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Sex ratio at birth and racial differences: Why do Black women give birth to more females than non- Black women?
AJ Kaba
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of sub-Saharan Black African descent tend to give birth to more females? Or to put this question the other way around, compared to Black women, why do non-Black women give birth to more males? (Afr J Reprod Health 2008; 12[3]:139-150).
Explaining the Causes of the Black-White Wealth Gap in the United States  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.13017
Abstract: This paper examines the issue of the Black-White wealth gap in the United States. The paper presents pertinent data illustrating that a large gap exists in wealth accumulation between Black and Whites in the United States. The paper presents a number of implications for the Black American population as a result of this large wealth gap. Finally, the paper presents the factors or causes of the large Black-White wealth gap in the United States.
Inter-Ethnic/Interracial Romantic Relationships in the United States: Factors Responsible for the Low Rates of Marriages Between Blacks and Whites  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.13015
Abstract: This paper examines the status of interracial romantic relationships among non-Black groups and those between Blacks and non-Blacks in the United States. The research shows that, apart from Blacks, inter-ethnic/interracial marriages and other forms of romantic unions have increased substantially by the 21st Century. For Black Americans, however, the data show that just a very tiny fraction of them are involved in interracial romantic re-lations, including marriages with Whites and other non-White groups. The paper then goes on to present the factors responsible for this phenomenon.
African Americans in the US Women’s National Basketball Association, 2006: From the NCAA to the WNBA  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21013
Abstract: This research study presents a social science examination of the U.S. Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) players for the 2006 season. This study does not examine on-court performance data. Instead, it focuses on the profile of the players as human beings, by looking at their race, average age, height and weight, colleges or universities attended in the United States and which regions these institutions are located in, demographics of international players, graduation rates, etcetera. The paper also examines the issue of gender bias when it comes to salaries and advertisement or endorsement opportunities.
The Exclusion of Black Women from National Leadership Positions in the United States: Taxation with Limited Representation  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.22017
Abstract: This article claims that the United States is progressing well when examined through the racial and cul- tural diversity of its young people aged 29 and younger with earned doctorates. The data show that fe- males in general and Asian and Black females in particular are earning very high proportions of doctorate degrees among individuals aged 29 and younger in 2009 and 2008. For example, of the 117,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals in the US aged 25 - 29 in 2009, females accounted for 65,000 (55.6%), with Black females and Asian females accounting for 11.1% (13,000) and 10.3% (12,000) respectively. In 2008, of the 14,000 doctorate degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.) held by individuals aged 18 - 24 in the US, females accounted for 11,000 (78.6%), and Black females and Asian females each accounted for 4000 (28.6%). The article points out, however, that while high levels of educational attainment is shown to result in Asian, White and Hispanic women being elected or appointed to the United States Sen- ate, Governor’s Office and the United States Supreme Court, Black American women continue to be ex- cluded from these three national leadership positions—Taxation Without Representation.
Black Americans and Interracial Marriage: A Focus on Black Women  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.24054
Abstract: This paper claims that although there has been a significant increase in the number of scholarly publications on interracial marriages in the United States in recent decades, most of these publications tend to focus on the small but visible increase in marriages, co-habitations and dating; how Whites or European Gentile Americans are gradually becoming accepting of these relationships; the factors that are causing non-Blacks to “reject” Blacks; and specifically factors that are causing White men and other non-Black men to “reject” Black women. As a result, the paper attempts to contribute to this topic by focusing on an important phenomenon—that it could actually be Black women who are turning down non-Black men. The paper presents eight factors that may be causing Black women to turn down interracial romantic relationship requests from non-Black men.
Black Americans, Gains in Science and Engineering Degrees, and Gender  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31012

This article is divided into three parts. First, it presents the most recent data on Black Americans’ higher education enrollment and degree attainment rates, and overall numbers of earned college degrees at all levels. Second, the article presents data on the most recent enrollment rates and total numbers of science and engineering degrees earned by Black Americans. Finally, the article presents a number of factors that have contributed to the gains in earned science and engineering degrees by Black Americans, and also factors that have contributed to their slow rate of progress in these academic fields.

Contributors to the American Sociological Review, 2010  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2015.52012
Abstract: This study examines the profile of the contributors of full-length articles to the American Sociological Review (ASR) in 2010. Examining over a dozen variables, the study compared the findings with both the 2010 regular issues of the v and the American Sociological Review (ASR). Although substantial gender and racial inequalities are observed in all three journals and the disciplines that own those journals, the ASR tends to have more gender and racial representations. Some explanations are provided for this finding. For example, in 2010 women accounted for 29 (36.3%) of the 80 contributors of all full-length articles to the ASR, but only 28 (12.6%) out of 222 contributors to the AER, and 11 (13.9%) of 79 contributors to the APSR. Among other findings in the data are that the APSR tends to publish articles of scholars based in North America. Scholars in a selected group of private and public institutions in the United States tend to have more influence in the pages of the ASR. The most common degree earned by contributors to the ASR is the Ph.D., with over 9 out of every 10 of them having at least one. The Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States awarded almost two-thirds of all degrees earned by contributors to the ASR, and the South awarded only 7 (8.7%) of all degrees. The Northeast and Midwest also employed 53% of the contributors to the ASR.
Conceptualizing Tolerance as Recognition: Black American Endowed and Distinguished Professors of Education in US Colleges and Universities  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.61001
Abstract: This study analyzes a compiled list of Black American endowed and distinguished professors of education for the 2013-2014 academic year published by the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Conceptualizing tolerance as recognition, the study claims that there is a gradual increase in the appointments of Blacks to endowed or distinguished professorships in many different disciplines at colleges and universities in the United States. Among the findings are: of the 51 scholars, men accounted for the majority; the South and Midwest regions of the US employed a high majority of these scholars, and the majority of them also earned their terminal/highest degrees in those two regions; almost eight out of ten earned a Ph.D.; almost seven out of ten earned their terminal/ highest degrees in education; and almost half of them earned their terminal/highest degrees from the 1960s to the 1980s. Finally, the discussion section focuses on 1) an explanation of the gender gap among the 51 scholars; 2) the predominance of the South and Midwest regions 3) the relative underrepresentation of Ivy League institutions; and 4) the underrepresentation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).
Explaining the High Cost of Higher Education to Black Americans: A Focus on Black American Women  [PDF]
Amadu Jacky Kaba
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2017.74012
Abstract: This article claims that Black Americans, especially Black women have made substantial progress in college enrollment and degree attainment in recent decades. From 2000 to 2015, Black American females were either second to Asian males or third to Asian males and Asian females in their proportion of those enrolled in college in the United States. In 2016, there were 2.446 million Black women and 1.841 million Black men aged 18 and over with at least a bachelor’s degree. However, these achievements have come at a very high financial cost, compared to other groups. The factors cited for the high debt burden on Black American students, especially Black women include: the shift from grants to loans with interests to pay for college; lack of scholarships (research assistantship and traineeship) compared to students from other groups; the high cost of college education at for-profit institutions; and lack of funding from parents or family members. A number of recommendations to manage this problem, including increase in the number of “grant aid” and lowering the cost of undergraduate instruction, are presented in this article.
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