oalib

Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99

Submit

Any time

2019 ( 586 )

2018 ( 817 )

2017 ( 752 )

2016 ( 1105 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461785 matches for " A. Toyofuku "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /461785
Display every page Item
The Impact of Bank Health on Coordination among Creditors  [PDF]
Kenta Toyofuku
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.32018
Abstract:

We investigate how the health of a relationship bank impacts upon coordination among creditors and how it affects the firms behavior. We show that if the relationship bank is healthy, creditors coordinate each other and the firm takes an efficient action but if it becomes financially distressed, a coordination problem arises ex post and the inefficient liquidation of the firms projects may occur. This coordination failure, in turn, increases the interest payments ex ante so that the firm is more likely to choose an inefficient action.

The Validity of the Reduction of Disposable Plastic Checkout Bags in Japan  [PDF]
Masakazu Yamashita, Daichi Toyofuku
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.39118
Abstract: This study examined the effect of reducing disposable plastic checkout bags used in supermarkets, convenience stores, and so on in Japan. Considering that even when these checkout bags are abolished, alternative waste bags should be newly produced, because these checkout bags have been reused as household waste bags so far, and the corresponding amount of oil is still necessary to produce them, the amount of oil saved by this bag reduction was found to be 0.2 L/person/year at most. Further, it was demonstrated that the necessity to purchase substitute bags may increase the household and financial burden on consumers.
Social Behaviours under Anaerobic Conditions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Masanori Toyofuku,Hiroo Uchiyama,Nobuhiko Nomura
International Journal of Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/405191
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well adapted to grow in anaerobic environments in the presence of nitrogen oxides by generating energy through denitrification. Environmental cues, such as oxygen and nitrogen oxide concentrations, are important in regulating the gene expression involved in this process. Recent data indicate that P. aeruginosa also employs cell-to-cell communication signals to control the denitrifying activity. The regulation of denitrification by these signalling molecules may control nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide, in turn, functions as a signalling molecule by activating certain regulatory proteins. Moreover, under denitrifying conditions, drastic changes in cell physiology and cell morphology are induced that significantly impact group behaviours, such as biofilm formation.
Social Behaviours under Anaerobic Conditions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Masanori Toyofuku,Hiroo Uchiyama,Nobuhiko Nomura
International Journal of Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/405191
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well adapted to grow in anaerobic environments in the presence of nitrogen oxides by generating energy through denitrification. Environmental cues, such as oxygen and nitrogen oxide concentrations, are important in regulating the gene expression involved in this process. Recent data indicate that P. aeruginosa also employs cell-to-cell communication signals to control the denitrifying activity. The regulation of denitrification by these signalling molecules may control nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide, in turn, functions as a signalling molecule by activating certain regulatory proteins. Moreover, under denitrifying conditions, drastic changes in cell physiology and cell morphology are induced that significantly impact group behaviours, such as biofilm formation. 1. Introduction It is well acknowledged that bacteria exhibit social behaviours by communicating with each other through signalling molecules or by developing a community known as biofilm. The social behaviour of bacteria is of great interest to researchers, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most studied bacterial model organisms. P. aeruginosa has a flexible metabolism that can utilise nitric oxides as alternative electron acceptors to produce energy when oxygen is depleted [1]. This process is called denitrification and is also performed by many other bacteria. The stepwise process of denitrification in P. aeruginosa is as follows: . The sequential steps are catalysed by the enzymes reductase (NAR), reductase (NIR), NO reductase (NOR), and N2O reductase (N2OR), respectively [2]. This process is important in the nitrogen cycle to produce nitrogen gases from and . Moreover, recent studies indicate that the denitrification process is related to the virulence of this bacterial species. P. aeruginosa is notorious as an opportunistic pathogen that infects immunocompromised patients, such as cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. How the bacteria adapt to the host environment is important in terms of its pathogenesis. The CF airway has been described as a microaerobic to anaerobic environment [3, 4]. Independent studies indicate the expression of denitrifying genes in the CF lung, suggesting that denitrification is important for the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa [5, 6]. Thus, an understanding of the physiology under anaerobic conditions is important for the understanding of bacterial virulence under such conditions. While there are many excellent reviews available about the social behaviours of P. aeruginosa under aerobic conditions, few have focused on anaerobic
Helicity Signatures in Subthreshold rho Production on Nuclei
G. J. Lolos,G. M. Huber,A. Shinozaki,Z. Papandreou,E. J. Brash,K. Hossain,M. Iurescu,D. Nordin,G. Garino,K. Maruyama,K. Maeda,T. Suda,A. Toyofuku,A. Sasaki,H. Yamashita
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We report a helicity analysis of subthreshold rho production on 2H and 12C nuclei at low photoproduction energies and large |t|. The results are indicative of a large longitudinal rho polarization (l=1, m=0) and are consistent with a strong helicity-flip mechanism of rho production. The analysis is model-independent and supports the large mass shift reported from the earlier 3He experiments.
In-Medium rho^0 Spectral Function Study via the 2H, 3He, 12C(gamma,pi+pi-) Reaction
G. M. Huber,G. J. Lolos,Z. Papandreou,A. Shinozaki,E. J. Brash,M. Iurescu,G. Garino,K. Maruyama,K. Maeda,T. Suda,A. Toyofuku,B. K. Jennings,A. Sasaki,H. Yamashita
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.68.065202
Abstract: We report a helicity analysis of sub-threshold rho^0 production on 2H, 3He and 12C at low photo-production energies. The results are indicative of a large longitudinal rho^0 polarization (l=1, m=0) and are consistent with a strong helicity-flip production mechanism. This signature is used to extract in-medium rho^0_L invariant mass distributions for all three nuclei in a manner which is less model-dependent than previous measurements. The results are compared to kinematic and phenomenological models of the rho^0 spectral function. The 2H and 3He data distributions support the role of N*(1520) excitation in shaping the in-medium rho^0_L invariant mass distribution, while the 12C distributions are consistent with quasi-free rho^0_L production. The data support an in-medium modification of the rho^0_L invariant mass distribution.
Computer-aided differential diagnosis system for Alzheimer’s disease based on machine learning with functional and morphological image features in magnetic resonance imaging  [PDF]
Yasuo Yamashita, Hidetaka Arimura, Takashi Yoshiura, Chiaki Tokunaga, Ohara Tomoyuki, Koji Kobayashi, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Nobuyoshi Ohya, Hiroshi Honda, Fukai Toyofuku
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.611137
Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a dementing disorder and one of the major public health problems in countries with greater longevity. The cerebral cortical thickness and cerebral blood flow (CBF), which are considered as morphological and functional image features, respectively, could be decreased in specific cerebral regions of patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a computer-aided classification system for AD patients based on machine learning with the morphological and functional image features derived from a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. The cortical thicknesses in ten cerebral regions were derived as morphological features by using gradient vector trajectories in fuzzy membership images. Functional CBF maps were measured with an arterial spin labeling technique, and ten regional CBF values were obtained by registration between the CBF map and Talairach atlas using an affine transformation and a free form deformation. We applied two systems based on an arterial neural network (ANN) and a support vector machine (SVM), which were trained with 4 morphological and 6 functional image features, to 15 AD patients and 15 clinically normal (CN) subjects for classification of AD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for the two systems based on the ANN and SVM with both image features were 0.901 and 0.915, respectively. The AUC values for the ANN-and SVM-based systems with the morphological features were 0.710 and 0.660, respectively, and those with the functional features were 0.878 and 0.903, respectively. Our preliminary results suggest that the proposed method may have potential for assisting radiologists in the differential diagnosis of AD patients by using morphological and functional image features.

