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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461991 matches for " A. Wongwathanarat "
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Hydrodynamical Neutron Star Kicks in Three Dimensions
A. Wongwathanarat,H. -Th. Janka,E. Mueller
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/725/1/L106
Abstract: Using three-dimensional (3D) simulations of neutrino-powered supernova explosions we show that the hydrodynamical kick scenario proposed by Scheck et al. on the basis of two-dimensional (2D) models can yield large neutron star (NS) recoil velocities also in 3D. Although the shock stays relatively spherical, standing accretion-shock and convective instabilities lead to a globally asymmetric mass and energy distribution in the postshock layer. An anisotropic momentum distribution of the ejecta is built up only after the explosion sets in. Total momentum conservation implies the acceleration of the NS on a timescale of 1-3 seconds, mediated mainly by long-lasting, asymmetric accretion downdrafts and the anisotropic gravitational pull of large inhomogeneities in the ejecta. In a limited set of 15 solar-mass models with an explosion energy of about 10^51 erg this stochastic mechanism is found to produce kicks from <100 km/s to >500 km/s, and >1000 km/s seem possible. Strong rotational flows around the accreting NS do not develop in our collapsing, non-rotating progenitors. The NS spins therefore remain low with estimated periods of about 500-1000 ms and no alignment with the kicks.
Three-dimensional neutrino-driven supernovae: Neutron star kicks, spins, and asymmetric ejection of nucleosynthesis products
A. Wongwathanarat,H. -Th. Janka,E. Mueller
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220636
Abstract: We present 3D simulations of supernova (SN) explosions of nonrotating stars, triggered by the neutrino-heating mechanism with a suitable choice of the core-neutrino luminosity. Our results show that asymmetric mass ejection caused by hydrodynamic instabilities can accelerate the neutron star (NS) up to recoil velocities of more than 700 km/s by the "gravitational tug-boat mechanism", which is enough to explain most observed pulsar velocities. The associated NS spin periods are about 100 ms to 8 s without any correlation between spin and kick magnitudes or directions. This suggests that faster spins and a possible spin-kick alignment might require angular momentum in the progenitor core prior to collapse. Our simulations for the first time demonstrate a clear correlation between the size of the NS kick and anisotropic ejection of heavy elements created by explosive burning behind the shock. In the case of large NS kicks the explosion is significantly stronger opposite to the kick vector. Therefore the bulk of the Fe-group elements, in particular nickel, is ejected mostly in large clumps against the kick direction. This contrasts with the case of low recoil velocity, where the Ni-rich lumps are more isotropically distributed. Intermediate-mass nuclei heavier than Si (like Ca and Ti) also exhibit a significant enhancement in the hemisphere opposite to the direction of fast NS motion, while the distribution of C, O, and Ne is not affected, and that of Mg only marginally. Mapping the spatial distribution of the heavy elements in SN remnants with identified pulsar motion may offer an important diagnostic test of the kick mechanism. Different from kick scenarios based on anisotropic neutrino emission, our hydrodynamical acceleration model predicts enhanced ejection of Fe-group elements and of their nuclear precursors in the direction opposite to the NS recoil. (abridged)
Parametrized 3D models of neutrino-driven supernova explosions: Neutrino emission asymmetries and gravitational-wave signals
E. Müller,H. -Th. Janka,A. Wongwathanarat
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117611
Abstract: Time-dependent and direction-dependent neutrino and gravitational-wave (GW) signatures are presented for a set of 3D hydrodynamic models of parametrized, neutrino-driven supernova explosions of non-rotating 15 and 20 solar mass stars. We employ an approximate treatment of neutrino transport. Due to the excision of the high-density core of the proto-neutron star and the use of an axis-free overset grid, the models can be followed from the post-bounce accretion phase for more than one second without imposing any symmetry restrictions. GW and neutrino emission exhibit the generic time-dependent features known from 2D models. Non-radial hydrodynamic mass motions in the accretion layer and their interaction with the outer layers of the proto-neutron star together with anisotropic neutrino emission give rise to a GW signal with an amplitude of ~5-20 cm and frequencies 100--500 Hz. The GW emission from mass motions reaches a maximum before the explosion sets in. Afterwards the GW signal exhibits a low-frequency modulation, in some cases describing a quasi-monotonic growth, associated with the non-spherical expansion of the explosion shock wave and the large-scale anisotropy of the escaping neutrino flow. Variations of the mass-quadrupole moment due to convective activity inside the nascent neutron star contribute a high-frequency component to the GW signal during the post-explosion phase. The GW signals exhibit strong variability between the two polarizations, different explosion simulations and different observer directions, and does not possess any template character. The neutrino emission properties show fluctuations over the neutron star surface on spatial and temporal scales that reflect the different types of non-spherical mass motions. The modulation amplitudes of the measurable neutrino luminosities and mean energies are significantly smaller than predicted by 2D simulations.
