Abstract:
For describing the first-order isostructural valence phase transition in mixed valence compounds we develop a new approach based on the lattice Anderson model. We take into account the Coulomb interaction between localized f and conduction band electrons and two mechanisms of electron-lattice coupling. One is related to the volume dependence of the hybridization. The other is related to local deformations produced by f- shell size fluctuations accompanying valence fluctuations. The large f -state degeneracy allows us to use the 1/N expansion method. Within the model we develop a mean-field theory for the first-order valence phase transition in YbInCu_{4}. It is shown that the Coulomb interaction enhances the exchange interaction between f and conduction band electron spins and is the driving force of the phase transition. A comparison between the theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the valence change, susceptibility, specific heat, entropy, elastic constants and volume change in YbInCu_{4} and YbAgCu_{4} are presented, and a good quantitative agreement is found. On the basis of the model we describe the evolution from the first-order valence phase transition to the continuous transition into the heavy-fermion ground state in the series of compounds YbIn_{1-x}Ag_{x}Cu_{4}. The effect of pressure on physical properties of YbInCu_{4} is studied and the H-T phase diagram is found.

Abstract:
Using an exactly solvable cortical model of a neuronal network, we show that, by increasing the intensity of shot noise (flow of random spikes bombarding neurons), the network undergoes first- and second-order non-equilibrium phase transitions. We study the nature of the transitions, bursts and avalanches of neuronal activity. Saddle-node and supercritical Hopf bifurcations are the mechanisms of emergence of sustained network oscillations. We show that the network stimulated by shot noise behaves similar to the Morris-Lecar model of a biological neuron stimulated by an applied current.

Abstract:
We find the exact critical temperature $T_c$ of the nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic Ising model on an `equilibrium' random graph with an arbitrary degree distribution $P(k)$. We observe an anomalous behavior of the magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat, when $P(k)$ is fat-tailed, or, loosely speaking, when the fourth moment of the distribution diverges in infinite networks. When the second moment becomes divergent, $T_c$ approaches infinity, the phase transition is of infinite order, and size effect is anomalously strong.

Abstract:
We develop the theory of the k-core (bootstrap) percolation on uncorrelated random networks with arbitrary degree distributions. We show that the k-core percolation is an unusual, hybrid phase transition with a jump emergence of the k-core as at a first order phase transition but also with a critical singularity as at a continuous transition. We describe the properties of the k-core, explain the meaning of the order parameter for the k-core percolation, and reveal the origin of the specific critical phenomena. We demonstrate that a so-called ``corona'' of the k-core plays a crucial role (corona is a subset of vertices in the k-core which have exactly k neighbors in the k-core). It turns out that the k-core percolation threshold is at the same time the percolation threshold of finite corona clusters. The mean separation of vertices in corona clusters plays the role of the correlation length and diverges at the critical point. We show that a random removal of even one vertex from the k-core may result in the collapse of a vast region of the k-core around the removed vertex. The mean size of this region diverges at the critical point. We find an exact mapping of the k-core percolation to a model of cooperative relaxation. This model undergoes critical relaxation with a divergent rate at some critical moment.

Abstract:
We study pair correlations in cooperative systems placed on complex networks. We show that usually in these systems, the correlations between two interacting objects (e.g., spins), separated by a distance $\ell$, decay, on average, faster than $1/(\ell z_\ell)$. Here $z_\ell$ is the mean number of the $\ell$-th nearest neighbors of a vertex in a network. This behavior, in particular, leads to a dramatic weakening of correlations between second and more distant neighbors on networks with fat-tailed degree distributions, which have a divergent number $z_2$ in the infinite network limit. In this case, only the pair correlations between the nearest neighbors are observable. We obtain the pair correlation function of the Ising model on a complex network and also derive our results in the framework of a phenomenological approach.

Abstract:
We develop a phenomenological theory of critical phenomena in networks with an arbitrary distribution of connections $P(k)$. The theory shows that the critical behavior depends in a crucial way on the form of $P(k)$ and differs strongly from the standard mean-field behavior. The critical behavior observed in various networks is analyzed and found to be in agreement with the theory.

Abstract:
We consider the general p-state Potts model on random networks with a given degree distribution (random Bethe lattices). We find the effect of the suppression of a first order phase transition in this model when the degree distribution of the network is fat-tailed, that is, in more precise terms, when the second moment of the distribution diverges. In this situation the transition is continuous and of infinite order, and size effect is anomalously strong. In particular, in the case of $p=1$, we arrive at the exact solution, which coincides with the known solution of the percolation problem on these networks.

Abstract:
We find that scale-free random networks are excellently modeled by a deterministic graph. This graph has a discrete degree distribution (degree is the number of connections of a vertex) which is characterized by a power-law with exponent $\gamma=1+\ln3/\ln2$. Properties of this simple structure are surprisingly close to those of growing random scale-free networks with $\gamma$ in the most interesting region, between 2 and 3. We succeed to find exactly and numerically with high precision all main characteristics of the graph. In particular, we obtain the exact shortest-path-length distribution. For the large network ($\ln N \gg 1$) the distribution tends to a Gaussian of width $\sim \sqrt{\ln N}$ centered at $\bar{\ell} \sim \ln N$. We show that the eigenvalue spectrum of the adjacency matrix of the graph has a power-law tail with exponent $2+\gamma$.

Abstract:
We study the Kondo resonance in a spin-1/2 single impurity Anderson model with a gapless conduction band using the equation of motion approach in order to obtain the impurity spectral function. We study two different scenarios for gapless systems: a purely power-law energy dependence of the density of states or a constant density of states with a gapless behavior near the Fermi level. We demonstrate that strong electron-electron correlations lead to a sharp peak in the impurity spectral function in the case of a large exchange coupling ($J>J_{c}$) or equivalently, a strong hybridization ($V>V_{c}$). This Kondo-like peak emerges much below the Fermi level in the case of a strongly depleted density of states. These results are compared with the ones from renormalization group approaches.

Abstract:
We analytically describe the architecture of randomly damaged uncorrelated networks as a set of successively enclosed substructures -- k-cores. The k-core is the largest subgraph where vertices have at least k interconnections. We find the structure of k-cores, their sizes, and their birth points -- the bootstrap percolation thresholds. We show that in networks with a finite mean number z_2 of the second-nearest neighbors, the emergence of a k-core is a hybrid phase transition. In contrast, if z_2 diverges, the networks contain an infinite sequence of k-cores which are ultra-robust against random damage.