Abstract:
Under the assumption that the photospheric quiet-Sun magnetic field is turbulent, the cancellation function has previously been used to estimate the true, resolution-independent mean, unsigned vertical flux $<|B_z|>_{\mathrm{true}}$. We show that the presence of network elements, noise, and seeing complicate the measurement of accurate cancellation functions and their power-law exponents $\kappa$. Failure to exclude network elements previously led to too low estimates of both the cancellation exponent $\kappa$ and of $<|B_z|>_{\mathrm{true}}$. However, both $\kappa$ and $<|B_z|>_{\mathrm{true}}$ are over-estimated due to noise in magnetograms. While no conclusive value can be derived with data from current instruments, our {\it Hinode}/SP results of $\kappa\lessapprox0.38$ and $<|B_z|>_{\mathrm{true}}\lessapprox 270 $gauss can be taken as upper bounds.

Abstract:
The characterization of solar surface differential rotation (SDR) from disk-integrated chromospheric measurements has important implications for the study of differential rotation and dynamo processes in other stars. Some chromospheric lines, such as Ca II K, are very sensitive to the presence of activity on the disk and are an ideal choice for investigating SDR in Sun-as-a star observations. Past studies indicate that when the activity is low, the determination of Sun's differential rotation from integrated-sunlight measurements becomes uncertain. However, our study shows that using the proper technique, SDR can be detected from these type of measurements even during periods of extended solar minima. This paper describes results from the analysis of the temporal variations of Ca II K line profiles observed by the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer (ISS) during the declining phase of Cycle 23 and the rising phase of Cycle 24, and discusses the signature of SDR in the power spectra computed from time series of parameters derived from these profiles. The described methodology is quite general, and could be applied to photometric time series of other Main-Sequence stars for detecting differential rotation.

Abstract:
Context: The expansion of network magnetic fields with height is a fundamental property of flux tube models. A rapid expansion is required to form a magnetic canopy. Aims: We characterize the observed expansion properties of magnetic network elements and compare them with the thin flux tube and sheet approximations, as well as with magnetoconvection simulations. Methods: We used data from the Hinode SOT NFI NaD1 channel and spectropolarimeter to study the appearance of magnetic flux concentrations seen in circular polarization as a function of position on the solar disk. We compared the observations with synthetic observables from models based on the thin flux tube approximation and magnetoconvection simulations with two different upper boundary conditions for the magnetic field (potential and vertical). Results: The observed circular polarization signal of magnetic flux concentrations changes from unipolar at disk center to bipolar near the limb, which implies an expanding magnetic field. The observed expansion agrees with expansion properties derived from the thin flux sheet and tube approximations. Magnetoconvection simulations with a potential field as the upper boundary condition for the magnetic field also produce bipolar features near the limb while a simulation with a vertical field boundary condition does not. Conclusions: The near-limb apparent bipolar magnetic features seen in high-resolution Hinode observations can be interpreted using a simple flux sheet or tube model. This lends further support to the idea that magnetic features with vastly varying sizes have similar relative expansion rates. The numerical simulations presented here are less useful in interpreting the expansion since the diagnostics we are interested in are strongly influenced by the choice of the upper boundary condition for the magnetic field in the purely photospheric simulations.

Abstract:
We compare photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms from the Synoptic Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) instrument with observations from the 150-foot Solar Tower at Mt. Wilson (MWO), Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). We find very good agreement between VSM and the other data sources for both disk-averaged flux densities and pixel-by-pixel measurements. We show that the VSM mean flux density time series is of consistently high signal-to-noise with no significant zero-offsets. We discuss in detail some of the factors -spatial resolution, flux dependence and position on the solar disk- affecting the determination of scaling between VSM and SOHO/MDI or SDO/HMI magnetograms. The VSM flux densities agree well with spatially smoothed data from MDI and HMI, although the scaling factors show clear dependence on flux density. The factor to convert VSM to HMI increases with increasing flux density (from $\approx$1 to $\approx$1.5). The nonlinearity is smaller for the VSM vs. ~SOHO/MDI scaling factor (from $\approx$1 to $\approx$1.2).

Abstract:
Context: Except for the Ca II resonance lines, fibrils are ubiquitously present in most high-resolution observations of chromospheric lines. Aims: We show that fibrils are also a prevailing feature in Ca II K, provided the spatial-resolution is sufficiently high. Methods: We present high spatial resolution observations of an active region in the Ca I} K line from the Swedish Solar Telescope. Through a comparison between photospheric intensity and magnetic field data, we study the connection between bright chromospheric fibrils and photospheric structures. Additionally, using Fourier analysis we study how the fibrils are linked to the observed dynamics. Results: We find that very narrow, bright fibrils are a prevailing feature over large portions of the observed field. We also find a clear connection between the fibril footpoints and photospheric magnetic features. We show that the fibrils play two distinct roles in the observed dynamics: depending on their location they can act as a canopy suppressing oscillations or they can channel low-frequency oscillations into the chromosphere. Conclusions: The Ca II K fibrils share many characteristics with fibrils observed in other chromospheric lines, but some features, such as the very small widths, are unique to these observations.