SASI Activity in Three-Dimensional Neutrino-Hydrodynamics Simulations of Supernova Cores
F. Hanke,B. Mueller,A. Wongwathanarat,A. Marek,H. -Th. Janka
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/770/1/66
Abstract: The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 Msun progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the Prometheus-Vertex code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in 1D and 2D models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l=1, m=0,-1,+1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in 3D can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parametrized 3D simulations of a 25 Msun progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Core-Collapse Supernovae: From Shock Revival to Shock Breakout
Annop Wongwathanarat,Ewald Mueller,H. -Thomas Janka
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201425025
Abstract: We present 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae from blast-wave initiation by the neutrino-driven mechanism to shock breakout from the stellar surface, considering two 15 Msun red supergiants (RSG) and two blue supergiants (BSG) of 15 Msun and 20 Msun. We demonstrate that the metal-rich ejecta in homologous expansion still carry fingerprints of asymmetries at the beginning of the explosion, but the final metal distribution is massively affected by the detailed progenitor structure. The most extended and fastest metal fingers and clumps are correlated with the biggest and fastest-rising plumes of neutrino-heated matter, because these plumes most effectively seed the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the C+O/He and He/H composition-shell interfaces after the passage of the SN shock. The extent of radial mixing, global asymmetry of the metal-rich ejecta, RT-induced fragmentation of initial plumes to smaller-scale fingers, and maximal Ni and minimal H velocities do not only depend on the initial asphericity and explosion energy (which determine the shock and initial Ni velocities) but also on the density profiles and widths of C+O core and He shell and on the density gradient at the He/H transition, which lead to unsteady shock propagation and the formation of reverse shocks. Both RSG explosions retain a great global metal asymmetry with pronounced clumpiness and substructure, deep penetration of Ni fingers into the H-envelope (with maximum velocities of 4000-5000 km/s for an explosion energy around 1.5 bethe) and efficient inward H-mixing. While the 15 Msun BSG shares these properties (maximum Ni speeds up to ~3500 km/s), the 20 Msun BSG develops a much more roundish geometry without pronounced metal fingers (maximum Ni velocities only ~2200 km/s) because of reverse-shock deceleration and insufficient time for strong RT growth and fragmentation at the He/H interface.
An axis-free overset grid in spherical polar coordinates for simulating 3D self-gravitating flows
Annop Wongwathanarat,Nicolay J. Hammer,Ewald Müller
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913435
Abstract: A type of overlapping grid in spherical coordinates called the Yin-Yang grid is successfully implemented into a 3D version of the explicit Eulerian grid-based code PROMETHEUS including self-gravity. The modified code successfully passed several standard hydrodynamic tests producing results which are in very good agreement with analytic solutions. Moreover, the solutions obtained with the Yin-Yang grid exhibit no peculiar behaviour at the boundary between the two grid patches. The code has also been successfully used to model astrophysically relevant situations, namely equilibrium polytropes, a Taylor-Sedov explosion, and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. According to our results, the usage of the Yin-Yang grid greatly enhances the suitability and efficiency of 3D explicit Eulerian codes based on spherical polar coordinates for astrophysical flows.
