This paper was aimed at re-examining the validity of the
results from Cahuin et al. (Estuar.
Coast. Shelf Sci. 84, 2009) and identifying a model to describe the
stock-recruitment relationship of the Peruvian anchoveta (Eugraulis ringens). Regression analysis was used to determine if
density-dependent effects were present. The analysis did not show the
existence of any densitydependent effects. It is important to use environmental
factors and take observational and process errors into account when attempting
to identify density-dependent effects in fish populations. Sea surface temperature
(SST) and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) were used as independent
variables to fit the recruitment dynamics of the anchoveta. Both SST and SOI
were found to be significantly important parameters in structuring anchoveta
dynamics according to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R^{2} values. The results of
this study do not correlate with the
findings of Cahuin et al., (2009),
where density-dependent effects and the presence of regimes were detected. In
conclusion, the recruitment R_{t} is essentially determined in proportion to spawning stock biomass S_{t}, and then environmental
factors in year t further change the
recruitments. This mechanism is completely same with that for Japanese sardine
proposed by Sakuramoto (The Open Fish. Sci. 5, 2012).

Abstract:
A quantum statistical theory of the superconductivity in MgB_{2} is developed regarding it as a member of the graphite intercalation compound. The superconducting temperature T_{c} for MgB_{2}, C_{8}K ≡ KC_{8}, CaC_{6}, are 39 K, 0.6 K, 11.5 K, respectively. The differences arise from the lattice structures. In the plane perpendicular to the c-axis, B’s form a honeycomb lattice with the nearest neighbour distance while Mg’s form a base-hexagonal lattice with the nearest neighbour distance above and below the B-plane distanced by . The more compact B-plane becomes superconducting due to the electron-phonon attraction. Starting with the generalized Bardeen- Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) Hamiltonian and solving the generalized Cooper equation, we obtain a linear dispersion relation for moving Cooper pairs. The superconducting temperature T_{c} identified as the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature of the Cooper pairs in two dimensions is given by , where is the Cooper pair density, the Boltzmann constant. The lattices of KC_{8} and CaC_{6} are clearly specified.

Abstract:
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) nanofibers were prepared by carbon dioxide (CO2) laser irradiation of asspun ETFE fibers with four different melt flow rates (MFRs) in a supersonic jet that was generated by blowing air into a vacuum chamber through the fiber injection orifice. The drawability and superstructure of fibers produced by CO2 laser supersonic drawing depend on the laser power, the chamber pressure, the fiber injection speed, and the MFR. Nanofibers obtained using a laser power of 20 W, a chamber pressure of 20 kPa, and an MFR of 308 g 10 min–1 had an average diameter of 0.303 μm and a degree of crystallinity of 54%.

Abstract:
Different mathematical methods have been applied to obtain the analytic result for the massless triangle Feynman diagram yielding a sum of four linearly independent hypergeometric functions of two variables $F_4$. These are defined for especific regions of convergence for the ratios of the squares of momentum variables. In this paper I work out the diagram and show that that result, though mathematically sound, is not physically acceptable when it is embedded in higher loops - meaning further momentum integrations - because it misses a fundamental physical constraint imposed by the conservation of momentum, which should reduce by one the total number of linearly independent (l.i.) functions $F_4$ in the overall solution. Taking into account that the momenta flowing along the three legs of the diagram are constrained by momentum conservation, the number of overall l.i. functions that enter the most general solution must reduce accordingly. To determine the exact structure and content of the analytic solution for the three-point function that can be embedded in higher loops, I use the analogy that exists between Feynman diagrams and electric circuit networks, in which the electric current flowing in the network plays the role of the momentum flowing in the lines of a Feynman diagram. This analogy is employed to define exactly which three out of the four hypergeometric functions are relevant to the analytic solution for the Feynman diagram. The analogy is built based on the equivalence between electric resistance circuit networks of type "Y" and "Delta" in which flows a conserved current. The equivalence is established via the theorem of minimum energy dissipation within circuits having these structures.

Abstract:
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and experiments have both advantages and disadvantages. Doing both can be complementary, and we can expect more effective understanding of the phenomenon. It is useful to utilize CFD as an efficient tool for the turbomachinery and can complement uncertain experimental results. However the CFD simulation takes a long time for a design in generally. It is need to reduce the calculation time for many design condi- tions. In this paper, it is attempted to obtain the more accurate characteristics of a wind turbine in yawed flow condi- tions for a short time, using a few grid points. It is discussed for the reliability of the experimental results and the CFD results.

