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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4257 matches for " AFZAL SHAH "
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Cultural Diversity in Pakistan: National vs Provincial
Syed Afzal Moshadi Shah,Dr. Shehla Amjad
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of the research was to investigate the cultural dimensions of the four provinces of Pakistan i.e. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan of Pakistan and their comparison with national culture. The research capitalizes upon the methodology devised by Hofstede et. al (2008) in order to investigate the cultural dimensions. A total 557 questionnaires were used in order to reach the final analysis by using descriptive statistics and test of significance. Research findings show an existence of a cultural diversity among different provinces of Pakistan, where Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) possessing the most distinctive culture. Beside provincial disparity with national culture on one to one basis, it does not affect the results on aggregate basis. Hence the national culture remains a true representation of the country. The nature of subcultures within provinces and the level of their impact was the major limitation of the research. The research would benefit businesses in Pakistan at large both local and Multi-national organizations. VSM-08 is the latest version of all the methodologies devised by Hofstede. No study has yet been conducted in Pakistan to identify cultural dimensions on province level using the parameters defined in this model. Future research on different management and marketing aspects in Pakistani culture can be conducted in the light of this research.
Prevalence and gene frequencies of A1A2BO and Rh(D) blood group alleles among some Muslim populations of North India
R Hussain, M Fareed, A Shah, M Afzal
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Research on ABO group system has been of immense interest, due to its medical importance in different diseases. Till date only a few studies have been done on the prevalence and gene frequencies of A1A2BO and Rh(D) blood groups among the Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, North India. The data generated in the present work may be useful for health planners while making efforts to face the future health challenges in the region. Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and gene frequencies of A1A2BO and Rh(D) blood groups among six Muslim populations of Aligarh district, Uttar Pradesh, North India. Subjects and methods: Blood samples from a total of 724 healthy, unrelated individuals were drawn at random from the six different endogamous groups of Muslim populations of Uttar Pradesh, North India. A1A2BO and Rh blood grouping were carried out by standard slide agglutination method and allele frequencies were determined. Results: In total 724 samples analyzed, the most frequent blood group was found to be group O 29.97% (n= 217), followed by A1 26.52% (n=192), B 20.03% (n= 145), A1B 19.34% (n= 140), A2 2.90% (n= 21) and A2B 1.24% (n= 9). The overall phenotypic frequencies of A1A2BO blood groups were O >A1>B> A1B>A2>A2B. The calculated allelic frequencies were 0.5619, 0.2214, 0.1973 and 0.0259 for group Io, Ib, Ia1 and Ia2, respectively. The Chi-square differences for A1A2BO blood groups among different Muslim populations were found to be significant (v2 =41.22, df= 25, p <0.02). Out of total 724 samples, 613 (84.67%) samples were Rh+ve and 111 (15.33%) were Rhve.
Genetic study of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste perception among six human populations of Jammu and Kashmir (India)
M Fareed, A Shah, R Hussain, M Afzal
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter chemical has long been known to be a bimodal autosomal trait inherited in a simple Mendelian recessive pattern which is being widely used for both genetic and anthropological studies. The frequency of taster and non-taster allele is found to vary in different populations. The present paper deals with the distribution of PTC tasting ability as a marker to study the genetic structure among Muslim populations of Jammu; as no detailed information is available. Aim: To investigate the prevalence and gene frequencies of PTC taste sensitivity among male and females. Subjects and methods: We have undertaken a survey of gene frequencies of PTC taste ability for six different endogamous groups including tribal population. PTC serial dilution method was used to assess the PTC taster and non-taster phenotypes. Hardy–Weinberg method was used to determine allele frequencies. Results: Gujjar and Bakarwal population showed highest PTC threshold while Syed had the least. The phenotypic frequency for PTC taste ability varies within six populations; Syed were observed with highest taster frequency while Gujjar and Bakarwal had lowest taster frequency. The taster frequency of six different populations showed that the percentage of taster frequency was more frequent than that of the non-tasters. Also, females (x2= 4.563, df =5, p= 0.471) had more PTC tasters than males (x2= 5.254, df =5, p= 0.385), being statistically significant. The allelic frequencies in Gujjar and Bakarwal for non-taster (t) males and females were 55.86 and 54.55, respectively. In Syed population, t-allele frequencies for males and females were 45.75 and 37.79, respectively, while the other four populations showed intermediate t-allele frequencies. The heterozygosity showed little variation among all of the six populations.
Electrochemical investigations of unexplored anthraquinones and their DNA binding
AFZAL SHAH,ABDUR RAU,ASAD ULLAH,AZEEMA MUNIR
Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.5599/jese.2012.0026
Abstract: The redox behaviour of two potential anticancer anthraquinones, 9,10-anthraquinone and 2-chloromethyl-9,10-anthraquinone was investigated in a wide pH range. Cyclic voltammetry based assay was developed for the assessment of the effect of medium, substituents, potential scan rate and number of scans on the voltammetric response of anthraquinones. The electrode reaction mechanism was suggested on the basis of cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric results. The effect of DNA on anthraquinones was also probed at physiological pH which could lead to further investigation of possible citotoxic activity in vitro. The results revealed that anthraquinones interact with DNA more strongly than the clinically used anticancer drug, epirubicin.
