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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 539298 matches for " A. V. Filippenko "
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Optical Observations of Type II Supernovae
A. V. Filippenko
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1291705
Abstract: I present an overview of optical observations (mostly spectra) of Type II supernovae. SNe II are defined by the presence of hydrogen, and exhibit a very wide variety of properties. SNe II-L tend to show evidence of late-time interaction with circumstellar material. SNe IIn are distinguished by relatively narrow emission lines with little or no P-Cygni absorption component and (quite often) slowly declining light curves; they probably have unusually dense circumstellar gas with which the ejecta interact. Some SNe IIn, however, might not be genuine SNe, but rather are super-outbursts of luminous blue variables. The progenitors of SNe IIb contain only a low-mass skin of hydrogen; their spectra gradually evolve to resemble those of SNe Ib. Limited spectropolarimetry thus far indicates large asymmetries in the ejecta of SNe IIn, but much smaller ones in SNe II-P. There is intriguing, but still inconclusive, evidence that some peculiar SNe IIn might be associated with gamma-ray bursts. SNe II-P are useful for cosmological distance determinations with the Expanding Photosphere Method, which is independent of the Cepheid distance scale.
Type Ia Supernovae and Their Cosmological Implications
A. V. Filippenko,A. G. Riess
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We review the use of Type Ia supernovae for cosmological distance determinations. Low-redshift SNe Ia (z < 0.1) demonstrate that (a) the Hubble expansion is linear, (b) H_0 = 65 +/- 2 (statistical) km/s/Mpc, (c) the bulk motion of the Local Group is consistent with the COBE result, and (d) the properties of dust in other galaxies are similar to those of dust in the Milky Way. We find that the light curves of high-redshift (z = 0.3-1) SNe Ia are stretched in a manner consistent with the expansion of space; similarly, their spectra exhibit slower temporal evolution (by a factor of 1 + z) than those of nearby SNe Ia. The luminosity distances of our first set of 16 high-redshift SNe Ia are, on average, 10-15% farther than expected in a low mass-density (Omega_M=0.2) universe without a cosmological constant. Preliminary analysis of our second set of 9 SNe Ia is consistent with this. Our work strongly supports eternally expanding models with positive cosmological constant and a current acceleration of the expansion. We address many potential sources of systematic error; at present, none of them reconciles the data with Omega_Lambda=0 and q_0 >= 0. The dynamical age of the Universe is estimated to be 14.2 +/- 1.7 Gyr, consistent with the ages of globular star clusters.
Evidence from Type Ia Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe
A. V. Filippenko,A. G. Riess
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1328887
Abstract: We review the use of Type Ia supernovae for cosmological distance determinations. Low-redshift SNe Ia (z < 0.1) demonstrate that the Hubble expansion is linear, that H_0 = 65 +/- 2 (statistical) km/s/Mpc, and that the properties of dust in other galaxies are similar to those of dust in the Milky Way. We find that the light curves of high-redshift (z = 0.3-1) SNe Ia are stretched in a manner consistent with the expansion of space; similarly, their spectra exhibit slower temporal evolution (by a factor of 1 + z) than those of nearby SNe Ia. The luminosity distances of our first set of 16 high-redshift SNe Ia are, on average, 10-15% farther than expected in a low mass-density (Omega_M=0.2) universe without a cosmological constant. Preliminary analysis of our second set of 9 SNe Ia is consistent with this. Our work supports models with positive cosmological constant and a current acceleration of the expansion. We address the main potential sources of systematic error; at present, none of them appears to reconcile the data with Omega_Lambda=0 and q_0 >= 0. The dynamical age of the Universe is estimated to be 14.2 +/- 1.7 Gyr, consistent with the ages of globular star clusters.
