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ech πgβ - CLOSED SETS IN CLOSURE SPACES
A.Francina Shalini
Journal of Global Research in Mathematical Archives , 2013,
Abstract: : The purpose of this paper is to define and study the notion of πgβ – closed and πgβ – open sets in ech closure spaces, and investigate their characterizations. Keywords: πgβ - closed sets, πgβ – open sets, ech closure space.
The General Agreement on Trade in Services
Francina Esteve García
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1995,
Abstract: The conclusion of GATS and its inclusion as an annex in the constitutive Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) responds to the need for disposing of a stable juridical instrument which, given the current economic interdependence between States, can be applied to the international trade in services.One of the main new features of this agreement is its field of application given that it includes all service sectors (except those provided for in the name of governmental authorities) and the four forms of carrying out trade in services and, as regards the principle of market access and that of national treatment, will be regulated according to those respective obligations which the Members have assumed.In exchange for not accepting the exclusion of any service sector, the negotiations concerning some fundamental sectors could not be totally closed and deadlines were extended in order to unblock the most controversial themes.One of the fundamental principles of the GATS is the most favoured nation clause of inconditional character but its consecration has been attenuated by the possibility of maintaining important exceptions in its application. The principle of transparency is also essential in the field of services, given that this sector is characterised by large public interventionism in access regulation and the exercise of the different economic activities which form it.The balance of the GATS is globally positive given that it includes a multilateral framework of principles and disciplines which is administered in the headquarters of the WTO, which have been accepted by a great majority of States within the international community and which remain subject to the WTO’s mechanism for the solution of differences.However, the opening of the market and the suppression of restrictions which derive from internal regulations have not been achieved given that, orientating itself around the objectives of national politics, liberalization is conceived as a progressive process which every Member must assume insofar as their possibilities allow them. The most negative aspects are linked to the non-conclusion of the negotiations in fundamental sectors of foreign trade in services and refer to the maintainance of considerable gaps which impede the observation of the immediate effects of the GATS, such as not having developed certain fundamental parts of the agreement with regard to areas such as public purchases, safeguards and subventions. In this way then, in spite of the limitations and ambiguities analysed in this article, the very existence of the agre
Water and Energy Footprint Assessment of Bottled Water Industries in India  [PDF]
Shalini A. Tandon, Niranjan Kolekar, Rakesh Kumar
Natural Resources (NR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2014.52007
Abstract:

Assessment of water and energy footprint for eight bottled water industries was carried out. The investigation showed that one litre of bottled water has a water footprint of 17.41 litres and energy footprint of 7.08 MJ. Water consumption by the industry comprises 61% during material production, 17% in processes, 16% in energy and only 6% in the actual product. Hence, maximum consumption of water is in material production, while the processes required a smaller fraction of the total water and energy consumed. Therefore, water footprint can be reduced through optimization of water consumption in material production.

Pytoremediation of fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics from waste water  [PDF]
Shalini A. Tandon, Rakesh Kumar, Suman A. Yadav
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.512A004
Abstract:

The study involved selection of wetland plant species hyper efficient in removing fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics so that they can be used in a constructed wetland system patented by NEERI, India (European Patent Office (EPO) Pub. No.: WO2004087584) or any other constructed wetland. Phyto removal of these antibiotics at such high concentrations without any toxic effect on the plant species is very useful as incomplete removal of certain antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin from waste waters is of concern due to their health effects if they do persist in finished waters even at ng/l levels. Five different wetland plant species which were also tested for their efficiency to treat municipal wastewater were used to test their efficiency to scavenge commonly used fluoroquinolone antibiotics (which are not degraded easily) namely Ciprofloxacin, Gemifloxacin mesylate, Ofloxacin and Gatifloxacin from aqueous medium (Hoagland-Arnon solution). EC double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to obtain lambda max of Ciprofloxacin, Gemifloxacin mesylate, Ofloxacin and Gatifloxacin in Hoagland-Arnon solution. The most efficient plant species for each antibiotic were selected and tested again for confirmation of antibiotic removal efficiency at a high concentration of 50 mg/l of each antibiotic. Taxodium distichum was found to be the most suitable for the removal of Ofloxacin, Gatifloxacin and Ciprofloxacin showing maximum removal of 32 mg/l (on 6th day), 21 mg/l (on 8th day), 32 mg/l (on 9th day), respectively and Canna indica was found to be the most suitable for removal of Gemifloxacin mesylate showing maximum removal of 38 mg/l (on 8th day).

