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Source of contaminant microorganisms in in vitro culture at Sub lab. Biology, Central Laboratory of Mathematics and Sciences, Sebelas Maret University
Biodiversitas , 2001,
Abstract: The objectives of the research were to know the species and the most dominant microorganisms that become a source of contamination in in vitro culture at Sub lab Biology, central laboratory of Sebelas Maret University. As in many general laboratory, there were many microorganisms that able to contaminate in vitro culture coming from air, dusts, or from the contaminated experimental materials such as plants or fruits. A qualitative descriptive method was used in the research, involving many steps of making pure culture and identification of microorganisms macroscopically or microscopically. In the research found six microorganisms potentially contaminate in vitro culture, that are generally from groups of fungi (mold), such as Mucor, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Dictyostelium and Saccharomyces. Mucor and Rhizopus were the most contaminants present in all contaminated in vitro culture.
Richness of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton in Water Streams at Jobolarangan Forest
Biodiversitas , 2001,
Abstract: Plankton is components of aquatic ecosystem. Phytoplankton play as primary producers, zooplankton play an important role in the higher order in the transfer of energy primary producers, the alga, to the higher order consumers such as aquatic insects, larval fish, and some adult fish. Streams of Jobolarangan forest may show phytoplankton and zooplankton that unique. The objectives of this research were to know diversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton and to determined their density. Plankton were sampled using 25-30 m mesh net, in three location of streams, i.e.: Parkiran (1773 m asl.), Mrutu (1875 m asl.), and Air Terjun (1600 m asl.). Samples were examined under light microscope for identification, and determined their density/L. Richness of phytoplankton in streams at Jobolarangan forest composed by family of Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae (Algae), and Bacillariophyceae. Zooplanktons that were found order of rotifer, cladoceras, and copepods. Allochtonous productivity, low nutrient level, low light level, and flowing water condition caused density of plankton/L in stream at Jobolarangan was low, i.e. 0,064 to 0,232.
Pertumbuhan, Kandungan Protein, dan Sianida Jamur Kuping (Auricularia polytricha) pada Medium Tumbuh Serbuk Gergaji dan Ampas Tapioka dengan Penambahan Pupuk Urea
Bioteknologi , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this research were to study growth and protein also cyanidemushroom Auricularia polytricha in medium sawdust and tapioca solid waste with urea fertilizer added. The research had done using the completely randomized design (RAL) with 2 variables. The first variable was various urea fertilizers with 4 rates of concentration (0 g; 2 g; 4 g; 8 g and 10 g). The second variable was various mixed sawdust and tapioca solid waste with 3 rates concentration i.e. medium without tapioca solid waste, mixed sawdust and tapioca solid waste 3.5: 1.5, mixed sawdust and tapioca solid waste 3.0: 1.0. Basidiocarp on mushroom wet weight, dry weight, percentage of water, protein and cyanide was measured and then data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with 5% of confidence level. The use of mixed medium of sawdust and tapioca solid waste of 3: 1 with increasing urea concentration have no effect increasing growth of basidiocarp wet weight, dry weight, percentage of water and protein content of basidiocarp. On the other hand, the mixed consisting of sawdust and tapioca solid waste of 3: 1 with concentrations of 4 g and 8 g of urea have resulted in the content of cyanide.
Relics habitat of mangrove vegetation in south coast of Java
Biodiversitas , 2002,
Abstract: Mangrove vegetation is one of the most richness ecosystems in tropical forest. It has high value economically and ecologically. Mangrove product can be used directly as timber, firewood, charcoal, tannin, dyes, food, medicine, raw material of industries, etc. It also can be used indirectly as fisheries, wastes processing, seashore protection, ecoturisms, educations, etc. In the past time, river estuaries in south coast of Java was mangrove habitat. However, anthropogenic activities had been reduced mangrove vegetation into relix habitat. The aim of the research was to know (1) sites of mangrove vegetation in river estuaries in south coast of Java, (2) diversity of mangrove vegetation, (3) density of Sonneratia alba J.E. Smith, and (4) physical and chemical properties of these sites. The research was conducted in March-April 2002, at 20 river estuaries from Pacitan until Cilacap, south coast of Java. The results indicated that mangrove remnant could be met in 10 river estuaries, namely Grindulu, Teleng, Bogowonto, Cakrayasan, Lukulo, Cincingguling, Ijo, Bengawan, Serayu, and Jeruk Legi-Donan. There were 29 mangrove species in estuaries, consist of major components (9 sp.), minor components (2 sp.), and mangrove associated (18 sp.). The density of Sonneratia alba J.E. Smith varied from 0 till > 250 individual per hectare. The soil sediment could be grouped into sand, silt, and clay, where silt and clay could support mangrove growth finely. The average of environmental parameters as follows: temperature of water and sediment respectively were 32.0oC and 31.4oC, pH of water and sediment respectively were 7.29 and 6.96, total dissolved solid of water was ~ 2000 ppm, dissolved oxygen of water was 9.29 ppm, and water salinity was 16 ppt.