Introduction:
Recently, the diagnosis of occult frac- tures has been facilitated due to
increased availability and utilization of MRI. Diagnosing a fracture of the
ischiopubic rami from a proximal femoral fracture, in particular, is difficult
using physical exam alone and can be facilitated by having access to an MRI.
Here we report both physical exam findings and MRI findings that help in
differentiating occult fractures of the iliopubic rami. Materials and Methods:
From April 2010 to December 2012, we identified 30 pa- tients (5 male and 25
female; aged 43 - 93 years old). We recorded if a traumatic episode occurred,
ambu- latory status at the initial visit (bed ridden, standing up with an aid,
walking with an aid). We also re- corded if imaging was used in determining the
final diagnosis (radiographs, MRI or CT).
Results: Twenty- one patients had a fracture as a result of a traumatic
episode. In the remaining 9 cases, no trauma oc- curred and therefore the
fractures were insufficiency fractures. Ten patients were bed ridden at the
initial visit, eight patients were able to stand only with a walking aid, and
the remaining twelve patients were able to walk with an aid. Occasional
radiographs were used to confirm the presence of a fracture in 4 cases, MRI in
11 cases, and CT scan in 15 cases. Dis- cussion and Conclusions: Occult
fractures of the is- chiopubic rami can occur without trauma and it can be
difficult to differentiate these fractures from occult proximal femoral
fractures. In these cases, MRI is useful to definitively obtain a diagnosis. In
cases of pacemaker, bullet implantation or artificial hip joints, CT or
occasional radiographs are also useful to diag- nose occult fractures of the
ischiopubic rami.

Understanding how spring runoff is generated in East Siberia during the spring thaw is important to predicting river flows. To evaluate the snowmelt runoff generated, a simple runoff model was developed. The model involves processes of water and energy balance within the snowpack and energy balance within soil, snowmelt infiltration into the frozen ground, and surface runoff. The model reproduced inter-seasonal and seasonal variations of snow depth, active layer depth within soil, and snowmelt runoff. Snowmelt infiltration into frozen ground within the upper 20 cm of soil was also reproduced by the model. Thus, we believe the model can simulate snowmelt infiltration and surface runoff in the Mogot experiment watershed. The model suggested that the inter-annual variation in infiltration determined the amount of spring runoff. The amount of infiltration during thaws exceeded the discharge; the range was from 20 to 60 mm and the percentage of infiltration to melt water was 44% to 60%. Therefore, infiltration into the frozen ground strongly determined snowmelt runoff. In addition, ongoing climatic change can increase snowmelt runoff, because of less sublimation loss and snowmelt infiltration into the frozen ground.

Abstract:
Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). L-alanine was shown to restore ATP content and protect the liver in various liver injury models. Aim: To assess the safety and therapeutic effects of long-term administration of L-alanine in patients with NASH, we conducted a pilot trial. Methods: Patients with NASH were enrolled and treated with 6 - 18 g/day L-alanine for 12 months and monitored for serum aminotransferases and renal function. Liver histology was obtained at baseline and 12 months. Changes in serum aminotransferase were assessed by differences from entry and rate of change per month using all available measures. Changes in liver histology were assessed by differences in Brunt scores of steatosis, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis. Results: Nine patients were enrolled and six completed the treatment. The reasons of the study withdrawal were nausea (n = 1), planned bariatric surgery (n = 1), and un-specified reason (n = 1). One participant experienced exacerbation of pre-existing renal failure that required hospitalization, although the medication was safely resumed after 2-week cessation and treatment was completed. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (?24.8 ± 32.1 IU/L vs.0, p = 0.11) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (?8 ± 16.2 1IU/L vs. 0, p = 0.28) were improved in 4 and 3 of the 6 completed participants, while rate of ALT and AST change per month showed improvement over time (negative slope) in 5 and 4 of the 6. Liver histology did not change significantly. Conclusion: The 12-month administration of L-alanine seems to be safe, but did not show significant therapeutic effects on serum aminotransferase or liver histology in patients with NASH, along with less than ideal tolerability.

Abstract:
Markets with increasing returns resulting from the
positive external effects of production (hereafter external increasing
returns) have been discussed from both positive and normative points of
view. We present a complete general equilibrium model in which external
increasing returns prevail within industries to produce differentiated commodities
which are represented by real valued functions. Firms in an industry produce
the commodity characteristics which are values of each commodity
function. This formulation of differentiated commodities causes the equilibrium
to be characterized as the solution of a variational problem. In order
to answer this mathematically formidable question, we utilize the delta
function of Dirac for the calculus of variations to be done in an elementary
way. To our knowledge, this is the first time the delta function appears in
economic analysis.

Abstract:
Updating the velocity in particle swarm optimization (PSO) consists of three terms: the inertia term, the cognitive term and the social term. The balance of these terms determines the balance of the global and local search abilities, and therefore the performance of PSO. In this work, an adaptive parallel PSO algorithm, which is based on the dynamic exchange of control parameters between adjacent swarms, has been developed. The proposed PSO algorithm enables us to adaptively optimize inertia factors, learning factors and swarm activity. By performing simulations of a search for the global minimum of a benchmark multimodal function, we have found that the proposed PSO successfully provides appropriate control parameter values, and thus good global optimization performance.