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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461829 matches for " A. Ptak "
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Low-luminosity AGN and Normal Galaxies
A. Ptak
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1434645
Abstract: Low-luminosity AGN (with X-ray luminosity < 1e42 ergs/s) far outnumber ordinary AGN, and are therefore perhaps more relevant to our understanding of AGN phenomena and the relationship between AGN and host galaxies. Many normal galaxies harbor LINER and starburst nuclei, which, together with LLAGN, are a class of ``low-activity'' galaxies that have a number of surprisingly similar X-ray characteristics, despite their heterogenous optical classification. This strongly supports the hypothesis of an AGN-starburst connection. Further, X-ray observations of normal galaxies without starburst or AGN-like activity in their nuclei offer opportunities to study populations of X-ray binaries, HII regions, and warm or hot ISM under different conditions than is often the case in the Milky Way. The results of recent X-ray observations of these types of galaxies are reviewed, and what we hope to learn about both nearby and high redshift galaxies of each type from observations with forthcoming and planned satellites is discussed.
A Catalog of Candidate Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects
E. Colbert,A. Ptak
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342507
Abstract: ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-ray point sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations of normal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear, compact, Intermediate-luminosity (Lx[2-10 keV] >= 1e39 erg/s) X-ray Objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [Ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quite common. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54 galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxies with cz <= 5000 km/s from the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3). We have defined the cutoff Lx for IXOs so that it is well above the Eddington luminosity of a 1.4 Msun black hole (10^38.3 erg/s), so as not to confuse IXOs with ``normal'' black hole X-ray binaries. This catalog is intended to provide a baseline for follow-up work with Chandra and XMM, and with space- and ground-based survey work at wavelengths other than X-ray. We demonstrate that elliptical galaxies with IXOs have a larger number of IXOs per galaxy than non-elliptical galaxies with IXOs, and note that they are not likely to be merely high-mass X-ray binaries with beamed X-ray emission, as may be the case for IXOs in starburst galaxies. Approximately half of the IXOs with multiple observations show X-ray variability, and many (19) of the IXOs have faint optical counterparts in DSS optical B-band images. Follow-up observations of these objects should be helpful in identifying their nature.
XAssist: A System for the Automation of X-ray Astrophysics Analysis
A. Ptak,R. Griffiths
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: XAssist is a NASA AISR-funded project for the automation of X-ray astrophysics, with emphasis on galaxies. It is nearing completion of its initially funded effort, and is working well for Chandra and ROSAT HRI data. Initial support for XMM-Newton data is present as well. It is capable of data reprocessing, source detection, and preliminary spatial, temporal and spectral analysis for each source with sufficient counts. The bulk of the system is written in Python, which in turn drives underlying software (CIAO for Chandra data, etc.). Future work will include a GUI (mainly for beginners and status monitoring) and the exposure of at least some functionality as web services. The latter will help XAssist to eventually become part of the VO, making advanced queries possible, such as determining the X-ray fluxes of counterparts to HST or SDSS sources (including the use of unpublished X-ray data), and add the ability of ``on-the-fly'' X-ray processing. Pipelines are running on ROSAT, Chandra and now XMM-Newton observations of galaxies to demonstrate XAssist's capabilities, and the results are available online (in real time) at http://www.xassist.org . XAssist itself as well as various associated projects are available for download.
Hard X-ray Variability in M82: Evidence for a Nascent AGN?
A. Ptak,R. Griffiths
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/312032
Abstract: We report on the detection of hard (2-10 keV) X-ray variability in the starburst galaxy M82 over the course of 9 ASCA observations. Long-term variability occurred on a time scale of days, with a change in flux by a factor of up to 4, corresponding to a point-source luminosity of L(2-10 keV) ~ 6e40 ergs/s. Short-term variability with an amplitude of ~ 1.4 on a time scale of hours was observed during the longest observation. This demonstrates that a large fraction of the hard X-ray emission of M82 (depending on the flux state) is from a compact region and is probably due to an accreting source. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the source is a lower limit to its Eddington luminosity, implying a blackhole mass of at least ~ 460 solar masses, or a mass intermediate to that of normal AGN and stellar-mass blackhole candidates.
X-ray Observations of LINER and Starburst Galaxies
P. Serlemitsos,A. Ptak,T. Yaqoob
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We present the results of ASCA observations of a heterogenous sample of 15 spiral galaxies. 8 are LINERs or low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN), 5 are starburst galaxies and 2 are normal spiral galaxies. We find that in all cases the ASCA spectra can be described by a canonical model consisting of a power-law with a photon index ~ 1.7-2.0, plus a soft optically thin emission component with kT ~ 0.6-0.8 keV. The implied element abundances are often sub-solar. The soft component is usually extended and the nuclear, point-like emission is sometimes absorbed by column densities in the range log nH ~ 21-23 cm-2. The relative luminosities of the soft and hard components vary from galaxy to galaxy. For the LINERs, the 2-10 keV luminosity of the hard component is typically log L ~ 40-41 ergs/s whereas the 0.5-2.0 keV luminosity of the soft component is typically log L ~ 39-40 ergs/s. For starbursts, the 2-10 keV luminosity of is log L ~ 39-40 ergs/s, somewhat lower than the corresponding luminosity of most of the LINERs in our sample. The hard component is similar to the observed X-ray spectra of quasars and also to the intrinsic X-ray spectra of classical Seyfert galaxies. Most of the galaxies in our sample exhibit no significant (dI/I > 20%) short-term variability (with timescales of a day or less) whereas long-term variability is common. We present a case study of the LINER M81 in detail where there is evidence of large-amplitude (dI/I ~ 70%) variability over several weeks. There is also clear evidence for a broad, complex Fe-K emission line which is compatible with an origin in an accretion disk viewed at ~ 40 deg. These results suggest a strong connection between classical AGN, LINERs, and starburst galaxies.