Hybrid Mutual Authentication Protocol for 802.16j against Rogue Station and DoS Attack
Shalini
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: WiMAX is a promising technology that provides high data throughput with low delays for various user types and modes of operation. These advantages make WiMAX applicable both for infrastructure purposes and end-client usage. Since WiMAX is presented as a network framework and a last-mile technology, it is believed to be capable of handling a wide range of usage scenarios. For example, while the end users have an opportunity to use WiMAX as the primary connection medium for acquiring services such as on-demand video streaming, VoIP connections and mobile bank transactions, the service providers may use it for data relaying purposes among access points. To meet the technical requirements of these various scenarios, majority of the WiMAX research has been conducted on physical and MAC layers; however little has been invested in a comprehensive and efficient security solution, which has resulted in a wide range of security weaknesses and reactive solutions. Many security problems remain to be addressed in different modes and for different user types even in the final security standard of WiMAX, PKMv2. Mobile multi-hop relay (MMR) WiMAX networks have attracted lots of interest in wireless communication industry because of its scalable coverage, improved data rate and relatively low cost. Even with the additional security functionalities security of MMR WiMAX network is the main challenge because messages have to be transmitted through one or more relay stations, which makes it more difficult to ensure the authenticity of messages and entities involved in the transmission. In this thesis, we present a hybrid security solution to overcome the security problem of rogue station (BS/RS) attack and denial of service attack (DoS) in MMR WiMAX.
Cancer Cell Invasion Is Enhanced by Applied Mechanical Stimulation
Shalini Menon,Karen A. Beningo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017277
Abstract: Metastatic cells migrate from the site of the primary tumor, through the stroma, into the blood and lymphatic vessels, finally colonizing various other tissues to form secondary tumors. Numerous studies have been done to identify the stimuli that drive the metastatic cascade. This has led to the identification of multiple biochemical signals that promote metastasis. However, information on the role of mechanical factors in cancer metastasis has been limited to the affect of compliance. Interestingly, the tumor microenvironment is rich in many cell types including highly contractile cells that are responsible for extensive remodeling and production of the dense extracellular matrix surrounding the cancerous tissue. We hypothesize that the mechanical forces produced by remodeling activities of cells in the tumor microenvironment contribute to the invasion efficiency of metastatic cells. We have discovered a significant difference in the extent of invasion in mechanically stimulated verses non-stimulated cell culture environments. Furthermore, this mechanically enhanced invasion is dependent upon substrate protein composition, and influenced by topography. Finally, we have found that the protein cofilin is needed to sense the mechanical stimuli that enhances invasion. We conclude that other types of mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment, besides the rigidity, can enhance the invasive abilities of cancer cells in vitro. We further propose that in vivo, non-cancerous cells located within the tumor micro-environment may be capable of providing the necessary mechanical stimulus during the remodeling of the extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor.
