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Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa
Steffen,C; Debellut,F; Gessner,BD; Kasolo,FC; Yahaya,AA; Ayebazibwe,N; Bassong,O; Cardoso,Y; Kebede,S; Manoncourt,S; Vandemaele,KA; Mounts,AW;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000400014
Abstract: problem: little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-saharan africa. routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-saharan african populations. approach: a project known as strengthening influenza sentinel surveillance in africa (sisa) was launched in angola, cameroon, ghana, nigeria, rwanda, senegal, sierra leone and zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. these countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. consultants worked closely with health ministries, the world health organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance local setting: influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when sisa was launched. senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas sierra leone had no surveillance activity at all. relevant changes: working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. lessons learnt: targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.
A Survey for Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Agago and Otuke Districts in Northern Uganda  [PDF]
Stella A. Atim, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Frank N. Mwiine, Joseph Erume, Robert Tweyongyere
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2016.61002
Abstract: Background: Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a devastating disease of goats caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae (Mccp). The disease was first confirmed in Uganda in 1995 in Karamoja region. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia negatively impacts on goats’ productivity but its extent and magnitude among the local communities in Uganda remain unknown. A cross sectional study was conducted in the districts of Agago and Otuke neighboring Karamoja in Northern Uganda during the months of July and August 2011 to explore for the status of the disease. Methods: Five hundred and four serum samples from goats were obtained from randomly selected unvaccinated herds and 100 goats from vaccinated herds. Serum samples were examined for antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capripneumoniae (Mccp) by ELISA method. A total of 162 semi-structured questionnaires were administered to selected farmers to obtain information on their understanding of the disease and the risk factors they associated with CCPP. Eight focus group discussions were also conducted with selected farmer groups to obtain detailed qualitative information on CCPP. Results: Among the unvaccinated goats, seroprevalence of CCPP was 32 (17.7%) and 52 (23.3%) for Agago and Otuke districts respectively. Levels of antibodies against Mccp were higher among vaccinated goats than unvaccinated ones (mean optical densities (ODs) of 0.905 and 0.776, p = 0.08). Majority of the farmers 121 (74.7%) had knowledge on CCPP and recognized that CCPP was among the major challenges to goat production in Uganda. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that CCPP was prevalent in Agago and Otuke districts, which are outside but close to Karamoja region where the disease was previously confirmed. There is a need for wider and detailed studies to investigate further CCPP in other districts of Uganda for effective preventive and control of CCPP in Uganda and the neighboring countries.
Effect of Sowing Media and Gibberellic Acid on the Growth and Seedling Establishment of Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea and Rosa chinensis. 2. Root Characters
AA Fagge, AA Manga
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Two pot experiments were carried out in the screen house of the Faculty of Agriculture Bayero University Kano (Latitudes 80 421N and 90301N) during the wet and dry seasons of 2008/2009 to investigate the effects of Sowing Media and Gibberellic acid (GA3) concentrations on the growth and seedling establishment of three ornamental plant species. The treatments consisted of three sowing media (Top soil TS, mixtures of Top soil plus Poultry manure TS+PM and Top soil plus Sawdust TS+SD) in the ratio of 2:1, three GA3 concentrations (0, 100 and 200ppm) and three plant species (Bougainvillea, Ixora and Rose); factorially combined and laid out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions. The results indicated that TS+SD medium gave significantly (P<0.05) higher number of roots and root lengths per plant while the least was with TS+PM medium. TS and TS+SD media were significantly higher than TS+PM medium in terms of root fresh weight and root dry weight per plant. Application of GA3 at 100ppm compared to 0 and 200ppm concentrations gave significantly (P<0.05) better responses for all the root characters. The same trend was true for Bougainvillea compared to Ixora and Rosa. Hence, based on the outcomes of this experiment, combinations of TS+SD medium and GA3 at 100ppm concentration are recommended for better root establishment, growth. and development in relation to the three plants under study.