Resolving the X-ray Spectral Paradox: XMM-Newton Spectra of Faint Sources in the Lockman Hole
R. E. Griffiths,A. Ptak,T. Miyaji
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: Using 100ks of XMM-Newton data on the Lockman Hole, we show how the X-ray background 'spectral paradox' is being resolved. We find the summed spectra of the Type I AGN, Type II AGN, and the unidentified objects. We conclude that the hard slope of the XRB is caused predominantly by latter sources, i.e. the Type II AGN and unidentified objects.
SHEEP: the ASCA 5-10 keV survey
I. Georgantopoulos,K. Nandra,A. Ptak
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present the first results of the hard (5-10 keV) ASCA GIS survey SHEEP (Search for the High Energy Extragalactic Population). We have analysed 149 fields covering an area of 39 sq. deg detecting 69 sources. Several of these appear to be associated with QSOs and Seyfert-1 galaxies but with hard X-ray spectra, probably due to high absorption. Indeed, the hardness ratio analysis shows that the spectra of the majority of our sources can be represented with a ``scatterer'' model similar to obscured Seyfert galaxies locally. According to this model, our sources present high intrinsic absorption (logN_H~23) but also significant amounts of soft X-ray emission coming from scattered light.
The Complex X-ray Spectra of M82 and NGC 253
A. Ptak,P. Serlemitsos,T. Yaqoob,R. Mushotzky,T. Tsuru
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/118342
Abstract: We present the results of the first imaging X-ray observations in the 0.4-10.0 keV bandpass of the nearby starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The ASCA spectra of both M82 and NGC 253 are complex with strong line emission from O, Ne, Fe, Mg, S, and Si, allowing elemental abundances to be estimated in the X-ray band for the first time in these sources. Two components are required to fit the spectra of both galaxies, with a "soft" component well described by a thermal model with a temperature of ~ 10^6-7 K and a "hard" component well described by either a thermal model (T ~ 10^8 K) or a power-law model (energy index ~ 0.8-1.0). We find that different models (with different continua) yield absolute abundances that differ by more than an order of magnitude, while relative abundances are more robust and suggest an underabundance of Fe (inferred from the Fe-L complex) relative to alpha-burning elements, possibly as a result of dust depletion. Most of the soft flux (which originates mostly within the central kpc of M82 and NGC 253) is consistent with starburst models of supernovae-heated ISM and, to a lesser extent, starburst-driven superwind emission and the direct emission from supernova (SN). The hard component in both galaxies may have some contribution from ~ 10^8 K superwind emission or individual SN, although most of the emission probably originates in point sources (most likely blackhole candidates or mini-AGN with M_Edd > 3-20 solar masses) and, possibly, inverse-Compton scattering of IR photons. The similarity of the spectral X-ray characteristics of NGC 253 and M82 to some LINERs and low-luminosity AGN suggests a link between AGN and starbursts (e.g., both may contain an accretion-driven emission component).
X-ray Variability as a Probe of Advection-Dominated Accretion in Low-Luminosity AGN
A. Ptak,T. Yaqoob,R. Mushotzky,P. Serlemitsos,R. Griffiths
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311444
Abstract: As a class, LINERs and Low-Luminosity AGN tend to show little or no significant short-term variability (i.e., with time-scales less than a day). This is a marked break for the trend of increased variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies with decreased luminosity. We propose that this difference is due to the lower accretion rate in LINERs and LLAGN which is probably causing the accretion flow to be advection-dominated. This results in a larger characteristic size for the X-ray producing region than is the case in ``normal'' AGN. Short-term variability may be caused by a localized instability or occultation events, but we note that such events would likely be accompanied by broad-band spectral changes. Since the ADAF is more compact in a Kerr metric, it is possible that the X-ray emission from ADAFs around rotating blackholes would be more variable than X-ray emission from ADAFs in a Schwarzchild metric. Similar variability arguments also apply to other wavelengths, and accordingly multiwavelength monitoring of LLAGN could serve to ``map'' the ADAF regions.
X-ray Constraints on Accretion and Starburst Processes in Galactic Nuclei I. Spectral Results
A. Ptak,P. Serlemitsos,T. Yaqoob,R. Mushotzky
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/313179
Abstract: The results of a 0.4-10.0 keV ASCA spectral analysis of a sample of low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN; M51, NGC 3147, NGC 4258), low-ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs; NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 3998, NGC 4579, NGC 4594) and starburst galaxies (M82, NGC 253, NGC 3628 and NGC 6946) are presented. In spite of the heterogeneous optical classifications of these galaxies, the X-ray spectra are fit well by a ``canonical'' model consisting of an optically-thin Raymond-Smith plasma ``soft'' component with T ~ 7 x 10^6 K and a ``hard'' component that can be modeled by either a power-law with a photon index ~ 1.7 or a thermal bremsstrahlung with T ~ 6 x 10^7 K. The soft-component 0.4-10 keV instrinsic luminosities tend to be on the order 10^39-40 ergs/s while the hard-component luminosities tend to be on the order of 10^40-41 ergs/s. The detection of line emission is discussed. An analysis of the short-term variability properties was given in Ptak et al. (1998) and detailed interpretation of these results will be given in Paper II. (abridged)
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