Abstract:
One goal of helioseismology is to determine the subsurface structure of sunspots. In order to do so, it is important to understand first the near-surface effects of sunspots on solar waves, which are dominant. Here we construct simplified, cylindrically-symmetric sunspot models, which are designed to capture the magnetic and thermodynamics effects coming from about 500 km below the quiet-Sun $\tau_{5000}=1$ level to the lower chromosphere. We use a combination of existing semi-empirical models of sunspot thermodynamic structure (density, temperature, pressure): the umbral model of Maltby et al. (1986) and the penumbral model of Ding and Fang (1989). The OPAL equation of state tables are used to derive the sound speed profile. We smoothly merge the near-surface properties to the quiet-Sun values about 1mm below the surface. The umbral and penumbral radii are free parameters. The magnetic field is added to the thermodynamic structure, without requiring magnetostatic equilibrium. The vertical component of the magnetic field is assumed to have a Gaussian horizontal profile, with a maximum surface field strength fixed by surface observations. The full magnetic field vector is solenoidal and determined by the on-axis vertical field, which, at the surface, is chosen such that the field inclination is 45$^\circ$ at the umbral-penumbral boundary. We construct a particular sunspot model based on SOHO/MDI observations of the sunspot in active region NOAA 9787. The helioseismic signature of the model sunspot is studied using numerical simulations of the propagation of f, p$_1$, and p$_2$ wave packets. These simulations are compared against cross-covariances of the observed wave field. We find that the sunspot model gives a helioseismic signature that is similar to the observations.

Abstract:
We present an extension of the Karman-Howarth theorem to the Lagrangian averaged magnetohydrodynamic (LAMHD-alpha) equations. The scaling laws resulting as a corollary of this theorem are studied in numerical simulations, as well as the scaling of the longitudinal structure function exponents indicative of intermittency. Numerical simulations for a magnetic Prandtl number equal to unity are presented both for freely decaying and for forced two dimensional MHD turbulence, solving directly the MHD equations, and employing the LAMHD-alpha equations at 1/2 and 1/4 resolution. Linear scaling of the third-order structure function with length is observed. The LAMHD-alpha equations also capture the anomalous scaling of the longitudinal structure function exponents up to order 8.

Abstract:
With the help of a model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence tested previously, we explore high Reynolds number regimes up to equivalent resolutions of 6000^3 grid points in the absence of forcing and with no imposed uniform magnetic field. For the given initial condition chosen here, with equal kinetic and magnetic energy, the flow ends up being dominated by the magnetic field, and the dynamics leads to an isotropic Iroshnikov-Kraichnan energy spectrum. However, the locally anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations perpendicular to the local mean field follow a Kolmogorov law. We find that the ratio of the eddy turnover time to the Alfven time increases with wavenumber, contrary to the so-called critical balance hypothesis. Residual energy and helicity spectra are also considered; the role played by the conservation of magnetic helicity is studied, and scaling laws are found for the magnetic helicity and residual helicity spectra. We put these results in the context of the dynamics of a globally isotropic MHD flow which is locally anisotropic because of the influence of the strong large-scale magnetic field, leading to a partial equilibration between kinetic and magnetic modes for the energy and the helicity.

Abstract:
Recent observations have revealed that 8% of linear polarization patches in the internetwork quiet Sun are fully embedded in downflows. These are not easily explained with the typical scenarios for the source of internetwork fields which rely on flux emergence from below. We explore using radiative MHD simulations a scenario where magnetic flux is transported from the magnetic canopy overlying the internetwork into the photosphere by means of downward plumes associated with convective overshoot. We find that if a canopy-like magnetic field is present in the simulation, the transport of flux from the canopy is an important process for seeding the photospheric layers of the internetwork with magnetic field. We propose that this mechanism is relevant for the Sun as well, and it could naturally explain the observed internetwork linear polarization patches entirely embedded in downflows.

Abstract:
We present high spatial and temporal resolution Ca II 8542 observations of a kink wave in an on-disk chromospheric active region fibril. The properties of the wave are similar to those observed in off-limb spicules. From the observed phase and period of the wave we determine a lower limit for the field strength in the chromospheric active region fibril located at the edge of a sunspot to be a few hundred Gauss. We find indications that the event was triggered by a small-scale reconnection event higher up in the atmosphere.