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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4618 matches for " AM fungi "
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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure in Soybean Roots: Comparison between Kanagawa and Hokkaido, Japan  [PDF]
Katsunori Isobe, Kohei Maruyama, Singo Nagai, Masao Higo, Tomiya Maekawa, Gaku Mizonobe, Rhae A. Drijber, Ryuichi Ishii
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2011.11003
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) community structure in colonized roots of soybean cultivated from Kanagawa and Hokkaido in Japan and to relate the community structure to environmental conditions, which included soil type, preceding crops, and soil chemical properties. The average number of AMF OTU (operational taxonomic unit) colonizing soybean roots collected from Kanagawa and Hokkaido was 11.2 and 5.8, respectively, a significant difference. Moreover, AMF from the family Gigasporasera was not identified in soybean roots collected from Hokkaido, suggesting that AMF in the family Gigasporasea is absent or rare in the soybean fields of sampled in Hokkaido. We postulate that the soil type, preceding crops or soil chemical properties are not the underlying factor differentiating AMF community structure colonizing in soybean roots between Kanagawa and Hokkaido. Instead we conclude that temperature and phosphate absorption coefficient are the determining factors of AMF OTU in this study.
Distribution and Association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Different Cultivars of Wheat from Lalganj Pratapgarh District of Utter Pradesh, India  [PDF]
O. P. Dwivedi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.65034
Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are key components of soil micro-flora and obviously interact with other microorganisms in the rhizosphere which is the zone of influence of plant roots on microbial populations and other soil constituents. Keeping in view the importance of AM fungi, the present study was undertaken for assessing the AM fungal spore population dynamics in the rhizosphere soil and its colonization in rhizosphere soils in relation to soil physico-chemical factors. Present study represents an attempt to establish the qualitative and quantitative distribution of AM fungal species in rhizosphere soils of wheat. Thirteen different wheat cultivars collected from four different sites of Lalganj Pratapgarh (U.P.), India were examined for the AM infection. All the wheat cultivars were found to be infected with arbuscular mycorrhizae. However, their population in rhizosphere and root infection varied to a considerable extent from species to species. The maximum spore population and highest percentage of root colonization were found with the rhizosphere soil of cultivars Ankur Kedar.
Occurrence and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and microbial flora in the rhizosphere soils of mungbean [vigna radiata (L.) wilczek] and soybean [glycine max (L.) Merr.] from Adilabad, Nizamabad and Karimnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh state, India  [PDF]
Amballa Hindumathi, Bhumi N Reddy
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.24040
Abstract: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are key components of soil microbiota and obviously interact with other microorganisms in the rhizosphere which is the zone of influence of plant roots on microbial populations and other soil constituents. The microbial associates are more prone to general and annual fluctuations besides several abiotic factors such as environment and climatic factors which influence the whole process of AM - microbial interactions. Keeping in view, the importance of AM fungi the present study was undertaken for assessing the AM fungal spore population dynamics in the rhizosphere soil and its colonization, microbial (bacterial and fungal) population distribution in rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils as a function of seasonal variation in relation to soil physico-chemical factors associated with two legume crop plants collected from different districts of Andhra Pradesh state, India. AM fungal propagules and species were found to be well distributed varying in number from 12 to 89 spores per 10 gram soil in mungbean and 46 to 90 spores in soybean rhizosphere soils and percent root colonization in mungbean ranged from 36.74 to 90.68% however, in soybean it ranged from 23.58 to 76.92%. The 24 AM fungal species representing 4 genera were isolated, Glomus represented 12 spp. forming predominant genus. The Pearson Correlation coefficient data showed that the microbial population and AM fungal population and species, the degree of root colonization by native AM fungi varied significantly in two legume crop plants and influenced by soil edaphic factors. Significant negative correlation was recorded between root colonization and mean spore density of both the crops indicating that low levels of spore density are associated with high root colonization. The quantity and type of AM propagules also affected the dynamics of root colonization, which were also increased by increase in age of the crop plant.
Potential of AM Fungi in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals and Effect on Yield of Wheat Crop  [PDF]
Asif Khan, Muhammad Sharif, Amjad Ali, Syed Noor Muhammad Shah, Ishaq Ahmad Mian, Fazli Wahid, Bismillah Jan, Muhammad Adnan, Shah Nawaz, Nisar Ali
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511171

A pot experiment was conducted to determine the potential of AM fungi in phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on yield of wheat crop. The experiment was conducted in CR Design with four replications during rabi 2012-13. Data showed no increase in grain and shoot yields by AMF inoculation with Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn at different levels but increased root yield, plant height, spike length and hundred grains weight of wheat as compared with uninoculated crop. Post-harvest soil Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn contents of 2, 4.4, 2.8 and 2.9 mg·kg-1, respectively were maximum in uninoculated plants treated with Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn at triple of recommended level. No increases in plant P, N, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn uptakes were observed by the inoculation of AMF when compared with uninoculated crop. Maximum plant Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn uptakes of 160.5, 206, 1914.6 and 2653 g·ha-1, respectively were recorded in uninoculated plants applied with Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn at triple of recommended levels. Wheat roots infection intensity by AMF increased with higher AMF soil spores density. Results suggest the potential of phytoremediation of contaminated soil to be improved by the inoculation of crops with AMF.