Supernova 1987A: neutrino-driven explosions in three dimensions and light curves
Victor Utrobin,Annop Wongwathanarat,H. -Thomas Janka,Ewald Mueller
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201425513
Abstract: The well-studied type IIP SN 1987A, produced by the explosion of a blue supergiant (BSG) star, is a touchstone for massive-star evolution, simulations of neutrino-driven explosions, and modeling of light curves and spectra. In the framework of the neutrino-driven mechanism, we study the dependence of explosion properties on the structure of four different BSGs and compare the corresponding light curves with observations of SN 1987A. We perform 3D simulations with the PROMETHEUS code until about one day and map the results to the 1D code CRAB for the light curve calculations. All of our 3D models with explosion energies compatible with SN 1987A produce 56Ni in rough agreement with the amount deduced from fitting the radioactively powered light-curve tail. One of the progenitors yields maximum velocities of ~3000 km/s for the bulk of ejected 56Ni, consistent with observations. In all of our models inward mixing of hydrogen during the 3D evolution leads to minimum H-velocities below 100 km/s, in good agreement with spectral observations. The considered BSG models, 3D explosion simulations, and light-curve calculations can thus explain basic observational features of SN 1987A. However, all progenitors have too large pre-SN radii to reproduce the narrow initial luminosity peak, and the structure of their outer layers is not suitable to match the observed light curve during the first 30-40 days. Only one stellar model has a structure of the He core and the He/H composition interface that enables sufficient outward mixing of 56Ni and inward mixing of hydrogen to produce a good match of the dome-like shape of the observed light-curve maximum. But this model falls short of the He-core mass of 6 Msun inferred from the absolute luminosity of the pre-SN star. The lack of an adequate pre-SN model for SN 1987A is a pressing challenge for the theory of massive-star evolution. (Abridged)
Fast time variations of supernova neutrino signals from 3-dimensional models
Tina Lund,Annop Wongwathanarat,Hans-Thomas Janka,Ewald Müller,Georg Raffelt
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.105031
Abstract: We study supernova neutrino flux variations in the IceCube detector, using 3D models based on a simplified neutrino transport scheme. The hemispherically integrated neutrino emission shows significantly smaller variations compared with our previous study of 2D models, largely because of the reduced SASI activity in this set of 3D models which we interpret as a pessimistic extreme. For the studied cases, intrinsic flux variations up to about 100 Hz frequencies could still be detected in a supernova closer than about 2 kpc.
Core-Collapse Supernovae: Explosion Dynamics, Neutrinos and Gravitational Waves
Bernhard Mueller,Hans-Thomas Janka,Andreas Marek,Florian Hanke,Annop Wongwathanarat,Ewald Mueller
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The quest for the supernova explosion mechanism has been one of the outstanding challenges in computational astrophysics for several decades. Simulations have now progressed to a stage at which the solution appears close and neutrino and gravitational wave signals from self-consistent explosion models are becoming available. Here we focus one of the recent advances in supernova modeling, the inclusion of general relativity in multi-dimensional neutrino hydrodynamics simulations, and present the latest simulation results for an 11.2 and a 15 solar mass progenitor. We also mention 3D effects as another aspect in supernova physics awaiting further, more thorough investigation.
The Spread of Infectious Disease on Network Using Neutrosophic Algebraic Structure  [PDF]
A. Zubairu, A. A. Ibrahim
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2017.72009
Abstract: Network theory and its associated techniques has tremendous impact in various discipline and research, from computer, engineering, architecture, humanities, social science to system biology. However in recent years epidemiology can be said to utilizes these potentials of network theory more than any other discipline. Graph which has been considered as the processor in network theory has a close relationship with epidemiology that dated as far back as early 1900 [1]. This is because the earliest models of infectious disease transfer were in a form of compartment which defines a graph even though adequate knowledge of mathematical computation and mechanistic behavior is scarce. This paper introduces a new type of disease propagation on network utilizing the potentials of neutrosophic algebraic group structures and graph theory.
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