Current Evidence on Atypical Odontalgia: Diagnosis and Clinical Management
Yoshihiro Abiko,Hirofumi Matsuoka,Itsuo Chiba,Akira Toyofuku
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/518548
Abstract: Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) complain of medically unexplained toothache. No evidence-based diagnostic criteria or treatment guidelines are yet available. The present paper addresses seven clinical questions about AO based on current knowledge in the literature and discusses diagnostic criteria and guidelines for treatment and management. The questions are (i) What is the prevalence of AO in the community? (ii) What psychological problems are experienced by patients with AO? (iii) Are there any comorbidities of AO? (iv) Is local anesthesia effective for the relief of pain in AO? (v) Are there any characteristic symptoms of AO other than spontaneous pain? (vi) Are antidepressants effective for treatment of AO? (vii) Are anticonvulsants effective for treatment of AO? Our literature search provided answers for these questions; however, there is insufficient evidence-based data to establish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of AO. Overall, some diagnostic criteria for neuropathic pain and persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder may be applied to AO patients. The patient's psychogenic background should always be considered in the treatment and/or management of AO. The clinicians may need to treat AO patients using Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters approach. 1. Introduction Patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) complain of medically unexplained toothache. Symptoms include pain without any pathological changes and/or stronger pain than would be expected from the clinical findings. AO is a subgroup of persistent idiopathic facial pain disorder as defined by the International Headache Society [1]. Any dental procedures including scaling, restorative treatment, and endodontic treatment pose potential risk of AO. In many cases, the persistent nature of the pain prompts dentists to treat the teeth in the absence of any pathological findings. The treatment often exacerbates the pain instead of relieving it. Dentists usually consider a diagnosis of AO only after the failure of invasive treatment. Although it is crucial to establish diagnostic criteria for AO, the evidence-based literature to date has been insufficient to make this possible. Several clinical management methods for AO have been reported [2–11]. The pathophysiological mechanism of AO may provide useful information for effective management. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms for AO include those with neuropathic, vascular, and psychogenic origins. Since the clinical course of AO varies among patients, and each case may stem from a different origin, a universal treatment method
Automated measurement of three-dimensional cerebral cortical thickness in Alzheimer’s patients using localized gradient vector trajectory in fuzzy membership maps  [PDF]
Chiaki Tokunaga, Hidetaka Arimura, Takashi Yoshiura, Tomoyuki Ohara, Yasuo Yamashita, Kouji Kobayashi, Taiki Magome, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Hiroshi Honda, Hideki Hirata, Masafumi Ohki, Fukai Toyofuku
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.63A042
Abstract:

