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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461784 matches for " A. Wiedensohler "
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Long term measurements of submicrometer urban aerosols: statistical analysis for correlations with meteorological conditions and trace gases
B. Wehner ,A. Wiedensohler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2003,
Abstract: Long-term measurements (over 4 years) of particle number size distributions (submicrometer particles, 3-800 nm in diameter), trace gases (NO, NO2, and O3), and meteorological parameters (global radiation, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, etc.) were taken in a moderately polluted site in the city of Leipzig (Germany). The resulting complex data set was analyzed with respect to seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation of the submicrometer aerosol. Car traffic produced a peak in the number size distribution at around 20 nm particle diameter during morning rush hour on weekdays. A second peak at 10-15 nm particle diameter occurred around noon during summer, confirmed by high correlation between concentration of particles less than 20 nm and the global radiation. This new-particle formation at noon was correlated with the amount of global radiation. A high concentration of accumulation mode particles (between 100 and 800 nm), which are associated with large particle-surface area, might prevent this formation. Such high particle concentration in the ultrafine region (particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter) was not detected in the particle mass, and thus, particle mass concentration is not suitable for determining the diurnal patterns of particles. In summer, statistical time series analysis showed a cyclic pattern of ultrafine particles with a period of one day and confirmed the correlation with global radiation. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a strong correlation between the particle concentration for 20-800 nm particles and the NO- and NO2-concentrations, indicating the influence of combustion processes on this broad size range, in particular during winter. In addition, PCA also revealed that particle concentration depended on meteorological conditions such as wind speed and wind direction, although the dependence differed with particle size class.
Long term measurements of submicrometer urban aerosols: statistical analysis for correlations with meteorological conditions and trace gases
B. Wehner,A. Wiedensohler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2002,
Abstract: Long-term measurements (over 4 years) of particle number size distributions (submicrometer particles, 3--800 nm in diameter), trace gases (NO, NO2, and O3), and meteorological parameters (global radiation, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, etc.) were taken in a moderately polluted site in the city of Leipzig (Germany). The resulting complex data set was analyzed with respect to seasonal, weekly, and diurnal variation of the submicrometer aerosol. Car traffic produced a peak in the number size distribution at around 30 nm particle diameter during morning rush hour on weekdays. A second peak at 10--15 nm particle diameter occurred around noon during summer, confirmed by high correlation between concentration of particles less than 20 nm and the global radiation. This new-particle formation at noon was correlated with the amount of global radiation. A high concentration of accumulation mode particles (between 100 and 800 nm), which are associated with large particle-surface area, might prevent this formation. Such high particle concentration in the ultrafine region (particles smaller than 20 nm in diameter) was not detected in the particle mass, and thus, particle mass concentration is not suitable for determining the diurnal patterns of particles. In summer, statistical time series analysis showed a cyclic pattern of ultrafine particles with a period of one day and confirmed the correlation with global radiation. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a strong correlation between the particle concentration for 20 -- 800 nm particles and the NO- and NO2-concentrations, indicating the influence of combustion processes on this broad size range, in particular during winter. In addition, PCA also revealed that particle concentration depended on meteorological conditions such as wind speed and wind direction, although the dependence differed with particle size class.
Particle mobility size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions
A. Wiedensohler,W. Birmili,A. Nowak,A. Sonntag
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-3-5521-2010
Abstract: Particle mobility size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers) or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers) have found a wide application in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. This article results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research). Under controlled laboratory conditions, the number size distribution from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. Instruments with identical design agreed within ±3% in the peak number concentration when all settings were done carefully. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry for atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations are given for atmospheric measurements including continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyser. In cooperation with EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Program), a new uniform data structure was introduced for saving and disseminating the data within EMEP. This structure contains three levels: raw data, processed data, and final particle size distributions. Importantly, we recommend reporting raw measurements including all relevant instrument parameters as well as a complete documentation on all data transformation and correction steps. These technical and data structure standards aim to enhance the quality of long-term size distribution measurements, their comparability between different networks and sites, and their transparency and traceability back to raw data.