Assay of Aliphatic Phthalates in Polymer Products by Sensitive Polarographic Method: Health and Environmental Issue
Munawar Saeed,Sirajuddin,Abdul Niaz2,,Afzal Shah
Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry , 2010,
Abstract: A faster, simpler and sensitive method was developed for determination of aliphatic phthalates using differential pulse polarography (DPP) as standard technique. The choice and concentration of base electrolyte, solvent, initial potential, effect of water addition and interference by other phthalates were the main parameters to optimize for enhancement of peak current and to obtain well-defined polarogram with lower background current using 1.3 x 10-4 M di-butyl phthalate (DBP) solution. Best results were obtained in the presence of tetra methyl ammonium bromide (TMAB) as electrolyte in methanol solvent with initial potential, -1.4 V. A linear calibration plot was observed in the range of 3 x 10-7 – 1.6 x 10-4 M DBP solution as aliphatic phthalates with lower detection limit of 5.9 x 10-8 M and linear regression coefficient of 0.9987. The developed polarographic method was successfully applied for analysis of aliphtaic phthalates in various samples of locally available polymer products such as baby toys, nipples, teethers, infusion blood bags and shopping bags. The results of the current method were compared with those obtained by a reported method and good agreement was found between them.
Effect of Chemical Treatment, Wax Coating, Oil Dipping and Different Wrapping Materials on Physio-chemical Characteristics and Storage Behavior of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh)
Syed Mubashir Sabir,Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah,Abida Afzal
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: Chemical treatment, wax coating, oil dipping and different wrapping materials have significant role in extending the shelf life of apple. The present investigation was therefore, carried out to extend the shelf life of Banky cultivars of apple by applying the above mentioned treatments. In physical characteristics general appearance (color and shape of fruit), weight loss percentage and organoleptic evaluation were studied during storage. Chemical treatment, total soluble solids, pH, acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar and Vitamin C were analyzed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage. All the treatment had significant effect on the shelf life of fruits. However, Non-perforated polyethylene was reported superior to all other treatments. Non-perforated polyethylene materials proved very useful for reducing weight loss and shriveling and retained consumer acceptability even after 60 days of storage. Hydroxyquinoline and butter paper wrapping stood second and third positions after non perforated polyethylene wrapping.
Redox Behavior of Anticancer Chalcone on a Glassy Carbon Electrode and Evaluation of its Interaction Parameters with DNA
Afzal Shah,Asad M. Khan,Rumana Qureshi,Farzana L. Ansari
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The interaction of anticancer chalcone [AMC, 1-(4'-aminophenyl)-3-(4-N,Ndimethylphenyl)- 2-propen-1-one] with DNA has been explored using electrochemical, spectroscopic and viscometric techniques. A shift in peak potential and decrease in peak current were observed in cyclic voltammetry and hypochromism accompanied with bathochromic shift were noticed in UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. These findings were taken as evidence for AMC ¢ € “DNA intercalation. A binding constant (K) with a value of 6.15 — 105 M-1 was obtained from CV data, which was also confirmed by UV-Vis absorption titration. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of the drug with and without DNA (Db and Du), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ko) and electron affinity (A) were also calculated from electrochemical data.
THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE AND ITS COMPLEX WITH DNA AS STUDIED BY CONDUCTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES
AFZAL SHAH,ASAD M KHAN,MUHAMMAD USMAN,RUMANA QURESHl
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2009,
Abstract: Electrical conductivities were measured to calculate critical aggregation concentration (cac) of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) at various temperature from 298-313K with an increment of 5 K and in this way its thermodynamic parameters like Gibbs energy of aggregation ( ΔGagg), enthalpy of aggregation (ΔHagg ) and entropy of aggregation (ΔSagg) were estimated. The results demonstrate that DSP forms enthalpy driven aggregates through open association process. Furthermore, its interaction with DNA was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The binding constant of DSP-DNA interaction was evaluated at 298 K and 310 K. Gibbs energy of drug-DNAcomplexation was determined by ΔG= -RT 1n k b , enthalpy of its interaction (ΔH) and entropy of adduct formation (ΔS) were obtained from Van't Hoff equation.
Redox Behavior of Anticancer Chalcone on a Glassy Carbon Electrode and Evaluation of its Interaction Parameters with DNA
Afzal Shah,Asad M. Khan,Rumana Qureshi,Farzana L. Ansari,Muhammad F. Nazar,Syed S. Shah
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijms9081424
Abstract: The interaction of anticancer chalcone [AMC, 1-(4'-aminophenyl)-3-(4-N,Ndimethylphenyl)- 2-propen-1-one] with DNA has been explored using electrochemical, spectroscopic and viscometric techniques. A shift in peak potential and decrease in peak current were observed in cyclic voltammetry and hypochromism accompanied with bathochromic shift were noticed in UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. These findings were taken as evidence for AMC –DNA intercalation. A binding constant (K) with a value of 6.15 × 105 M-1 was obtained from CV data, which was also confirmed by UV-Vis absorption titration. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient of the drug with and without DNA (Db and Du), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ko) and electron affinity (A) were also calculated from electrochemical data.
THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE AND ITS COMPLEX WITH DNA AS STUDIED BY CONDUCTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES
SHAH,AFZAL; KHAN,ASAD M; USMAN,MUHAMMAD; QURESHl,RUMANA; SIDDIQ,MUHAMMAD; SHAH,SYED S;
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-97072009000200007
Abstract: electrical conductivities were measured to calculate critical aggregation concentration (cac) of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (dsp) at various temperature from 298-313k with an increment of 5 k and in this way its thermodynamic parameters like gibbs energy of aggregation ( δgagg), enthalpy of aggregation (δhagg ) and entropy of aggregation (δsagg) were estimated. the results demonstrate that dsp forms enthalpy driven aggregates through open association process. furthermore, its interaction with dna was studied by uv-vis spectroscopy. the binding constant of dsp-dna interaction was evaluated at 298 k and 310 k. gibbs energy of drug-dnacomplexation was determined by δg= -rt 1n kb , enthalpy of its interaction (δh) and entropy of adduct formation (δs) were obtained from van't hoff equation.
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