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Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future
Sabri,B; Siddiqi,S; Ahmed,AM; Kakar,FK; Perrot,J;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000900017
Abstract: disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (ngos) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. recently the afghan government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (bphs) supported by funds from three major donors - the world bank, the united states agency for international development (usaid) and the european commission. with the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. should contracting with ngos be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, obtaining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger ngos or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. sustainable delivery of health services in afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services.
The In-Terrorem Value of Science: Bisphenol-A Litigation and an Empirical Assessment of Science as a Collective Litigation Tool  [PDF]
Suman Kakar, Sanjeev Sirpal
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.22006
Abstract: This paper examines the role that science plays as a tool in collective litigation to substantiate claims. Scientific data and expert testimony are often included to buttress a claim and the admissibility of such evidence is often a conse-quence of the extant evidentiary rules and their application. The article will focus on the multidistrict litigation con-cerning Bisphenol-A (“BPA”) as a case study of the phenomena of scientific tailoring of evidence and its admissibility. BPA is a compound included in the synthesis of plastics and is found in food containers, plastic bottles, and ep-oxy-based coatings used to avert the rusting process of food containers. There is a negligible amount of BPA in several food and beverage products. Several countries along with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environ-mental Protection Agency (EPA) have marshaled scientific studies that demonstrate the lack of any definable negative health effect attributable to an exposure to trace amounts of BPA. Notwithstanding the conclusions of these scientific inquiries, opponents have asserted that BPA exposure results in an alteration of embryonic hormone levels, thereby impacting their development and later reproductive function. This article will address these issues in addition to the salient question of what role science plays as a tool for collective litigation.
Status of Community Resilience in Disaster Prone Districts of Baluchistan, Pakistan  [PDF]
? Nasrullah, Syed Ainuddin, Khair Muhammad Kakar
Open Journal of Earthquake Research (OJER) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2015.44012
Abstract: Resilience to natural hazards and disasters is inevitable when linked with community. Social resilience is the key to achieve risk reduction measures at the local levels. The objective of the paper is to assess the community resilience of the three disaster prone districts in Balochistan. A sample of 399 households was selected using stratified sampling with proportional allocation method. Four components of community resilience were assessed. The results reveal that in all components of resilience district Ziarat was more resilient compared with other two districts followed by district Jaffarabad and Nushki. The article recommends that certain initiatives may be take in the other districts also to enhance the community resilience to different disasters particularly by conducting awareness complains, diversification of income sources, and physical structure to various natural hazards.
Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan
Mehmood khan kakar,M. Ali kakar
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2011,
Abstract: The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances) in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution) were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.
Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan
Zaheer Khan KAKAR
Romanian Journal of Fiscal Policy , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: 118 cases of acute pyogenic meningitis were admitted in the department of Paediatrics LiaquatMedical College, Hospitals Jamshoro/ Hyderabad in one year period with prevalence of 1.57% of the total admissions.After selecting the cases on clinical ground we proceeded further to confirm the diagnosis by cerebrospinal fluidcytochemical analysis, gram staining,, culture and sensitivity and detection of the antigen of micro-organism by latexagglutination test.
Unusual cause of weight loss in a patient with HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfection
Gogia A,Kakar A
Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 2010,
Abstract: Recombinant interferon α (IFN α), alone or in combination, is used extensively in the treatment of hepatitis C infection. IFN therapy is not free of side-effects and autoimmune thyroiditis is one of its rare side-effects. We present here a case of a patient with hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on interferon therapy who presented with significant weight loss. He was found to have IFN-related autoimmune thyrotoxicosis and responded to antithyroid drugs and propanolol. Therefore, this case highlights that IFN-induced thyroiditis is an unusual side-effect and that during treatment, a thyroid-stimulating hormone assay should be performed at regular intervals (every 8-12 weeks).
Applicability of Four Parameter Viscoelastic Model for Longitudinal Wave Propagation in Non-Homogeneous Rods
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study is concerned to check the validity of a four parameter viscoelastic model for longitudinal wave propagating in the non-homogeneous viscoelastic rods of varying density. The rods are assumed to be initially unstressed and at rest. In this study, it is assumed that density ' ' , rigidity 'G' and viscosity ' ' of thespecimen i.e. rod are space dependent and obey the laws 2 1 0 e x , 2 2 0 G G e x and 2 3 0 e x . The method of non-linear partial differential equation (Eikonal equation) has been used for finding the dispersion equation of longitudinal waves in rods. A method for treating reflection at the free end of the finite nonhomogeneous viscoelastic rod is also presented. All the three cases taken in this study are discussed graphically.
Varietal Dynamics of Yield Stability in Wheat
Khair Muhammad Kakar,Sanaullah,Zainullah Kakar,M. Ikramullah Shawani
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The present study was conducted on varietal dynamics of yield stability in wheat during November 1996. The results indicated that Variety Chenab-79 not only produced higher mean seed yield across the locations and the stable variety having 0.8 bi. Furthermore, a significant linear trend was found between the varieties yields environment mean yields of the stable varieties. The result showed that varieties Pirsabak-91, Pak-81 and Chenab-79 proved to be the stable cultivars while Sarhad-82 Koh-I-Noor-87 and Chenab-70 as unstable. The three un-stable varieties were very sensitive to changes in the environment resulting in great variation in yield. It was concluded that these varieties yielded low in some locations but with the improvement in environment provided higher yields.
Studies on Varietal Screening of Maize Against Maize Stem Borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)
Arif Shah Kakar,Khair Muhammad Kakar,Muhammad Tariq Khan
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The present study was conducted on four varieties of maize i.e. Local, Sadaf, Sultan and Akbar for resistance against maize stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) during Kharif 2001. Significant differences were found among genotypes regarding percent infestation, dead hearts, weight of stalks and grains. Sultan was proved to be the most tolerant variety with 8.1% infested plants, 6.46% dead hearts, 51.99 kg stalks and 23 kg grain weight plot-1 followed by Akbar 10.5% infested plants, 48.63% dead hearts 51.09 kg stalks and 22.40 kg grain weight plot-1. Sadaf variety having 11.2% infested plants, 10.63% dead hearts, 49.63 kg stalks and 21.20 kg grain weight plot-1. The results further showed that Local was least tolerant variety with 17.0% infested plants, 12.13% dead hearts, 24.83 kg stalks and 3.2 kg grain weight plot-1.
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