Number size distributions and seasonality of submicron particles in Europe 2008–2009
A. Asmi,A. Wiedensohler,P. Laj,A.-M. Fjaeraa
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-5505-2011
Abstract: Two years of harmonized aerosol number size distribution data from 24 European field monitoring sites have been analysed. The results give a comprehensive overview of the European near surface aerosol particle number concentrations and number size distributions between 30 and 500 nm of dry particle diameter. Spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols in the particle sizes most important for climate applications are presented. We also analyse the annual, weekly and diurnal cycles of the aerosol number concentrations, provide log-normal fitting parameters for median number size distributions, and give guidance notes for data users. Emphasis is placed on the usability of results within the aerosol modelling community. We also show that the aerosol number concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles (with 100 nm dry diameter as a cut-off between modes) are related, although there is significant variation in the ratios of the modal number concentrations. Different aerosol and station types are distinguished from this data and this methodology has potential for further categorization of stations aerosol number size distribution types. The European submicron aerosol was divided into characteristic types: Central European aerosol, characterized by single mode median size distributions, unimodal number concentration histograms and low variability in CCN-sized aerosol number concentrations; Nordic aerosol with low number concentrations, although showing pronounced seasonal variation of especially Aitken mode particles; Mountain sites (altitude over 1000 m a.s.l.) with a strong seasonal cycle in aerosol number concentrations, high variability, and very low median number concentrations. Southern and Western European regions had fewer stations, which decreases the regional coverage of these results. Aerosol number concentrations over the Britain and Ireland had very high variance and there are indications of mixed air masses from several source regions; the Mediterranean aerosol exhibit high seasonality, and a strong accumulation mode in the summer. The greatest concentrations were observed at the Ispra station in Northern Italy with high accumulation mode number concentrations in the winter. The aerosol number concentrations at the Arctic station Zeppelin in Ny-AA lesund in Svalbard have also a strong seasonal cycle, with greater concentrations of accumulation mode particles in winter, and dominating summer Aitken mode indicating more recently formed particles. Observed particles did not show any statistically significant regional work-week or weekda
Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia
A. Massling, S. Leinert, A. Wiedensohler,D. Covert
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise. Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin. For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size) consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm), a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass type. Nearly hydrophobic particles indicating dust particles in the sub-micrometer size regime were only found for particles with Dp=250 and 350 nm during a time period when the aerosol was influenced by transport from Asian desert regions.
Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia
A. Massling,S. Leinert,A. Wiedensohler,D. Covert
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size range were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise. Two different systems were used to determine hygroscopic growth of the ambient marine boundary layer aerosol at 90% relative humidity (RH). An H-TDMA-system (Hygroscopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) (Massling et al., 2003) and a newly developed H-DMA-APS-system (Hygroscopicity-Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) (Leinert and Wiedensohler, 2006) were applied to analyze sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles, respectively. Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle fractions – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin. For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size) indicating ammonium sulfate as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm), a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass type. Nearly hydrophobic particles indicating dust particles in the sub-micrometer size regime were only found for particles with Dp=250 and 350 nm during a time period when the aerosol was significantly
Cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air and biomass burning smoke near the mega-city Guangzhou, China – Part 1: Size-resolved measurements and implications for the modeling of aerosol particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity
D. Rose,A. Nowak,P. Achtert,A. Wiedensohler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate, but their abundance, properties and sources are highly variable and not well known. We have measured and characterized CCN in polluted air and biomass burning smoke during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign on 1–30 July 2006 at a rural site ~60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeastern China. CCN efficiency spectra (activated fraction vs. dry particle diameter; 20–300 nm) were recorded at water vapor supersaturations (S) in the range of 0.07% to 1.27%. Depending on S, the dry CCN activation diameters were in the range of 30–200 nm, corresponding to effective hygroscopicity parameters κ in the range of 0.1–0.5. The hygroscopicity of particles in the accumulation size range was generally higher than that of particles in the nucleation and Aitken size range. The campaign average value of κ for all aerosol particles across the investigated size range was 0.3, which equals the average value of κ for other continental locations. During a strong local biomass burning event, the activation diameters increased by ~10% and the average value of κ dropped to 0.2, which can be considered as characteristic for freshly emitted smoke from the burning of agricultural waste. At low S (≤0.27%), the maximum activated fraction remained generally well below one, which indicates substantial proportions of externally mixed CCN-inactive particles with much lower hygroscopicity – most likely soot particles (up to ~60% at ~250 nm). The mean CCN number concentrations (NCCN,S) ranged from 