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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5596 matches for " ALVAREZ RAPHAEL "
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Distribui??o do sistema radicular da cana de a?úcar var. co. 290, em solo tipo terra-roxa-legítima
Inforzato, Romeu;Alvarez, Raphael;
Bragantia , 1957, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051957000100001
Abstract: observations were made on the development of sugar cane roots (var. co. 290) in red soil ("terra-roxa-legitima") at the usina tam?io, araraquara. root samples were taken from commercial sugar cane fields when they were 6, 12 and 18 months old. the results showed that the distribution of the root system of the variety studied was uniform in the different layers of soil. most roots were present in the upper 30cm of soil, with an average for the 3 samplings of 59.3%. roots of 6-month old plants already reached 2.10m, and after 18 months they reached as far as 3.30m. the maximum amount of living roots was found when the plants were 12 months old, this being correlated with the highest growth rate of the plant. a sugar cane field that yields 100 tons per hectare was estimated to have about 1.8 tons of roots at 6 months and 8 tons of them after 18 months.
Restaura??o do solo para a cultura de cana-de-a?úcar: III - Período 1958-61 e considera??es gerais
Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;Alvarez, Raphael;
Bragantia , 1968, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051968000100018
Abstract: this paper reports the data obtained in the third period of an experiment which was started in 1954, to study the recovering for sugar cane culture of an original low fertility and impoverished soil (humic red-yellow latosol) . at the same time with the results of the two harvestings of this third planting one discusses the soil productivity and fertility variations which had occurred up to the first planting. in a randomized blocks design eight treatments with four replications were compared. they are as follows: a) control; b) p + lime + leguminous cover crop; c) pk + cover crop; d) pk + lime + cover crop; e) npk; f) npk ++ lime; g) npk + cover crop; h) npk + lime + cover crop. in this period the cover crop still used was the sun hemp (crotalaria junceal.) and the sugar cane variety planted was cb 41/76. in the planting time the fertilization applied was at the rates of 90-80-120 kg per hectare of n, p2o5 and k2o respectively and as ammonium sulfate, plain superphosphate and potassium chloride. after the first harvesting other applications of nitrogen and potassium were made, at the rates of 60 kg and 90 kg per hectare respectively, using the same sources of fertilizers in top-dressing application. the yields of sugar cane obtained in this period showed appreciable effects due to lime and potassium and a considerable increase in soil productivity as compared with the data corresponding to the other ones. this result is attributed to the soil fertility increase, on account of favorable variations in soil acidity and ca, mg and po4 levels, as shown by chemical analyses. in spite of the leguminous cover crop usage and chemical fertilizations, no increase in carbon, nitrogen and potassium soil levels were detected.
Caracteriza??o isoenzimática de clones e somaclones de cana-de-a?úcar
Sawazaki, Haiko Enok;Silvarolla, Maria Bernadete;Alvarez, Raphael;
Bragantia , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051989000100001
Abstract: extracts from leaves and roots of three sugarcane varieties and their somaclones: na56-79 (at seven and nine month old plants), iac68-12 and iac68-144 (both at nine month old plants) were obtained. the peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme contents of the extracts were determined to verify the genetic variability of tissue culture somaclones. the peroxidase specific activity was studied in relation to the time and isoenzymatic pattern. the peroxidase and esterase zymograms showed distinct differences among varieties, and the esterase presented less bands but easier to characterize than the peroxidase bands. the root zymograms exhibited great enzymatic variation due to the presence of old roots thus not allowing to characterize the varieties. no differences in peroxidase or esterase zymograms among somaclones of the same variety were noticed. the na56-79 presented lower specific activity of peroxidase and number of isoenzymes than iac68-144, suggesting that the decrease of isoenzyme bands is associated to the reduction of enzymatic activity. the specific activity of peroxidase changed with maturity and was higher at nine than at seven month old plants.
Levantamento do estado nutricional de canaviais de S?o Paulo, pela análise foliar
Gallo, J. Romano;Hiroce, Rúter;Alvarez, Raphael;
Bragantia , 1968, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051968000200012
Abstract: a leaf analysis survey of sugar cane plantations in s?o paulo was conducted with twelve essential plant nutrients. these included sulfate--sulfur and total n, p, k, ca, mg, fe, mn, cu, zn, b and mo. samples consisting of leaf blades +3 for the 2 major commercial varieties co. 419 and cb. 41/76 were collected in 32 counties from 89 fields when the cane was 4 and 9 months old, and from 69 groves of the ratoon cane crop, when 4 to 5 months of age. the analyses were carried out on the 8 middle inches of the leaf blades. only lamina was used. the results indicated clear-cut differences in leaf-nutrient contents attributed to the following variables: age of the cane at sampling, type of crop (plant or ratoon canes) and varieties. in general, the ranges in the levels of the elements in the blades for both varieties in all locations were very wide. nitrogen had the smallest and molybdenum the largest variation, among the different nutrient elements analyzed. based on the frequency distribution of leaf nutrient content, it was noted that a higher percentage of sugar cane plantations was found to have lower levels in the following decreasing order: k, mg, n, p, s and fe.