Nanostructures: Enhancing Potential Applications in Biomedicals  [PDF]
Shalini Singh
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.41002
Abstract: Nanotechnology is defined as the study and application of 1 - 100 nm sized structures. Nanomaterials have opened avenues for the industries and scientific endeavors. These recognized for unique size, dependant physical and chemical properties (optical, magnetic, catalytic, thermodynamic, electrochemical) [1]. Most significant properties of nanoparticles is their carbon strength. It is said to be so tough that recently with a nano-sized particles i.e. carbon nanotube—a bullet proof T-shirt/vests was manufactured. Nanotechnology were firstly proposed/initiated by Nobel Prize winner Richard Feynman in 1959 [2]. This science is credited to have applications ranging from electronics, biomedicals, food, fuel cells to biosensors and even fabrics. Though every field of science progressing but still faces some lacunae and that result in development of a new technology. The thriving biomedical techniques for disorders like cancers etc. is still in developmental stage where researchers and doctors are working hard for concrete therapeutic results from such nano-techniques. On Cancers, the harmful side effects of its treatment like chemotherapy can’t be left aside which is result of one of its drug delivery methods that don’t pinpoint their intended target cells accurately rather affects whole area. Researchers in universities like Harvard and MIT have been able to attach special RNA strands, measuring about 10nm in diameter, to nanoparticles and fill the nanoparticles with a chemotherapy drug. The RNA strands get attracted to cancer cells. When the nanoparticle encounters a cancer cell it adheres to it and releases the drug into the cancer cell. This directed method of drug delivery has great potential for treating cancer patients while producing less side harmful effects than those produced by conventional chemotherapy [3]. This paper provides valuable information to the researchers, knowledge experts and policy makers regarding the application of nanotechnology and its values in science and technology. Biomedical is one of the major issues which were catered by nanotechnology.
Modulation of ion-acoustic waves in a nonextensive plasma with two-temperature electrons
Shalini,N. S. Saini,A. P. Misra
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4931074
Abstract: We study the amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave (IAW) packets in an unmagnetized electron-ion plasma with two-temperature (cool and hot) electrons in the context of the Tsallis' nonextensive statistics. Using the multiple-scale technique, a nonlinear Schr{\"o}dinger (NLS) equation is derived which governs the dynamics of modulated wave packets. It is shown that in nonextensive plasmas, the IAW envelope is always stable for long-wavelength modes $(k\rightarrow0)$ and unstable for short-wavelengths with $k \gtrsim1$. However, the envelope can be unstable at an intermediate scale of perturbations with $0
Die "unsichtbare Hand" in der Sprache. Eine kritische Betrachtung von Kellers Sprachwandeltheorie
Ladst?tter, Francina
Linguistik Online , 2004,
Abstract: How is language change effected and how does it proceed? In this article the central concepts of Rudi Keller's much-quoted work "Sprachwandel: von der unsichtbaren Hand in der Sprache" ("On Language Change. The Invisible Hand in Language") are introduced and the main criticism presented. Following this first part, Keller's theory of language change is related to the concrete example of linguistic changes in job advertisements. The main interest here is in the enhancement of job titles ("Gebrauch von aufwertenden Berufs- und Personenbezeichnungen"). 26,000 job advertisements from 1950 to 1999 are analysed in the empirical part. The advertising copies show, for example, a clear increase in the use of "Mitarbeiter" resp. "Mitarbeiterin" ("employee") instead of "kaufm. Angestellte" ("clerk"), "Fabrikarbeiter" ("factory worker"), "Magazingehilfe" ("storeman") or the like. The second part of this article shows how this aspect of language change can be understood through Keller's Invisible-Hand model.
Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web
Francina Martí Cartes
Temps d'Educació , 2008,
Abstract: L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capa os de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article explore diverses théories sur l'evaluation de l'information sur Internet. Ces théories sont comparées avec le comportement de certains élèves de l'enseignement secondaire (ESO) à la recherche d'information sur Internet, à partir de données extraites d'observations et d'entrevues. Enfin, l'article fait quelques propositions de stratégies qui peuvent être enseignées aux élèves afin qu'ils soient capables d'evaluer la crédibilité des sites web visités, en analysant leurs auteurs, leur objectivité et leurs propos. This article explores various theories about evaluating information on the Internet. The theories are tested against data taken from observations and interviews concerning the behaviour of secondary school (ESO) students searching for information on the Internet. Lastly, a number of strategies are proposed to equip students to be better able to assess the credibility of the websites they browse, analysing their authorship, objectivity and purpose. El artículo explora diversas teorías sobre la evaluación de la información en Internet. Estas teorías se comparan con el comportamiento de unos estudiantes de ESO en la búsqueda de información en Internet, a partir de datos extraídos de observaciones y entrevistas. Finalmente, se hacen algunas propuestas de estrategias que se pueden ense ar a los estudiantes para que sean capaces de valorar la credibilidad de las webs que visitan, analizando su autoría, objetividad y propósitos.
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