Fermentasi Tepung Ganyong (Canna edulis Ker.) untuk Produksi Etanol oleh Aspergillus niger dan Zymomonas mobilis
Bioteknologi , 2004,
Abstract: The aims of this research were to know the concentration of arrowroot flour which produced the highest reducing sugar in saccharification process by A. niger, as well as to know the efficiency of ethanol production by Z. mobilis. The framework of this research was the increasing needs of ethanol; meanwhile ethanol could be obtained from the fermentation arrowroot. This research was carried out in two stages. In the saccharification stage, there are four concentrations, namely: 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, and A. niger concentration of 10% (v/v) for each arrowroot flour concentration with spores amount 3,3x106/mL. The parametric measurement includes: starch concentration in the starting day and the sixth day, while the reducing sugar concentration and pH was measured every 24 hours during 6 days. In the ethanol fermentation, Z. mobilis concentration have been used 10% (v/v) with cells amount 5,1x107/mL and it was used in solution product of arrowroot starch saccharification and parametric measurement carried out during 72 hours includes: ethanol and reducing sugar concentration and the growth of Z. mobilis cells. The data resulted from parametric measurement. The result of the research showed that arrowroot flour concentration of 10% produced the highest reducing sugar in process of saccharification with reducing sugar concentration was 1,230 g/100 mL in four days and the efficiency of ethanol production by Z. mobilis during 72 hours was 83,03%.
Pembuatan Minuman Probiotik dari Susu Kedelai dengan Inokulum Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, dan Lactobacillus acidophilus
Bioteknologi , 2004,
Abstract: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kualitas hasil pembuatan minuman probiotiksusu kedelai berupa: jumlah sel bakteri viabel, kadar asam laktat, pH, kadar protein, kadar lemak, viskositas, serta uji organoleptik dengan menggunakan inokulum Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum dan Lactobacillus acidophilus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (i) minuman probiotik yang berisi L. casei konsentrasi 2% menghasilkan jumlah sel bakteri viabel (4,423×109 cfu/mL), asam laktat (1,53%), protein (5,359%), lemak (1,4675%), dan viskositas (92,833 mPa.s) tertinggi serta pH (3,9367) terendah pada konsentrasi 2%. Minuman probiotik yang berisi L. acidophilus menghasilkan jumlah sel bakteri viabel (7,467×109 cfu/mL), asam laktat (1,32%), protein (4,367%), lemak (1,2555%) tertinggi dan pH (3,6567) terendah pada konsentrasi 2%, sedangkan untuk ketiga konsentrasi (1%, 2%, 3%) mempunyai viskositas sama yaitu berturut-turut (29,224 mPa.s; 34,741 mPa.s; 32,113 mPa.s); (ii) minuman probiotik yang berisi L. plantarum menghasilkan jumlah sel bakteri viabel (3,040×109 cfu/mL), asam laktat (1,50%), protein (4,775%), lemak (0,4285%) lebih tinggi serta pH (3,4967) lebih rendah pada konsentrasi 3%, sedangkan nilai viskositas sama untuk ketiga konsentrasi yaitu (65,790 mPa.s; 67,155 mPa.s; 68,300 mPa.s), (iii) uji organoleptik keasaman, rasa dan bau menunjukkan bahwa penerimaan panelis/ tingkat kesukaan terhadap minuman probiotik yang dihasilkan dalam skala biasa.
Fermentasi Etanol dari Limbah Padat Tapioka (Onggok) oleh Aspergillus niger dan Zymomonas mobilis
Bioteknologi , 2004,
Abstract: The aims of this research were to know the best concentration of onggokflour to produce maximum reduction sugar concentration by Aspergillus niger and efficiency of ethanol production from reduction sugar as the product of onggok flour saccharification by Zymomonas mobilis, and the ethanol concentration which produced. The framework of this research was cassava starch in onggok can be used as substance which yielded ethanol by fermentation. The ethanol yielded serves as an alternative substitution fuel for fossil fuel. This research was done in two stages; they were saccharification by A. niger and ethanol fermentation by Z. mobilis. At saccharification stage there were four level of onggok flour concentration:10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The inoculum concentration of A. niger 10% (v/v) and the amount of spore about 3.3x106 spore/mL, was inoculated each concentration of onggok flour, with the temperature of incubation 500C and this process taken five days. Parameters have been used were starch concentration before and after saccharification process, reduction sugar concentration, and pH conducted by each, every 24 hours. Stage of ethanol fermentation used concentration of Z. mobilis 10% (v/v), with the cell amount 5.1x10 7 cell/mL. Reduction sugar concentration from saccharification product that used 1.9352% and fermentation was done in 72 hours. Parameters were concentration of ethanol and reduction sugar each, every 24 hours and the growth of Z. mobilis cell every 24 hours. This research concluded that concentration of onggok flour 10% produced maximum reduction sugar concentration on the third day that was 1.1842%. Ethanol concentration yielded was 0.7% (v/v) and efficiency of ethanol that was produced from reduction sugar from saccharification of onggok flour was 83% during 72 hours fermentation.