Multiwavelength Observations of GX 339-4 in 1996. III. Keck Spectroscopy
I. A. Smith,A. V. Filippenko,D. C. Leonard
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/307392
Abstract: As part of our multiwavelength campaign of observations of GX 339-4 in 1996 we present our Keck spectroscopy performed on May 12 UT. At this time, neither the ASM on the RXTE nor BATSE on the CGRO detected the source. The optical emission was still dominated by the accretion disk with V approximately 17 mag. The dominant emission line is H alpha, and for the first time we are able to resolve a double peaked profile. The peak separation Delta v = 370 +/- 40 km/s. Double peaked H alpha emission lines have been seen in the quiescent optical counterparts of many black hole X-ray novae. However, we find that the peak separation is significantly smaller in GX 339-4, implying that the optical emission comes from a larger radius than in the novae. The H alpha emission line may be more akin to the one in Cygnus X-1, where it is very difficult to determine if the line is intrinsically double peaked because absorption and emission lines from the companion star dominate.
Polarized Broad-Line Emission from Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei
A. J. Barth,A. V. Filippenko,E. C. Moran
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307941
Abstract: In order to determine whether unified models of active galactic nuclei apply to low-luminosity objects, we have undertaken a spectropolarimetric survey of of LINERs and Seyfert nuclei at the Keck Observatory. The 14 objects observed have a median H-alpha luminosity of 8x10^{39} erg/s, well below the typical value of ~10^{41} erg/s for Markarian Seyfert nuclei. Polarized broad H-alpha emission is detected in three LINERs: NGC 315, NGC 1052, and NGC 4261. Each of these is an elliptical galaxy with a double-sided radio jet, and the emission-line polarization in each case is oriented roughly perpendicular to the jet axis, as expected for the obscuring torus model. NGC 4261 and NGC 315 are known to contain dusty circumnuclear disks, which may be the outer extensions of the obscuring tori. The detection of polarized broad-line emission suggests that these objects are nearby, low-luminosity analogs of obscured quasars residing in narrow-line radio galaxies. The nuclear continuum of the low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395 is polarized at p = 0.67%, possibly the result of an electron scattering region near the nucleus. Continuum polarization is detected in other objects, with a median level of p = 0.36% over 5100-6100 A, but in most cases this is likely to be the result of transmission through foreground dust. The lack of significant broad-line polarization in most type 1 LINERs is consistent with the hypothesis that we view the broad-line regions of these objects directly, rather than in scattered light.
Polarized Broad H-alpha Emission from the LINER Nucleus of NGC 1052
A. J. Barth,A. V. Filippenko,E. C. Moran
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/311976
Abstract: Optical spectropolarimetry of the nucleus of the LINER NGC 1052, obtained at the Keck Observatory, reveals a rise in polarization in the wings of the H-alpha line profile. The polarization vector of H-alpha is offset by 67 degrees from the parsec-scale radio axis and by 83 degrees from the kiloparsec-scale radio axis, roughly in accord with expectations for scattering within the opening cone of an obscuring torus. The broad component of H-alpha has FWHM ~ 2100 km/s in total flux and FWHM ~ 5000 km/s in polarized light. Scattering by electrons is the mechanism most likely responsible for this broadening, and we find T_e ~ 10^5 K for the scattering medium, similar to values observed in Seyfert 2 nuclei. This is the first detection of a polarized broad emission line in a LINER, demonstrating that unified models of active galactic nuclei are applicable to at least some LINERs.
On The Progenitor of the Type II-Plateau Supernova 2003gd in Messier 74
S. D. Van Dyk,W. Li,A. V. Filippenko
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378308
Abstract: HST WFPC2 archival F606W and F300W images obtained within one year prior to the explosion of the nearby Type II supernova (SN) 2003gd in Messier 74 (NGC 628) have been analyzed to isolate the progenitor star. The SN site was located using precise astrometry applied to the HST images. Two plausible candidates are identified within 0.6" of the SN position in the F606W image. Neither candidate was detected in the F300W image. SN 2003gd appears to be of Type II-plateau (II-P), with age ~87 d on June 17 UT and with low reddening [E(B-V) = 0.13 mag]. The most likely of the two progenitor candidates has M_V_0 ~ -3.5 mag (for an extinction-corrected distance modulus of 29.3 mag) and, based on additional color information derived from a high-quality, archival ground-based I-band image, we estimate that this star was a red supergiant with initial mass M_ZAMS ~ 8 -- 9 Msun. This mass estimate is somewhat lower than, but relatively consistent with, recent limits placed on the progenitor masses of other SNe II-P, using HST data. Future HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, when the SN has faded considerably, will be extremely useful in pinpointing the exact SN location and securing identification of the progenitor. If our proposed candidate is confirmed, it will be only the sixth SN progenitor ever directly identified.