Our purpose in this study was to develop an automated method for measuring three-dimensional (3D) cerebral cortical thicknesses in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using magnetic resonance (MR) images. Our proposed method consists of mainly three steps. First, a brain parenchymal region was segmented based on brain model matching. Second, a 3D fuzzy membership map for a cerebral cortical region was created by applying a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm to T1-weighted MR images. Third, cerebral cortical thickness was three- dimensionally measured on each cortical surface voxel by using a localized gradient vector trajectory in a fuzzy membership map. Spherical models with 3 mm artificial cortical regions, which were produced using three noise levels of 2%, 5%, and 10%, were employed to evaluate the proposed method. We also applied the proposed method to T1-weighted images obtained from 20 cases, i.e., 10 clinically diagnosed AD cases and 10 clinically normal (CN) subjects. The thicknesses of the 3 mm artificial cortical regions for spherical models with noise levels of 2%, 5%, and 10% were measured by the proposed method as 2.953 ± 0.342, 2.953 ± 0.342 and 2.952 ± 0.343 mm, respectively. Thus the mean thicknesses for the entire cerebral lobar region were 3.1 ± 0.4 mm for AD patients and 3.3 ± 0.4 mm for CN subjects, respectively (p < 0.05). The proposed method could be feasible for measuring the 3D cerebral cortical thickness on individual cortical surface voxels as an atrophy feature in AD.

Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats
Ayano Katagiri, Masamichi Shinoda, Kuniya Honda, Akira Toyofuku, Barry J Sessle, Koichi Iwata
Molecular Pain , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-8-23
Abstract: The head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral tongue were significantly decreased in LNC-rats compared to sham-rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent on day 1 after LNC and lasted for 17 days. On days 3, 9, 15 and 21 after LNC, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells significantly increased in the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branch regions of TG. On day 3 after LNC, P2Y12R expression occurred in GFAP-IR cells but not neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-IR cells (i.e. neurons) in TG. After 3 days of successive administration of the P2Y12R antagonist MRS2395 into TG in LNC-rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly decreased coincident with a significant reversal of the lowered head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue compared to vehicle-injected rats. Furthermore, after 3 days of successive administration of the P2YR agonist 2-MeSADP into the TG in na?ve rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased and head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-injected rats.The present findings provide the first evidence that the activation of P2Y12R in SGCs of TG following lingual nerve injury is involved in the enhancement of TG neuron activity and nocifensive reflex behavior, resulting in neuropathic pain in the tongue.Neuropathic pain occurs and persists in a heterogeneous group of etiologically different diseases involving a peripheral nerve lesion or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system. Neuropathic pain is relatively common and frequently resistant to clinical treatment [1].Injury to trigeminal nerve branches is known to cause neuropathic pain in the orofacial region [2,3]. The lingual nerve, a branch of the t
Page 1 /461785
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.