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Comparing the effects of conventional and hypofractionated radiotherapies on early skin toxicity and cosmetic outcomes after breast cancer conserving surgery
F Amouzegar Hashemi,B Kalaghchi,AR Sebzari,P Haddad
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The high number of breast cancer patients who receive radiation therapy after surgery has caused many to think about a shorter period of radiotherapy, which can significantly reduce the radiotherapy machine time, labor hours, and fewer patient visits. This study was designed to evaluate the acute skin effects and cosmetic outcomes of short course radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer in comparison with the conventional treatment method.Methods: Fifty-two patients with operable breast cancer (pT1-3pN0M0) who underwent breast conservation surgery in Tehran Cancer Institute during January 2011 to January 2012, were randomly assigned to undergo radiotherapy by either receiving conventional treatment (dose: 50 Gy in 25 fractions) with subsequent electron boost or a short-course hypofractionated radiotherapy (dose: 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions) and a subsequent electron boost.Results: There were no skin changes during the first or the second week of treatment in the two groups. Cutaneous complications began after the third week as grade 1 skin toxicity after termination of the short-course radiotherapy but there were no difference in complication rate after four weeks of treatment. Six months and one year after treatment, there were no differences in terms of skin complications or cosmetic outcomes between the two groups.Conclusion: Although the use of a whole-breast irradiation with a hypofractionated schedule was associated with desirable outcomes, in term of skin toxicity and cosmetics, but longer follow-up periods with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these results.
Seizure precipitated during long haul flight
AR Devkota,AR Karki
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v32i3.4962
Abstract: We report three diagnosed cases of epilepsy under medication that were on long haul flight from Kathmandu to different destinations in USA with different clinical outcomes during flight. The first case had brief seizure like episode during flight and was given oral benzodiazepine. The second case was put on prophylactic oral benzodiazepine to induce sleep and reduce seizure threshold and had an uneventful flight. The third case developed generalized tonic clonic seizure and was managed accordingly. Key words: Epilepsy; long haul flight; seizure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/joim.v32i3.4962 Journal of Institute of Medicine , December, 2010; 32:3 59-61
Economic Analysis of Biodiesel and Glycerol Carbonate Production Plant by Glycerolysis  [PDF]
Nghi Nguyen, Ya?ar Demirel
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.33029
Abstract: Techno-economic analysis of an indirect use of carbon dioxide within the route of glycerolysis of glycerol with urea is investigated. The results show that the net present value of the biodiesel-glycerol carbonate production by glycerolysis is higher than the biodiesel-glycerol carbonate production by direct carboxylationat at the end of the 12-year operation with similar capacities. The stochastic model has predicted that using glycerolysis route for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate production might increase the probability of getting positive net present value by about 15%.
Crisis and Social Security in Spain  [PDF]
Arántzazu Vicente-Palacio
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.64024
Abstract: This paper outlines the latest reforms introduced into the Social Security System’s protective actions in order to deduce whether such intense changes allow us to conclude that a Social Security crisis exists. This concept is understood from the perspective of the Social Security being capable, or not, of undertaking its historical mission. This work takes into account the legislative reforms made to Social Security, along with the changes that are taking place, in the form of providing services in the new post-capitalist society.
La possibilité d'éviter des ovipositions irrégulières grace au nanisme lié au sexe
AR Kuit
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1971, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-3-3-383a
Abstract:
A comédia no romantismo brasileiro: Martins Pena e Joaquim Manuel de Macedo
Arêas, Vilma;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002006000300010
Abstract: the article analyses the comedy produced during brazilian romanticist period taking the work of martins pena and joaquim manuel de macedo as a guideline. it states that pena, taking advantage of other genres, founded comedy of manners in brazil, whereas macedo is understood against the framework of the transformations of dramatic language. comedy is analyzed here in relation to its instability of form and the tension between european ideals and brazilian political environment.
Mademoiselle e o desejo: (conversando com Luiz Dantas)
Arêas, Vilma;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002012000100008
Abstract: a literary anlysis of mário de andrade's short story "atrás da catedral de ru?o", its parallels with the modernist brazilian writer's novel amar, verbo intransitivo and the themes of passion, desire and repression.
Profits and social performance of small-scale fishing in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil)
Carvalho, AR.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842008000100012
Abstract: small scale fishing profits in two communities in the upper paraná river floodplain (porto rico - pri and porto s?o josé - psj villages) are assessed based on interviews carried out with professional fishermen. there is a high illiteracy level in both pri (50%) and psj (44.5%). the main contributions to income are "vessel costs" and "fish consumption" by the family. specific tackle (such as cevadeira) and gear used for fishing close to dams make the gear costs higher at psj, emphasising the heterogeneity of the activity. the majority of fishermen in both villages have income complementation activities associated with tourism, because floodplain fishing is not a profitable occupation with any poverty alleviation capacity. since the ecosystem is seriously disrupted, nowadays fishers are vulnerable to high oscillations in costs and income due to uncertainty in catches aggravated by flood control of the dams.
An ecological economics approach to estimate the value of a fragmented wetland in Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul state)
Carvalho, AR.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842007000400011
Abstract: the upper paraná river floodplain is the last lotic stretch of an ecosystem seriously threatened given that circa 50% of the original ecosystem has been converted into reservoirs. to assess the recreational value of the upper paraná river floodplain, 174 tourists were interviewed using the willingness to pay - wtp and travel cost - tc methods. the annual aggregated wtp attributed by tourists was us$ 122.50 million and the variables which determine the decision in willingness to pay for the floodplain are: 'consider oneself as a floodplain natural resources consumer' and 'marital state'. if the single person considers her/himself as a consumer of floodplain natural resources, the wtp increases by a multiplicative factor of 38.8. the value aggregated by the tc method was us$ 234 millions and decreased by zone as the distance increases. higher income and traveling farther increases the travel cost, which is inversely related to annual trip frequency. the total recreational value (356.5 millions per year) is high and representative since it refers to an environment fragmented by dams and with many anthropogenic effects. therefore, the progressive changes on the landscape are a threat to local tourism, since half of the visitors are attracted solely by the scenic beauty, thereby overtaking those factors considered more important by public decision makers and managers, such as recreational fishery or boating.
’n Narratiewe benadering tot die pastoraat: Kritiese opmerkings na aanleiding van die huidige teologiese debat
AR Brunsdon
Acta Theologica , 2010,
Abstract: Theology in the South African context finds itself in turmoil. At the heart of this theological storm lies the diversity among theologians about how the Word of God should be proclaimed in the postmodern era, as postmodernism poses a challenge to all sciences to re-formulate their claims. So far, the pastorate has met this challenge by making use of the so-called narrative approach to therapy. Specific attention to the narrative approach shows that it operates from a postmodernist epistemology where truth becomes relational and socially constructed. The critical question stemming from this, however, is whether pastoral theology can make use of the narrative approach and still claim theological validity. Pastoral theologians are heeded to proceed with caution during this period of theological turmoil to avoid the pitfalls of either fundamentalism or liberalism.
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