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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 601835 matches for " A. R. Ghasemi "
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Effect of anandamide in improving of the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic relaxation of the corpus cavernosum from diabetic rats
Ghasemi M,Dehpour A.R.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: "nBackground: It is well known that erectile dysfunction is most commonly associated with diabetes, affecting 35% to 75% of men with diabetes mellitus. Several studies have been carried out to find appropriate strategies for treatment of diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of acute administration of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in vitro to alter the NANC-mediated relaxation of corpus cavernosum from diabetic rats and the possible role of nitric oxide in this manner. "nMethods: Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin for eight weeks. Corpora cavernosa were isolated in organ baths for measurement of agonist-evoked or electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked smooth muscle tensions. "nResults: The neurogenic relaxation of phenylephrine (7.5 μM) precontracted isolated corporal strips was impaired in diabetic animals. Anandamide (0.3, 1 and 3 μM) enhanced the relaxant responses to EFS in diabetic strips in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was antagonized by either the selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 μM) or the selective vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (3 μM). Concurrent administration of partially effective doses of L-arginine (10 μM) and anandamide (0.3 μM) exerted a synergistic improvement in EFS-induced relaxation of diabetic strips (p<0.001). The relaxant responses to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside of the subjects in the diabetic and control groups were similar. "nConclusion: For the first time, we demonstrated that acute administration of an endogenous cannabinoid, alone or in combination with L-arginine could improve the NO-mediated relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle in diabetic rats and this effect was mediated by cannabinoid CB1 and vanilloid VR1 receptors within the tissue."n"nKeywords: Diabetes mellitus; erectile dysfunction; anandamide; cannabinoid system; nitric oxide; corpus cavernosum.
Investigation into the Translucency of Tooth-Colored Restorative Materials
H. Torabzadeh,R. Aminian,A. Ghasemi
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the translucency of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGIC) and polyacid-modified composite resin (PCMR) over a period of one year.Materials and Methods: The study was done on three RMGIC (Fuji II LC, Photac-Fil Aplicap and Vitremer) and one PCMR (Dyract). A conventional GIC (Fuji Cap II) and two composite resins (Tetric and Z 100) were used for comparison. Five discs approximately 5 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm thick were made from each material using a Perspex mould. The specimens were kept in distilled water at 37°C during the test period. The optical density/mm (inverse of translucency) of each material was measured using a special photometric set up after preparation and after one week, six months, and one year.Means and standard deviations were calculated and subjected to Two-way ANOVA, Oneway ANOVA and Scheffe tests.Results: The results indicated that all of the materials, except Dyract, showed an increase of translucency over the test period. After one year, the conventional GIC was the least translucent material.Conclusion: The translucency of the resin-modified GICs and Dyract was equivalent to that of the composite resins Tetric and Z 100.
Six-cold-month Precipitation over Southwestern and Central Iran and its Relation to E1 Ninio Southern Oscillation
M. J. Nazemosadat,A. R. Ghasemi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: The present study evaluates the influence of the El Ninio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon on the cold season precipitation over Isfahan, Fars, Khuzestan, Chaharmahal-Bakhtyari, Bushehr and Kohgiluyeh-Boyerahmad provinces. The results indicate that the occurrence of La Nina events caused a 20% to 50% reduction in precipitation over Bushehr, Chaharmahal-Bakhtyari and southern Fars. The cold event did not change the total precipitation over the other parts of the region. In contrast to La Nina episodes, the occurrence of El Ninio events caused a 20% to 70% increase in rainfall in most of the study area. While the most highly wet conditions are related to the El Ninio events, the occurrence probability of the severe droughts has found to be low during such events. In association with La Nina events, the occurrence probability of severe drought was found to be low. Only in Khuzestan and southern parts of the Fars Provinces, this probability has increased to about 0.5.