Role of mycorrhiza to reduce heavy metal stress  [PDF]
Syeda Asma Bano, Darima Ashfaq
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.512A003

Plants have a system of antioxidant enzymes, which helps to alleviate the effects of various types of stresses. Heavy metals like Cadmium and lead are tolerable for plants to certain extent. The antioxidant enzymes do not function properly at higher concentrations of Cadmium, lead and some other heavy metals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes are reduced due to reactive oxygen species produced as a result of heavy metal stress. The catalase activity was directly inhibited by O2- (Kono and Fridovich, 1982). These ROS are O2-, H2O2, and -OH which can react with many other biomolecules. Several metallic ions are produced by radical displacement reactions. These metallic ions inhibit the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Hence, enzymic antioxidant defense system of plants is affected and adversely inhibits plant growth and productivity. Mycorrhizal fungi are important in phytostabilization of toxic heavy metals. Plants having mycorrhizal association accumulate metallic pollutants by storing these heavy metals in Vesicles as well as in fungal hyphae in their roots, hence these metallic pollutants are immobilized and do not inhibit the growth and uptake of phosphorus and some other micronutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi also release various organic acids which increase the solubilisation of insoluble phosphate compounds present in soil. The unavailable forms of phosphorus are converted into available forms as a result of organic acids produced by fungi. AM fungi release glomalins that are certain metal sorble glycoproteins which increase the immobilization of toxic metals. Another protein is metallothionine released by certain AM fungi, which also reduces the heavy metal toxicity in soil. Mycorrhizal fungi also induce resistance in plants against pathogens, drought and salinity stress. Investigation on heavy metal stress resistant genes in mycorrhizal plants can be very helpful for phytoremediation. This review focuses on the use of AM fungi for phytoremediation.

Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em rizosferas de plantas do litoral arenoso do Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, SP, Brasil: 2
Trufem, Sandra F. B.;Malatinszky, Sandra M. M.;Otomo, Helena S.;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33061994000200007
Abstract: from march/1988 to july/1990, in 14 opportunities, it was collected 410 soil samples of rhizospheres of native plants from sandy soils of ilha do cardoso, sp, brazil to investigate the occurrence of am fungi. the studied plants were: baccharis trimera dc., blutaparon portulacoides (st. hil.) mears, dalbergia hecastaphylla (l.) taub., hydrocotyle bonariensis lam., ipomoea pes-caprae (l.) swett and polygala cyparisseas st. hil. it was observed 24 species of am fungi. the results showed: a) a tendency to increase the number of spores in the soil with the increase of the temperature, rainfall and sunlight; b) different species of am fungi occurred in different species of hosts, suggesting ecological specificity of am fungi; c) it was observed higher abundance of spores of acaulospora, gigaspora and scutellospora over spores of glomus and sclerocystis. it was not observed relatonships between the number of spores in the soil, taxa of colonization of the roots and the fenology of hosts plants.
Distribution of AM fungi in the rhizosphere soils of betel vine
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Predicting infectivity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi from soil variables using Generalized Additive Models and Generalized Linear Models
Biodiversitas , 2010,
Abstract: Djuuna IAF, Abbott LK, Van Niel K (2010) Predicting infectivity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi from soil variables using Generalized Additive Models and Generalized Linear Models. Biodiversitas 11: 145-150. The objective of this study was to predict the infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi), from field soil based on soil properties and land use history using generalized additive models (GAMs) and generalized linear models (GLMs). A total of 291 soil samples from a farm in Western Australia near Wickepin were collected and used in this study. Nine soil properties, including elevation, pH, EC, total C, total N, P, K, microbial biomass carbon, and soil texture, and land use history of the farm were used as independent variables, while the percentage of root length colonized (%RLC) was used as the dependent variable. GAMs parameterized for the percent of root length colonized suggested skewed quadratic responses to soil pH and microbial biomass carbon; cubic responses to elevation and soil K; and linear responses to soil P, EC and total C. The strength of the relationship between percent root length colonized by AM fungi and environmental variables showed that only elevation, total C and microbial biomass carbon had strong relationships. In general, GAMs and GLMs models confirmed the strong relationship between infectivity of AM fungi (assessed in a glasshouse bioassay for soil collected in summer prior to the first rain of the season) and soil properties.
Saranya Kuppusamy and Kumutha K.
International Journal of Microbiology Research , 2012,
Abstract: With a prime motive to confirm the high quality of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) inoculum that is widely used as an important biofertilizer, an effort was taken to standardize the per cent colonized root bits that have to be present in an AM inoculum. Initial analysis on AM colonization for the effectivity of the AM inoculum revealed that 80 per cent to 100 per cent root colonization enhanced the growth performance of the host plant with better mycorrhizal responses which were assessed in terms of per cent root colonization and viable spore count of Glomus intraradices when the substrate vermiculite was amended with 10 per cent soil compared to vermiculite alone at 60 days. Thus, presence of > 80 per cent colonized root bits in AM inoculum was standardized as one of the quality control parameter of AM inoculum which can be adopted to certify a high quality AM product commercially.
Variability in growth, nutrition and phytochemical constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. as influenced by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Sevanan Rajeshkumar
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: A study was conducted under greenhouse nursery condition on the efficacy of seven indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the improvement of growth, biomass, nutrition and phytochemical constituents, namely total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins, in the roots and leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. Seedlings were raised in polythene bags containing soil inoculated with isolates of seven different indigenous AM fungi, viz. Acaulospora bireticulata, A. scrobiculata, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus aggregatum, G. mosseae, G. geosporum, and Scutellospora heterogama. P. amboinicus seedlings raised in the presence of AM fungi generally showed an increase in plant growth, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents over those grown in the absence of AM fungi. The extent of growth, biomass, nutritional status and phytochemical constituents enhanced by AM fungi varied with the species of AM fungi inhabiting the roots and leaves of P. amboinicus seedlings. Considering the various plant growth parameters, nutritional status of the plant, total phenols, ortho dihydroxy phenols, alkaloids , flavonoids , tannins, and saponins in the roots and leaves, it was observed that Gigaspora margarita is the best AM symbiont for P. amboinicus used in this experiment.
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