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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461905 matches for " A. Tamai "
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Comparison of Discharge Duration Curves from Two Adjacent Forested Catchments—Effect of Forest Age and Dominant Tree Species  [PDF]
Koji Tamai
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28086
Abstract: The effects of forest age and dominant tree species on the water discharge volume have been analyzed by a paired-watershed experiment in two adjacent catchments in Tatsunokuchi-yama Experimental Forest, western Japan. The control period is 1937-1943. The treated periods are 1948-1953, 1968-1977, and 1996-2003. In these treated periods, the forest age or the dominant tree species were different between two adjacent periods. Differences in the discharge duration curves from the two catchments are compared for the control and the treated periods. A significant change in the discharge duration curves is seen in the third treated period (1996-2003) on days with low water, when the forest age difference between the adjacent catchments was 35 years. This is believed to be the result of differences in forest age and forest treatment just after the occurrence of pine wilt disease.
On the Dynamic Role of Monopolistic Competition in the Monetary Economy  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki, Yoshihiro Tamai
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13024
Abstract: Much static research on the new Keynesian economics is based on the distortion caused by monopolistic pricing. When the theory of monopolistic competition is extended to monetary dynamics in an overlapping generations (OLG) model (Otaki 2007, 2009), the underemployment problem is resolved by a proper monetary policy. However, even in the full-employment equilibrium, the market mechanism does not attain the socially optimal allocation. Since the rate of population growth is assumed to be zero, the optimal gross in- flation rate in the model is unity. There is no such coordination motive in a monetary economy, and hence, the inflation rate may exceed unity. The monopolistic power lowers the inflation rate. The prices of the cur- rent goods relative to the future goods increase by virtue of the monopolistic power. This improves the life- time utility because the lowered inflation rate corrects the consumption stream, which is biased toward the current goods.
A Microeconomic Foundation for the Phillips Curve under Complete Markets without any Exogenous Price Stickiness: A Keynesian View  [PDF]
Masayuki Otaki, Yoshihiro Tamai
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25090
Abstract: Assuming that labor productivity varies with the previous employment level, we derive the Phillips curve based on the standard dynamic microeconomic foundation. The usage of the term standard implies that our theory entirely excludes assumptions unfamiliar to microeconomics such as price or information stickiness, and money in the utility function. We find that when labor productivity decreases, disinflation advances. This is because disinflation, ceteris paribus, limits the current goods supply and increases the rate of return on money (the inverse of the inflation rate) in an overlapping generations (OLG) model. In addition, mass unemployment becomes a hazard for the intergenerational skill transformation, and thus, the higher the unemployment is, the lower the labor productivity becomes in the stationary state. Consequently, the negative correlation between inflation and unemployment emerges even in the dynamic general equilibrium in complete markets. It is also noteworthy that we depend neither on linear approximations nor on numerical methods: the method used to derive the Phillips curve is purely analytical.
Corrigendum to "Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration" published in Biogeosciences, 7, 1133–1142, 2010
K. Tamai
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2010,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration
K. Tamai
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2010,
Abstract: Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a) an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b) a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. These results may be explained by the fact that different soil properties matured within different environments. It can be argued that the low soil respiration rates in the low parts of the slope in the evergreen forest resulted from soil properties and not from wet soil conditions. In the deciduous forest, soil respiration rates were more strongly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature than by soil properties. These effects were likely due to the immaturity of the forest soil.
Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration
K. Tamai
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a) an evergreen forest with mature soil and (b) a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil properties on soil respiration rates were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects were compared between the deciduous and evergreen forests. In the evergreen forest with mature soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. These results may be explained by different properties of soils that matured under different environments. Thus, we argue that the low soil respiration rates in Plot L of the evergreen forest resulted from soil properties and not from wet soil conditions. In the deciduous forest, soil respiration rates were more strongly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature than by soil properties, which were likely due to the immaturity of the forest soil.
Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of three lactobacillus spp. against antibiotic resistance salmonella typhimurium
A. Ravaei,Z. Heshmati poor,T. Z. Salehi,I. A. Tamai
Advanced Studies in Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Lactobacillus spp., as probiotics bacteria, are being increasingly studied for theirinhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria. There is some evidence that they are noteffective against gram-negative bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigatethe antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058, Lactobacillusdelbrueckii sub.sp bulgaricus PTCC 1737 and Lactobacillus leichmannii PTCC 1057against antibiotic resistance Salmonella typhimurium. The Salmonella typhimuriumstrains were identified by biochemical tests, antisera and multiplex PCR assays.Subsequently, the anti-bio gram against ten Salmonella typhimurium strains wasinvestigated using six commonly-used antibiotics. The antibacterial effect ofLactobacillus spp. was evaluated by the means of Agar disk-diffusion and Agar welldiffusionassays. This in vitro study implied that none of the Lactobacilli hadantibacterial effect against Salmonella typhimurium strains, so they are not suggested to be used asalternative treatment instead of administration of antibiotics to control S.typhimurium.
Tratamento dos transtornos do comportamento de pacientes com demência
Tamai, Sérgio;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462002000500005
Abstract: in the course of dementia non-cognitive behavioral disorders are highly prevalent. behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (bpsd) are more important on a daily basis than cognitive deficits both to the patient and caregiver given the resulting distress and disability. bpsd often lead to institution placement. the rationale for the use of psychotropic drugs is partially based on phenomenological similarities of some behaviors observed in elderly demented patients to signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depressive illnesses, anxiety or psychotic disorders in non-demented patients. in fact, bpsd are often qualitatively different from those that characterize psychotic, depressive, or anxious disorders. treatment follow-up studies suggest that the psychotropic drugs are less effective in patients with alzheimer's disease or frontal lobe dementia than in patients with psychiatric disorders. non-pharmacological approaches are the first choice in the treatment of bpsd. cholinesterase inhibitors for treating bpsd in alzheimer's disease and lewi body dementia represent a promising therapeutical approach.
Tratamento dos transtornos do comportamento de pacientes com demência
Tamai Sérgio
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2002,
Abstract: No curso da demência, transtornos n o-cognitivos comportamentais s o altamente prevalentes. Esses sintomas psicológicos e comportamentais da demência (SPCD) s o mais importantes no dia-a-dia do que os déficits cognitivos, tanto para o paciente quanto para o cuidador, em termos de angústia e incapacita o causadas. Os SPCD freqüentemente levam à institucionaliza o. O raciocínio para o uso de drogas psicotrópicas está parcialmente baseado nas semelhan as fenomenológicas entre alguns comportamentos observados em pacientes idosos dementados e sinais e sintomas de transtornos psiquiátricos, como os transtornos depressivos, psicóticos ou ansiosos, em pacientes n o-dementados. Na realidade, os SPCD s o, com freqüência, qualitativamente diferentes daqueles que caracterizam os transtornos psicóticos, depressivos ou ansiosos. Os estudos de seguimento de tratamento sugerem que as drogas antipsicóticas s o menos eficazes em pacientes com doen a de Alzheimer ou demência de lobo frontal do que em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. Abordagens n o-farmacológicas s o a primeira escolha no tratamento dos SPCD. Os inibidores da colinesterase no tratamento dos SPCD na doen a de Alzheimer e na demência cortical difusa por corpos de Lewi representam uma abordagem terapêutica promissora.
Psiquiatria Geriátrica
Tamai Sérgio
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 1999,
Abstract:
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