Economic Evaluation of Every-Other Furrow Irrigation for Sorghum with Real and Subsidized Irrigation Water Prices
M. M. Ghasemi,A. R. Sepaskhah
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: In this study, the effect of deficit irrigation with every–other furrow irrigation method, which is an innovated method in farm irrigation management, was examined on sorghum (Sorghum durra L.) in Bajgah and Kooshkak areas of Fars Province. The experimental design was split plot with three main plots of irrigation interval (10, 15 and 20 days), three subplots of irrigation methods (ordinary furrow, fixed and variable every–other furrow), and 4 replications. Considering the crop production cost with real and subsidized prices of water in both areas, the net benefit per unit volume of irrigation water and benefit–cost ratio were calculated. The results showed that these economic parameters for the fixed and alternative furrow irrigation methods of 10-day intervals in both areas did not differ much with those of the ordinary furrow irrigation with 10-day intervals and were even higher in Bajgah area. Furthermore, the relationship between the amount of irrigation water, water application efficiency (Ea), water price per unit volume (Cw) and the net benefit per unit volume of irrigation water (B) with different conveyance efficiencies (Ec) were determined by multiple linear regression procedure. The regression coefficients of linear fit equation between the costs and irrigation water were determined. The results indicated that with higher price of water, the farmer should increase the farm irrigation application efficiency to avoid the economic losses.
Prediction of Annual Precipitation in Khuzestan Province Based on Early Rain Events in Fall
M. M. Ghasemi,A. R. Sepaskhah
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2004,
Abstract: The vast pastures and agricultural development plans for dry farming and irrigated farming in Khuzestan Province depend on rain. This requires availability of annual precipitation prediction models to be used in the management decision-making process. In this research, the long-term daily precipitation data from 15 rain gauge stations in the study area were collected for study and a relationship between the early fall season precipitations of 42.5 mm (t42.5) and the annual precipitation was obtained. The results showed that the relationship was an inverse one such that the later the fall precipitation occurred, the greater the annual precipitation would be. To increase the coefficient of determination in the models, climatic variables such as Persian Gulf sea surface temperature and geographical characteristics (longitude, latitude, altitude, and long term mean annual precipitation) were used. Except for the long term mean annual precipitation and altitude, other variables did not increase the coefficient of determination. The final simple model found is as follows: Pa=184.787-1.891t42.5+0.855Pm , R2=0.704 where, Pa is the annual precipitation, t42.5 is the time from beginning of fall season for 42.5 mm of precipitation, and Pm is the long term mean annual precipitation.
The Influence of the Caspian Sea SSTs on Winter and Spring Precipitation over Northern and Southwestern Parts of Iran
S. M. J. Nazemosadat,A. R. Ghasemi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2005,
Abstract: The influence of the Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) on the seasonal precipitation over northern and southwestern parts of Iran was investigated. The warm, cold and base phases of the SSTs were defined and the median of precipitation during each of these phases (Rw, Rc and Rb, respectively) was determined. The magnitude of Rw/Rb, Rc/Rb and Rc/Rw were used as criteria for the assessment of the effects of the alternation of SST phases on seasonal precipitation. The results indicate that in association with cold SST phase, winter rainfall is above median over western and central parts of the coastal region, central and southern parts of Fars Province and all the stations studied in Khozestan Province. On the other hand, the prevalence of warm SST phase has caused about 20% decrease in winter precipitation over the Caspian Sea coastal area and northern parts of both Fars and Khozestan provinces. In association with warm SST phase in winter, precipitation during the following spring was found to be above normal for all the stations studied in the coastal region of the Caspian Sea. The highest sensitivity levels were found in Bandar- Anzali and Astara for which spring precipitation has increased by 80% due to the dominance of warm winter phase. However, the occurrence of boreal cold SST events causes shortage of precipitation in the eastern parts of the coastal areas along the Caspian Sea. A Possible Physical mechanisem justifying the influence of the Caspian Sea SST on the Precipitation variability was introduced. According to this mechanisem, temporal and spatial variability of the Siberian High is forced by the fluctuations in these SSTs.
