Abstract:
En este trabajo se exponen algunos aspectos de la organización conceptual del mundo natural en una comunidad campesina en la Sierra Norte del Perú. Se presentan en primer lugar las categorías clasificatorias utilizadas como criterios organizadores de la multiplicidad del mundo sensible en el aspecto de la Flora. Luego se exponen las representaciones colectivas surgidas como elaboraciones ideológicas en base a la organización de la experiencia sensible.

Abstract:
An antisymmetric tensor, the photon tensor, is defined for the description of the photon as a massless relativistic particle. The photon can be visualized as an essentially two dimensional rotating object. The quantum mechanical description of a single photon is presented and it is shown that it is wrong to associate the quantum states of a photon with the macroscopic electromagnetic fields. This work is part of a series devoted to the attempt to understand the quantum of electromagnetic radiation, based on the assumption that the photons are the primary ontology and that the electromagnetic fields are macroscopic emergent properties of an ensemble of photons.

Abstract:
The quantization of the electromagnetic field in vacuum is presented without reference to lagrangean quantum field theory. The equal time commutators of the fields are calculated from basic principles. A physical discussion of the commutators suggest that the electromagnetic fields are macroscopic emergent properties of more fundamental physical system: the photons.

Abstract:
Two types of particles, A and B with their corresponding antiparticles, are defined in a one dimensional cyclic lattice with an odd number of sites. In each step of time evolution, each particle acts as a source for the polarization field of the other type of particle with nonlocal action but with an effect decreasing with the distance: A -->...\bar{B} B \bar{B} B \bar{B} ... ; B --> A \bar{A} A \bar{A} A ... . It is shown that the combined distribution of these particles obeys the time evolution of a free particle as given by quantum mechanics.

Abstract:
Only the position representation is used in introductory quantum mechanics and the momentum representation is not usually presented until advanced undergraduate courses. To emphasize the relativity of the representations of the abstract formulation of quantum mechanics, two examples of representations related to the operators aX+(1-a)P and (XP+PX)/2 are presented.

Abstract:
Position and momentum of a particle can take any value in a continuous spectrum; these values are independent but their indeterminacies are correlated; momentum and position are mutually the generators of the transformations in each other. It is shown in a concise way, how all these features arise solely from their commutation relation $[X,P]=i\hbar$. The article is complete and self contained, adequate for didactic use.

Abstract:
The free electromagnetic field, solution of Maxwell's equations and carrier of energy, momentum and spin, is construed as an emergent collective property of an ensemble of photons, and with this, the consistency of an interpretation that considers that the photons, and not the electromagnetic fields, are the primary ontology is established.

Abstract:
The effect of different amounts of oat bran on breadmaking was studied using also additives in the formulation. The aim of this experimental work was to evaluate the technological performance of oat bran in bread and the nutritional improvement resulting from the increased content of fiber and oil. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and the results were compared by Duncan’s test at a significance level of 0.05. With the addition of oat bran, the specific volume varied in such a way that the greater the amount of bran in the mixture, the lower the specific volume of bread. The addition of the proposed additives, however, helped significantly increase the volume. Besides, a change in the fatty acid profile, with a higher content in unsaturated fatty acids, as well as larger amounts of dietary fiber, was observed.

Abstract:
The formalism of quantum mechanics is presented in a way that its interpretation as a classical field theory is emphasized. Two coupled real fields are defined with given equations of motion. Densities and currents associated to the fields are found with their corresponding conserved quantities. The behavior of these quantities under a galilean transformation suggest the association of the fields with a quantum mechanical free particle. An external potential is introduced in the Lagrange formalism. The description is equivalent to the conventional Schr\"odinger equation treatment of a particle. We discuss the attempts to build an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on this scheme. The fields become the primary onthology of the theory and the particles appear as emergent properties of the fields. These interpretations face serious problems for systems with many degrees of freedom.