1100 cm 3 at S=0.07% to 16 000 cm 3 at S=1.27%, representing ~7% to ~85% of the total aerosol particle number concentration. Based on the measurement data, we have tested different model approaches (power laws and κ-K hler model) for the approximation/prediction of NCCN,S as a function of water vapor supersaturation, aerosol particle number concentration, size distribution and hygroscopicity. Depending on S and on the model approach, the relative deviations between measured and predicted NCCN,S ranged from a few percent to several hundred percent. The largest deviations occurred at low S and with power laws based on particle number concentration. With the κ-K hler model and a constant hygroscopicity parameter of 0.3, the deviations were on average less than ~20%, which confirms that κ=0.3 may be suitable for approximating the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of continental aerosols in large scale models of the atmosphere and climate. On the other hand, the temporal
Correlation between traffic density and particle size distribution in a street canyon and the dependence on wind direction
J. Voigtl nder, T. Tuch, W. Birmili,A. Wiedensohler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: Combustion of fossil fuel in gasoline and diesel powered vehicles is a major source of aerosol particles in a city. In a street canyon, the number concentration of particles smaller than 300 nm in diameter, which can be inhaled and cause serious health effects, is dominated by particles originating from this source. In this study we measured both, particle number size distribution and traffic density continuously in a characteristic street canyon in Germany for a time period of 6 months. The street canyon with multistory buildings and 4 traffic lanes is very typical for larger cities. Thus, the measurements also are representative for many other street canyons in Europe. In contrast to previous studies, we measured and analyzed the particle number size distribution with high size resolution using a Twin Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMPS). The measured size range was from 3 to 800 nm, separated into 40 size channels. Correlation coefficients between particle number concentration for integrated size ranges and traffic counts of 0.5 were determined. Correlations were also calculated for each of the 40 size channels of the DMPS system, respectively. We found a maximum of the correlation coefficients for nucleation mode particles in the size range between 10 and 20 nm in diameter. Furthermore, correlations between traffic and particles in dependence of meteorological data were calculated. Relevant parameters were identified by a multiple regression method. In our experiment only wind parameters have influenced the particle number concentration significantly. High correlation coefficients (up to 0.8) could be observed in the lee side of the street canyon for particles in the range between 10 and 100 nm in diameter. These values are significantly higher than correlation coefficients for other wind directions and other particle sizes. A minimum was found in the luff side of the street. These findings are in good agreement with theory of fluid dynamics in street canyons.
Analysis of exceedances in the daily PM10 mass concentration (50 μg m 3) at a roadside station in Leipzig, Germany
C. Engler, W. Birmili, G. Spindler,A. Wiedensohler
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: Five years of PM10 and PM2.5 ambient air measurements at a roadside, an urban, and a regional background site in Leipzig (Germany) were analyzed for violations of the legal PM10 limit value (EC, 1999). The annual mean PM10 concentrations at the three sites were well below the legal threshold of 40 μg m 3 (32.6, 22.0 and 21.7 μg m 3, respectively). At roadside, the daily maximum value of 50 μg m 3 was exceeded on 232 days (13% of all days) in 2005–2009, which led to a violation of the EC directive in three out of five years. We analysed the meteorological factors and local source contributions that eventually led to the exceedances of the daily limit value. As noted in other urban environments before, most exceedance days were observed in the cold season. Exceedance days were most probable under synoptic situations characterised by stagnant winds, low temperatures and strong temperature inversions in winter time. However, these extreme situations accounted for only less than half of the exeedance days. We also noticed a significant number of exceedance days that occurred in the cold season under south-westerly winds, and in the warm season in the presence of easterly winds. Our analysis suggests that local as well as regional sources of PM are equally responsible for exceedances days at the roadside site. The conclusion is that a combined effort of local, national and international reduction measures appears most likely to avoid systematic exceedances of the daily limit value in the future.
Characterisation of a new Fast CPC and its application for atmospheric particle measurements
B. Wehner, H. Siebert, M. Hermann, F. Ditas,A. Wiedensohler
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: A new Fast CPC (FCPC) using butanol as working fluid has been built based on the setup described by Wang et al. (2002). In this study, we describe the new instrument. The functionality and stable operation of the FCPC in the laboratory, as well as under atmospheric conditions, is demonstrated. The counting efficiency was measured for three temperature differences between FCPC saturator and condenser, 25, 27, and 29 K, subsequently resulting in a lower detection limit between 6.1 and 8.5 nm. Above 25 nm the FCPC reached 98–100% counting efficiency compared to an electrometer used as the reference instrument. The FCPC demonstrated its ability to perform continuous measurements over a few hours in the laboratory with respect to the total particle counting. The instrument has been implemented into the airborne measurement platform ACTOS to perform measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. Therefore, a stable operation over two hours is required. The mixing time of the new FCPC was estimated in two ways using a time series with highly fluctuating particle number concentrations. The analysis of a sharp ramp due to a concentration change results in a mixing time of 5 ms while a spectral analysis of atmospheric data demonstrates that for frequencies up to 10 Hz coherent structures can be resolved before sampling noise dominates.
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