta was in the rainy season (2.50 mg/l). Cadmium and Lead were detected in Bogor, (Cd: 0.26 mg/l) in the rainy season and Pb : 0.16 mg/l in dry season). However 41.5% water samples from Jakarta were exceeding the mercury concentration standard, 25.4% water samples from Bogor were exceeding cadmium concentration standard, and 41.1% water samples from Bogor were exceeding lead concentration standard Heavy metals concentration in drinking water at Bekasi and Tangerang were relatively lower than Bogor and Jakarta. The environmental condition of shallow wells in Bekasi and Tangerang were also better than Bogor and Jakarta.
KANDUNGAN BAKTERI TOTAL Coli DAN Escherechia coli / FECAL Coli AIR MINUM DARI DEPOT AIR MINUM ISI ULANG DI JAKARTA, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI
Athena Athena,Sukar Sukar,Haryono Haryono
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: A study on drinking water quality produced by drinking water refill depots (AMIU) was done in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bekasi. Analysis unit of the study was drinking water refill depots with the sample number of 38 depots. For every selected depot, laboratory analysis were done for natural water (clean water) and drinking water produced by the depots. The total number of sample were 76 water samples. One of the parameters analyzed was microbiological contents, namey total coli bacterial count and Escherechia coli / fecal coli. For collecting information about the sources and storage of natural waters, drinking water treatment processes, treatment equipment, and so on, the depots operators and drinking water refill association personnel were interviewed as well as the water treatment equipment distributors. Based on the interview, it can be stated that the main principles of the water treatment processes from natural water to become drinking water in the AMIU depots were only filtration and disinfections processes. Natural water sources mostly was mountain spring water (89.5%), originated from Bogor (60.5%). and Sukabumi (26.3%). According to the results of laboratory analysis, it can be stated that the percentages of the natural water samples which were not complying with the standards of total coli bacterial count was 31.6% and that of fecal coli was 28.9%. Whereas for drinking water produced by the depots, the percentages of water samples which were not complying with the total coli bacterial count and fecal coli standards were 28.9% and 18.4% respectively. Additionally, the drinking water treatment processes were not sufficient for natural water with the high contents (around 1.600 MPN/100 ml) of total coli and fecal coli bacterial.
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