Emission-Line Properties of the Optical Filaments of NGC 1275
B. M. Sabra,J. C. Shields,A. V. Filippenko
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317793
Abstract: Extended nebular filaments are seen at optical wavelengths in NGC 1275, the central galaxy in the Perseus cluster. The agents responsible for the excitation of these filaments remain poorly understood. In this paper we investigate possible mechanisms for powering the filaments, using measurements from an extensive spectroscopic data set acquired at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope. The results show that the filaments are in an extremely low ionization and excitation state. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra allows us to measure or place sensitive upper limits on weak but important diagnostic lines. We compare the observed line intensity ratios to the predictions of various ionization models, including photoionization by an active galactic nucleus, shock heating, stellar photoionization, and photoionization by the intracluster medium. We also investigate possible roles for cluster extreme-ultraviolet emission, and filtering of cluster soft X-ray emission by an ionized screen, in the energetics of the filaments. None of these mechanisms provides an entirely satisfactory explanation for the physical state of the nebulae. Heating and ionization by reconnection of the intracluster magnetic field remains a potentially viable alternative, which merits further investigation through Faraday rotation studies.
"Hidden" Seyfert 2 Galaxies and the X-ray Background
E. C. Moran,A. V. Filippenko,R. Chornock
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/345314
Abstract: Obscured active galactic nuclei, which are classified optically as type 2 (narrow-line) Seyfert galaxies in the local universe, are by far the most promising candidates for the origin of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray background radiation. However, optical follow-up observations of faint X-ray sources in deep Chandra images have revealed surprising numbers of apparently normal galaxies at modest redshift. Such objects represent ~40-60% of the sources classified in deep Chandra surveys, raising the possibility that the X-ray galaxy population has evolved with cosmic time. Alternatively, most of the faint X-ray galaxies in question are so distant that their angular diameters are comparable to the slit widths used in ground-based spectroscopic observations; thus, their nuclear spectral features may be overwhelmed (``hidden'') by host-galaxy light. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained integrated spectra of a sample of nearby, well-studied Seyfert 2 galaxies. The data, which accurately simulate observations of distant Chandra sources, demonstrate convincingly that the defining spectral signatures of Seyfert 2s can be hidden by light from their host galaxies. In fact, 60% of the observed objects would not be classified as Seyfert 2s on the basis of their integrated spectra, similar to the fraction of faint X-ray sources identified with ``normal'' galaxies. Thus, the numbers of narrow-line active galaxies in deep Chandra surveys (and perhaps all ground-based spectroscopic surveys of distant galaxies) are likely to have been underestimated.
Ultra-compact tunable split-ring resonators
A. Vidiborskiy,V. P. Koshelets,L. V. Filippenko,S. V. Shitov,A. V. Ustinov
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4826255
Abstract: We propose tunable superconducting split-ring resonators (SRRs) employing nonlinear Josephson inductance. A fraction of SRR is replaced by Nb-AlOx-Nb Josephson tunnel junctions connected in parallel and forming a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), whose inductance is sensitive to the external dc magnetic field. Due to the lumped nature of the Josephson inductance, the SRR can be made very compact and its resonance frequency can be tuned by applying magnetic field. We present the model, results of extensive EM-simulation and experimental data for the SRR weakly coupled to a transmission line within frequency range 11-13 GHz.
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