Cross-Correlation of Station-to-Station Free Surface Elevation Time Series for Breaking Water Waves  [PDF]
Raphael Mukaro
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.92010
Free surface elevation time series of breaking water waves were measured in a laboratory flume. This was done in order to analyze changes in wave characteristics as the waves propagated from deep water to the shore. A pair of parallel- wire capacitive wave gages was used to simultaneously measure free surface elevations at different positions along the flume. One gage was kept fixed near the wave generator to provide a reference while the other was moved in steps of 0.1 m in the vicinity of the break point. Data from these two wave gages measured at the same time constitute station-to-station free surface elevation time series. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based cross-correlation techniques were employed to determine the time lag between each pair of the time series. The time lag was used to compute the phase shift between the reference wave gage and that at various points along the flume. Phase differences between two points spaced 0.1 m apart were used to calculate local mean wave phase velocity for a point that lies in the middle. Results show that moving from deep water to shallow water, the measured mean phase velocity decreases almost linearly from about 1.75 m/s to about 1.50 m/s at the break point. Just after the break point, wave phase velocity abruptly increases to a maximum value of 1.87 m/s observed at a position 30 cm downstream of the break point. Thereafter, the phase velocity decreases, reaching a minimum of about 1.30 m/s.
Melhoramento da cana-de-a?úcar. II. Experimentos regionais com clones obtidos em 1964
Segalla, Antonio Lazzarini;Alvarez, Raphael;Oliveira, Hélcio de;Igue, Toshio;Godoy Jr., Gentil;
Bragantia , 1982, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051982000100011
Abstract: three experiments were conducted in 1971 with clones obtained by hybridization in 1964, using a lattice design. these experiments were located in the sert?ozinho, ariranha and tapiratiba counties of the state of s?o paulo. the checks utilized were the commercial varieties cb41-76, iac50-134 and iac51-205. sugarcane was harvested thrice, that is plant cane (18 months), first ratoon (12 months) and second ratoon (12 months). the clones that showed good performance received the prefix iac which were 64-257, 64-328, 64-306, 64-276, 64-368, 64-321 and 64-304.
Melhoramento da cana-de-a?úcar: IV. Experimentos regionais com clones obtidos em 1969
Alvarez, Raphael;Pommer, Celso Valdevino;Bastos, Candido Ricardo;Brinholi, Osvaldo;Júnior, Gentil Godoy;Bovi, Virginio;
Bragantia , 1984, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051984000100013
Abstract: the best twenty five clones, obtained in a sugar cane breeding program of "instituto agron?mico de campinas" started in 1969, were evaluated in a series of three experiments carried out at sugar cane regions of sao paulo state, brazil. in 1977 started the field trials using as controls the following commercial varieties: iac51205, iac52-150, iac58-480, na56-79, and cb41-76. the experimental design used was a randomized complete block with four replications. three harvests were made consecutivelly in plant cane (18 months), first ratoon (12 months after), and second ratoon (12 months after). means of the three harvest were analyzed statistically and tukey's test procedure was used to test differences among treatment means. the cane yield results showed that clones 69-362 and 69-326 were not statistically different from the best control iac51-205, and clones 69-426, 69-425, 69-274, 69-84, 69-87 and 69-242 showed cane yield results equal to the second best control na56-79. clones 69-309, 69-242, 69-232 and 69-362 had an outstanding performance in sugar content; on the other hand, clones 69-238, 69-274, 69-218, 69-254, 69-190. 69-420 and 69-277 had sugar content similar to that of best control na56-79. considering sugar yield, clones 69-362, 69-242, and 69-274 were not statistically different from the two best controls iac51-205 and na56-79, besides the clone 69-426 that showed to be equal to na56-79, in this, characteristic. according to the results new varieties are presented: iac69-242, iac69-274, iac69-309, iac69-362, iac69-425 and iac69-426.