In vitro Evaluation of Toothbrushing Abrasion by 4 Standard Toothbrushes
R. Aminian,S.H. Naderi,S. Shahabi,A. Ghasemi
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Abrasion is an important possible side-effect of individually used mechanical oral hygiene products which encouraged researchers to investigate products with less potential complications. This study examined brushing abrasion of 4 standard toothbrushes (Soft Oral-B, Medium Oral-B, Soft Panbeh-Riz and Medium Panbeh-Riz) in vitro. A specific mold was used to make samples by setting composite on acrylic resin. The samples were subjected to a 200 g force applied by toothbrushes connected to V8 Cross Brushing Machine for 18000 cycles in the solution of toothpaste with fluoride and distilled water. The samples were scaled before and after experiment and their weight loss measured after 3000, 6000, 9000, 12000, 15000 and 18000 cycles. Two way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. The study showed Soft Oral-B (Advantage) to produce the least abrasion among the four toothbrushes. Soft Panbeh-Riz had the most abrasion. Medium Panbeh-Riz and Medium Oral-B (Indicator) showed similar abrasion rate. The results showed that abrasion effects existed in all toothbrushes while it was increased with the increase occurred in number of cycles showing linear pattern.
In vitro Evaluation of Toothbrushing Abrasion by 4 Standard Toothbrushes
R. Aminian,S.H. Naderi,S. Shahabi,A. Ghasemi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Abrasion is an important possible side-effect of individually used mechanical oral hygiene products which encouraged researchers to investigate products with less potential complications. This study examined brushing abrasion of 4 standard toothbrushes (Soft Oral-B, Medium Oral-B, Soft Panbeh-Riz and Medium Panbeh-Riz) in vitro. A specific mold was used to make samples by setting composite on acrylic resin. The samples were subjected to a 200 g force applied by toothbrushes connected to V8 Cross Brushing Machine for 18000 cycles in the solution of toothpaste with fluoride and distilled water. The samples were scaled before and after experiment and their weight loss measured after 3000, 6000, 9000, 12000, 15000 and 18000 cycles. Two way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. The study showed Soft Oral-B (Advantage) to produce the least abrasion among the four toothbrushes. Soft Panbeh-Riz had the most abrasion. Medium Panbeh-Riz and Medium Oral-B (Indicator) showed similar abrasion rate. The results showed that abrasion effects existed in all toothbrushes while it was increased with the increase occurred in number of cycles showing linear pattern.
Effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: Role of nitric oxide pathway and endocannabinoid system
Ghasemi M.,Sadeghipour H.,Dehpour A.R.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Relaxation of the corpus cavernosum plays a major role in penile erection. Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be the most important factor mediating relaxation of corpus cavernosum, which is mainly derived from nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) nerves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC)-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum as well as the possible relevant roles of endocannabinoid and nitric oxide systems.Methods: Corporal strips from sham-operated and biliary cirrhotic rats were mounted under tension in a standard oxygenated organ bath with guanethidine sulfate (5 μM) and atropine (1 μM) to induce adrenergic and cholinergic blockade. The strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 μM) and electrical field stimulation was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, 15 Hz) to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation. In separate precontracted strips of the sham and cirrhotic groups, the concentration-dependent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1mM), as an NO donor, were assessed. Results: The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly enhanced in cirrhotic animals (P<0.01). Anandamide potentiated the relaxations in both groups (P<0.05). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (10 μM) and the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10 μM) each significantly prevented the enhanced relaxations in cirrhotic rats (P<0.01). The CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 had no effect on relaxations in the cirrhotic group. In a concentration-dependent manner, L-NAME (30-1000 nM) inhibited relaxations in both the sham and cirrhotic groups, although cirrhotic groups were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The degree of relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1 mM) was similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Biliary cirrhosis enhances the neurogenic relaxation in rat corpus cavernosum probably via the NO pathway and cannabinoid CB1 and vanilloid VR1 receptors.
A Survey of Bacterial Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients
MH Shirazi,R Ranjbar,A Ghasemi,S Paktarigh
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2007,
Abstract: "nBackground: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Bacterial infec-tion is considered as one of the common and serious complications in bone marrow transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacterial infections in bone marrow transplant recipients."nMethods: Fifty-two blood and 25 catheter samples were obtained from 23 patients who were hospitalized in bone marrow trans-plantation unit in Shariati Hospital in Tehran. Bacterial strains were isolated and identified by the standard conven-tional bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the guidelines from NCCLS using 18 different antibiotics."nResults: The strains of Staphylococci, Streptococcus viridans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were isolated from 8(66.7%), 1(8.3%), 2 (16.7%) and the 1(8.3%) cases, respectively."nConclusion: Current study indicated that the bacterial infections particularly those caused by the Gram-positive cocci were still as important problem in bone marrow transplant.
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