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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19294 matches for " AJ Ali "
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The Admissibility of Subregional Courts’ Decisions before the African Commission or African Court
AJ Ali
Mizan Law Review , 2012,
Abstract: Some courts of Regional Economic Communities deal with human rights and they base their decisions on the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Other subregional courts have directly or indirectly considered human rights matters. However, it is not clear whether the cases decided by subregional courts are admissible before the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights or the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights. Focusing on the Economic Community of West African States Court of Justice, the East African Court of Justice, and the Southern African Development Community Tribunal, I argue that the African Commission or the African Court should not admit cases decided by subregional courts. First, accepting such cases would overburden the African Commission and the African Court. Second, the decisions of subregional courts are final according to the treaties establishing them. Third, states should not be tried twice by international institutions for the same violation. Fourth, decisions of subregional courts have res judicata effect. Fifth, subregional courts are envisaged under Article 56(7) of the African Charter. Finally, the African Court or the African Commission can interpret the text of the African Charter to preclude the admissibility of cases decided by subregional courts.
Brain-computer interfacing using modulations of alpha activity induced by covert shifts of attention
Matthias S Treder, Ali Bahramisharif, Nico M Schmidt, Marcel AJ van Gerven, Benjamin Blankertz
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-8-24
Abstract: Covert attention shifts induced a prolonged alpha synchronization over posterior electrode sites (PO and O electrodes). Spectral changes had specific topographies so that different pairs of directions could be differentiated. There was substantial variation across participants with respect to the direction pairs that could be reliably classified. Mean accuracy for the best-classifiable pair amounted to 74.6%. Furthermore, an alpha power index obtained during a relaxation measurement showed to be predictive of peak BCI performance (r = .66).Results confirm posterior alpha power modulations as a viable input modality for gaze-independent EEG-based BCIs. The pair of directions yielding optimal performance varies across participants. Consequently, participants with low control for standard directions such as left-right might resort to other pairs of directions including top and bottom. Additionally, a simple alpha index was shown to predict prospective BCI performance.A brain-computer interface (BCI) serves to decode user intention from brain signals, enabling a direct communication between brain and computer. Since the main target group of BCIs is patients with motor impairments, it is vital that the control of a BCI does not involve motor activity. However, this is not always the case. For instance, for the widely used Matrix speller (a.k.a. P300-speller), evidence accumulates that BCI control is efficient only when the target symbol is fixated with the eyes [1-3]. Different routes have been taken to circumvent the problem of gaze dependence. For instance, one may fall back on other sensory modalities such as spatial auditory [4,5] and tactile feedback [6]. Alternatively, one may rely on other paradigms such as motor imagery [7,8]. However, motor imagery paradigms face the problem that a subset of participants does not obtain significant BCI control, a problem that is only partially solved [9-11]. Also in the visual domain, there have been promising approaches to gaze
Effectiveness of inhaler types for real-world asthma management: retrospective observational study using the GPRD
Price D, Haughney J, Sims E, Ali M, von Ziegenweidt J, Hillyer EV, Lee AJ, Chisholm A, Barnes N
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S17709
Abstract: tiveness of inhaler types for real-world asthma management: retrospective observational study using the GPRD Original Research (5724) Total Article Views Authors: Price D, Haughney J, Sims E, Ali M, von Ziegenweidt J, Hillyer EV, Lee AJ, Chisholm A, Barnes N Published Date April 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 37 - 47 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S17709 David Price1,2 John Haughney1, Erika Sims2, Muzammil Ali2, Julie von Ziegenweidt2, Elizabeth V Hillyer2, Amanda J Lee3, Alison Chisholm2, Neil Barnes4 1Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life Ltd, Cawston, Norwich, UK; 3Section of Population Health, University of Aberdeen, UK; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, London Chest Hospital, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UK Purpose: Results of randomized controlled trials may not predict effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in real-world clinical practice, where inhaler technique and device characteristics can influence effectiveness. We compared asthma outcomes for ICS delivered via three different inhaler devices: pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), breath-actuated MDI (BAI), and dry powder inhaler (DPI). Patients and methods: This retrospective database study evaluated 1-year outcomes for primary care patients with asthma aged 5–60 years prescribed their first ICS (initiation population) by pMDI (n = 39,746), BAI (n = 9809), or DPI (n = 6792), or their first ICS dose increase (step-up population) by pMDI (n = 6245), BAI (n = 1388), or DPI (n = 1536). Co-primary outcome measures were composite proxy measures of asthma control (no hospital attendance for asthma, oral corticosteroids, or antibiotics for lower respiratory infection) and severe exacerbations (unscheduled hospital admission, emergency room attendance, or oral corticosteroids). Outcomes were adjusted for potential confounding factors identified during a baseline year. Results: In the initiation population, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for asthma control, as compared with pMDIs, were significantly better for BAIs (1.08 [1.02–1.14]) and DPIs (1.13 [1.06–1.21]), while adjusted exacerbation rate ratios (95% CI) were 1.00 (0.93–1.08) and 0.88 (0.81–0.95), respectively. In the step-up population, adjusted odds of asthma control were 1.21 (1.05–1.39) for BAIs and 1.13 (0.99–1.29) for DPIs; adjusted exacerbation rate ratios were 0.83 (0.71–0.98) for BAIs and 0.85 (0.74–0.98) for DPIs, compared with pMDIs. Conclusion: Inhaler device selection may have a bearing on clinical outcomes. Differences in real-world effectiveness among these devices require closer evaluation in well-designed prospective trials.
Promoting early presentation of breast cancer
AJ Ramirez
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2005
Abstract: Ideally an intervention to reduce delayed presentation of breast cancer would promote early help-seeking behaviour by patients at high risk of having cancer, but would not promote anxiety amongst people at low risk. It is important that patients should not be made unnecessarily anxious, and nor should general practitioners be overburdened with consultations with the worried well population. Based on the empirical evidence for the risk factors for patient delay and using effective behavioural change techniques, we have developed and are evaluating a psycho-educational intervention to promote early presentation of breast cancer by older women. We have focused our intervention on older women who are at greater risk of breast cancer and are also more likely to delay their presentation. The intervention is delivered by trained diagnostic radiographers at the point when the women leave the routine protection afforded by the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme and is in line with government recommended practice and complementary to the Breast Screening Programme. The ultimate aim of the intervention is to reduce the proportion of older women with breast cancer who delay their presentation, and thereby save lives.I will outline this work and other current initiatives within the United Kingdom to promote awareness and early presentation of breast cancer and how these might inform the development of policy initiatives to improve outcomes for patients within the National Health Service.
Sex ratio at birth and racial differences: Why do Black women give birth to more females than non- Black women?
AJ Kaba
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of sub-Saharan Black African descent tend to give birth to more females? Or to put this question the other way around, compared to Black women, why do non-Black women give birth to more males? (Afr J Reprod Health 2008; 12[3]:139-150).
Deletion of amino acid residues 33-46 in growth hormone alters the hydrophobicity of the molecule
AJ Sami
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Growth hormone (GH) variants have been studied for the structure-function relationship of the molecule. The presence of a potential alternate splicing point in mRNA in bGH gene at exon 3, similar to hGH has been reported by workers. Early investigation on the characteristics of the chemistry of 20k oGH showed that the molecule was produced by site-directed mutagenesis by deleting amino acid residues 33-46 and the resultant DNA was expressed in E. coli under the control of lac promoter in pUC based plasmid. The mutant protein remained insoluble and did not refold. To investigate the effect of deletion on the chemistry of the molecule, computational biology tools were employed. The mutant with the deletion of amino acid residues 33-46, was designed and the model was visualized on computer. The structure of 20k bGH was compared with bGH and dissected for hydrogen bonds and hydrophobicity. Computational biology tools were helpful in elucidating the role of 33-46 amino acid residues domain in the chemistry of the molecule. Furthermore, it was revealed that removal of amino acid residues 33-46 which formed the hydrogen bonds involving Glu 33, Gln 46, Pro 38, Arg 42, Tyr 43,Ala 51, Thr 48, Asn 47, led to the formation of new hydrogen bonds between Thr 33, Tyr 144, Asn 32, Asn 32 and Ser and Asp 153. The removal of the amino acids 33-46 decreased the hydro-phobicity of the first helix of bGH molecule, as compared to 20k hGH, thus altering the solubility of the molecule, confirming the earlier reported results for ovine growth hormone with same deletion.