Aduba??o da cana-de-a?úcar: XV - experimentos com micronutrientes nas regi?es canavieiras do estado de S?o Paulo
Alvarez, Raphael;Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;Arruda, Hermano Vaz de;Godoy Júnior, Gentil;
Bragantia , 1979, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051979000100003
Abstract: the results obtained with twenty three experiments on the application of micronutrients to sugar cane are presented in this paper. the experiments were installed to evaluate the possible occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies in soils of s?o paulo state that had been more intensively cultivated with this crop. therefore, in the localization of the field plots care was taken securing a large variation of conditions, especially those of the soil that are related to availability of micronutrients. the experiments were planted in randomized block designs with four replications. the treatments were as follows: 1. 000 (general control); 2. npk (control); 3. npk + fe; 4. npk + b; 5. npk + cu; 6. npk + zn; 7. npk + mn; 8. npk + mo. the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied as ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, at the rates of 80kg/n, l00kg/p2o5 and 120kg/k2o per hectare. the micronutrients were applied in the furrows in addition to the basic fertilization: iron, manganese, copper and zinc, as sulfates; boron, as borax, and molybdenum as ammonium molybdate. in accordance with the purpose of the study the soils of the experiments showed great variation in the characteristics that are involved with the micronutrients availability, as the ph and the original fertility level. in spite of this, in only one of the experiments the micronutrients, cooper and molybdenum in the case, gave yield increases; even so, the responses were not clearly related to the soil characteristics. the results indicate that problems concerning micronutrient deficiencies are not to be expected in the normal conditions of the sugar cane culture in s?o paulo state, thus, the possible occurrences of such anomalies, until now, must be related to fortuitous events.
Restaura??o de solo para a cultura da cana-de-a?úcar: II - Período 1956-58
Wutke, Ant?nio Carlos Pimentel;Alvarez, Raphael;Gargantini, Hermano;Arruda, Hermano Vaz de;
Bragantia , 1960, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051960000100043
Abstract: the experiment reported in this paper was started in 1954. its object was to study the effect of various treatments on the restoration of productivity in a tract of impoverished land (glacial formation), located at the usina ester, cosmópolis county. eight treatments with four replications are being compared in randomized blocks. they are as follows: (a) control, (b) p + lime + leguminous cover crop; (c) pk + cover crop; (d) pk + lime + cover crop; (e) npk; (f) npk + lime; (g) npk + cover crop, (h) npk + lime + cover crop. ammonium sulfate, plain superphosphate, and pottassiu chloride were applied at the rates of 90, 120, and 90 kg per hectare of n, p2o5, and k2o, respectively. the cover crop used was the sun hemp (crotalaria juncea l.). the sugar cane variety planted was the c. b. 40/69. the results obtained in the first harvest of this second planting were as follows: (a) all plots receiving fertilizers gave higher yields than the control; (b) the highest yields were given by the plots receiving pk + lime + cover crop, npk + lime + cover crop, and npk + lime. the results obtained so far indicate that the best treatments improved the soil productivity, whereas there is some evidence of a decrease in productivity induced by others.
Avalia o final de clones IAC de cana-de-a úcar da série 1982, em latossolo roxo da regi o de Ribeir o Preto
Bragantia , 1999,
Abstract: Doze clones de cana-de-a úcar, provenientes de hibrida es realizadas em 1982, foram avaliados em três experimentos, em latossolo roxo, da regi o de Ribeir o Preto (SP). Para tanto, utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis repeti es, efetuando-se a análise estatística com a média das quatro colheitas (1. o, 2.o, 3.o e 4.o cortes). Avaliaram-se as produtividades de cana e a úcar, pol% cana, fibra% cana, popula o de colmos e intensidade de florescimento. Considerando-se essas características, assim como a curva de matura o dos clones, e tomando-se como padr es as variedades SP70-1143, SP71-1406, IAC64-257 e RB76-5418, o clone IAC82-2045 apresentou um desempenho equivalente, caracterizando-se como material de alta produtividade agrícola, boa riqueza, com a matura o do meio para o final de safra, podendo ser incluído em novos estudos de manejo varietal para outras condi es paulistas. Ainda se destacou, com algumas restri es, indicadas pela intera o ambiente x clone para a produtividade agrícola, o clone IAC82-2120, com boa riqueza e possibilidade de ser colhido a partir de junho. Estimando-se os parametros genéticos, observou-se, mediante a componente da variancia genótipo x ambiente, a significativa resposta dos genótipos a ambientes específicos, mais acentuadamente para os caracteres produtivi-dade agrícola e produtividade média de a úcar, e menos expressiva para teor de sacarose.
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