Effect of Sowing Media and Gibberellic Acid on the Seedling Establishment and Growth of Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea and Rosa chinensis. 1: Shoot Characters
AA Fagge, AA Manga
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Two pot experiments were carried out in the screen house of the Faculty of Agriculture Bayero University Kano (Latitudes 80 421N and 90301N) during the wet and dry seasons of 2008/2009 to investigate the effects of Sowing Media and Gibberellic acid(GA3) concentrations on the seedling establishment and growth of three ornamental plant species. The treatments consisted of three sowing media (Top soil TS, mixtures of Top soil plus Poultry manure TS+PM and Top soil plus Sawdust TS+SD) in the ratio of 2:1, three GA3 concentrations (0, 100 and 200ppm) and three plant species (Bougainvillea, Ixora and Rose); factorially combined and laid out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions. The results indicated that TS and TS+SD gave significantly (P<0.05) greater number of days to bud break, leaf area, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight per plant. Application of GA3 at 100ppm gave higher value of all the characters studied except number of days to bud break, where no significant difference was observed among the different concentrations. Bougainvillea was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the other plants in all the characters except days to bud break. The Combination of TS+SD medium and GA3 at 100ppm concentration is recommended for the good growth and development of the shoot characters.
CORSI E CONGRESSI
AA. AA.VV
Reumatismo , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/reumatismo.2008.73
Abstract: Aprile 2008 XI CONGRESSO NAZIONALE CROI 2-5 Aprile 2008 - Bologna Segreteria Organizzativa: Dynamicom...
Recensioni
AA. VV. AA. VV.
Annals of Geophysics , 1948, DOI: 10.4401/ag-6092
Abstract: .
Bidirectional selection for olfactory response to acetaldehyde and ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster
AA Hoffmann
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1983, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-15-4-501
Abstract:
Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte
Mendes, AA;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2001000300001
Abstract: the optimal condition of broiler chickens at the moment of slaughter should be known in order to produce the highest quality meat. several and related pre- and post-slaughter factors are involved in ultimate poultry meat quality. in normal operation, feed is withdrawn from birds 6 to 8 hours before catching, resulting in a feed and water withdrawal total period of 8 to 12 hours prior to slaughter, in order to empty the digestive system and minimise fecal contamination. the most critical points for cross-contamination are scalding, plucking and evisceration, due the great amount of micro-organisms present in skin, feather and feet, and due to intestine breakage during evisceration. however, carcass dehydratation begins immediately after feed withdrawal, and a prolonged period without feed and water can affect ph of the gut, increasing salmonella and other pathogenic micro-organisms. in addition, excessive feed and water withdrawal times increases bile contamination and are often subjectively associated with increased intestinal fragility during automated evisceration. thus, processing schedules need to be established to take in account feed withdrawal on gut integrity and fullness, gall bladder status, birds welfare, shrinkage and subsequent effects on carcass contamination and meat quality. as some effects of feed and water withdrawal are still unknown, research is required in the following area: optimal feed and water withdrawal time in relation to welfare of the birds, carcass contamination, and meat quality parameters; influence of delayed withdrawal on ph and colonization of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, colon and ceca by enterobacterias like salmonella; influence of feed and water withdrawal on liver weight and colour. the expected result is an improvement in animal welfare and meat quality, while reducing losses and costs.
The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise
AA Alagbe
African Research Review , 2009,
Abstract: Obviously, the fact remains that English Language is a sensitive Language that cannot be ignored by any one, most especially, in Nigeria where the said language is used officially for effective communication. This is why speakers of this language need to be conscious of what kinds of sentence they use in communication with other people in the environment which they find themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the English primary auxiliary verbs. The traditional grammar alongside structural grammar was used to analyze the numerous uses of the English auxiliary verbs by our subjects.
Management of vaginal discharge
AA Hoosen
Continuing Medical Education , 2004,
Abstract:
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