Book Review: Christian faith for ordinary Christians
AJ Groenewald
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Book Title: Kijk op Geloof Christelijk geloof uitgelegd Author: Henri Veldhuis ISBN: 9789023918134 Publisher: Boekencentrum, Zoetermeer, 2005, p. 287,
Karl Barth's role in church and politics from 1930 to 1935
AJ Groenewald
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2007,
Abstract: Karl Barth saw in natural theology a threat to the church of Christ. He was convinced that the so-called “German Christians” under the influence of the National Socialist Party practised natural theology. He advocated the need for the church of Christ to be church according to the Word of God. The church can be true church of Christ when it listens to and obeys the true calling of God. Barth's critique of an exclusive “Volkskirche” can serve as a corrective for the definition of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk as a “volkskerk”. HTS Theological Studies Vol. 63 (4) 2007: pp. 1613-1641
High molecular weight hyaluronan for treatment of chronic shoulder pain associated with glenohumeral arthritis
Weil AJ
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S22423
Abstract: h molecular weight hyaluronan for treatment of chronic shoulder pain associated with glenohumeral arthritis Original Research (2226) Total Article Views Authors: Weil AJ Published Date July 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 99 - 105 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S22423 Arnold J Weil Non-Surgical Orthopedics PC, Marietta, GA, USA Background: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether intra-articular injections may be effective for treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Euflexxa (high molecular weight hyaluronate), a bioengineered high molecular weight hyaluronan, has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis. There is also support for the use of hyaluronate injection for the treatment of chronic shoulder pain associated with osteoarthritis or rotator cuff damage. This small-scale exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of high molecular weight hyaluronate for the treatment of chronic shoulder pain associated with osteoarthritis. Methods: Subjects with glenohumeral osteoarthritis and chronic pain (n = 27) received one injection per week for 3 weeks of high molecular weight hyaluronate and were assessed for changes in pain (100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]), range of motion, and the subject’s and physician’s global assessment over 26 weeks. Subjects were also assessed for pain, stiffness, and physical functioning using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Finally, responses were evaluated using modified Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Proposition D criteria. Safety was assessed by recording adverse events. Results: High molecular weight hyaluronate significantly improved pain (VAS, WOMAC), range of motion, stiffness, and physical functioning scores; 77.8% of subjects were rated as having an OMERACT-OARSI Proposition D high response. There were no serious adverse events, and none were considered to be related to treatment. Conclusion: Treatment with high molecular weight hyaluronate improves pain, stiffness, and range of motion, and may have an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial may be warranted to investigate further the efficacy and safety of intra-articular high molecular weight hyaluronate for treatment of chronic shoulder pain in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis.
The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter’s Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries?
AJ Smit
Southern African Business Review , 2010,
Abstract: The focus of this article is to clarify the meaning of international competitiveness at the country level within in the context of Porter’s (1990a) thesis that countries, like companies, compete in international markets for their fair share of the world markets. At a country level, there are two schools of thought on country competitiveness: the economic school, which rejects Porter’s notion of country competitiveness, and the management school, which supports the notion of competitiveness at a country level. This article reviews and contrasts the theories pertaining to these two schools of thought with specifi c reference to trade theories and the ‘theory’ of the competitive advantage of nations originally advanced by Porter (1990a, 1997a, 1998b, 1998c, 2000). Although Porter’s Diamond Framework has been extensively discussed in the management literature, its actual contribution to the body of knowledge in the economic and management literature has never been clarifi ed. The purpose of this article is to explain why Porter’s Diamond Framework is not a new theory that explains the competitiveness of countries but rather a framework that enhances our understanding of the international competitiveness of fi rms.
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