Potential Pseudomonas Isolated from Soybean Rhizosphere as Biocontrol against Soilborne Phytopathogenic Fungi
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Plants are liable to be attacked by soilborne fungal pathogens which are responsible to reduce plant growth and losses in yield. In Indonesia, indigenous soybeans’ rhizobacteria such as antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. have not many been reported yet. Therefore, the potential of the Pseudomonas sp. as biocontrol agent should be deeply explored. The aim of this study was to screen the indigenous soybeans’ rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that possessing biocontrol characters against soilborne mainly i.e. Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani, in vitro and in planta. Eleven isolates identified Pseudomonas sp. CRB numbered by CRB-3, CRB-16, CRB-17, CRB-31, CRB-44, CRB-75, CRB-80, CRB-86, CRB-102, CRB-109, and CRB-112 were affirmed to be candidates of biocontrol agents toward the soilborne fungal pathogens. Pseudomonas sp. CRB inhibited growth of the pathogenic fungi approximately 11.1-60.0% in vitro. Among of them, 7 isolates were also produced siderophore, 2 isolates produced chitinase, and 4 isolates produced hydrogen cyanide. Seed coating with the Pseudomonas sp. CRB accomplished disease suppression in planta about 14.3-100% in sterile soil condition and 5.2-52.6% in non sterile soil condition. Consistency in high performance more than 30% of disease suppression in non sterile soil condition suggested that 5 isolates i.e. CRB-16, CRB-44, CRB-86, CRB-102, and CRB-109 isolates have great promising to be developed as biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogenic fungi.
Susilowati Herman
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Among of the micronutrient defficiency, zinc deficiency do not get proper priorities yet or neglegted. This situation is due to the relatively limited availability of data related to zinc defficiency, and broader of functional consequencies of zinc defficiency. In developed countries, studies on zinc defficiency has started almost since half century ago, however in Indonesia this study started since 20-30 years ago. This paper review the problem of zinc defficiency, effort to prevent and its prospect. Zinc has many functions in the body, involves in more than 300 enzyme, so the manifestation of zinc defficiency also varied and sometimes not specific. The parameter for determination of zinc status of the body also varied, so comparing the prevalence of zinc defficiency from different study should be more careful, because there is no consecus on the parameter yet. The prevalence of zinc defficiency ranges from 10% - 90%: the different parameter used in each study affecting the prevalence. Diet of middle low community usually plant based diet, which poor zinc content and high content of inhibitor for zinc absorbtion. On the other hand high prevalence of diarrhea also affect the losses of zinc. Consumption of red meat which rich in zinc usually also low in the middle low community. The possible and feasible program for preventing zinc defficiency are: food supplementation, fortification, biofortification, zinc firtilization in the agronomic, and nutrition education. Key words: stunting, micronutrient, zinc defficiency, growth retardation Kata kunci: Stunting, Zat Gizi Mikrn, Defisiensi Seng, Pendek, Retardasi Pertumbuhan,
Susilowati Herman
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Indonesia pernah tercatat karena keberhasilannya mengatasi masalah xerophtalmia sehingga tidak lagi menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat, meskipun masalah kurang vitamin A tingkat sub klinis (serum vitamin A < 20 μg/dl) pada anak Balita masih 50%. Sejak krisis ekonomi tahun 1997, diperkirakan masalah KVA meningkat lagi, ditandai dengan diketemukannya kasus-kasus xerophtalmia di beberapa daerah dan bahkan xerophtalmia pada wanita usia subur (WUS). Apakah pada era otonomi dan desentralisasi, masalah KVA akan semakin cepat dapat diatasi sesuai dengan kemampuan daerah? Makalah ini mengkaji masalah KVA dan prospek penanggulangannya. Kata kunci: kurang vitamin A, penanggulangan, xerophtalmia
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