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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461931 matches for " A. Pelosi "
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Accuracy of PET/CT with FDG in mediastinal lymph node staging of patients with NSCLC  [PDF]
E. Pelosi, A. Billè, A. Skanjeti, V. Arena, F. Ardissone
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.23030
Abstract: PET/CT and contrast enhancement CT (CECT) are the two fundamental non-invasive exams in the preoperative staging of patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the staging of the mediastinum, recent studies show that PET is more accurate than CECT, with an average sensitivity and specificity of 85 vs. 61% and 90 vs. 79%, respectively. However, thanks to its specificity value of 100%, the gold standard remains the mediastinoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PET/CT accuracy in the intrathoracic lymph node staging. Three hundred and five consecutive patients with proven or suspected non-small cell lung cancer who had an integrated PET/CT study were retrospectively evaluated. Lymph node staging was pathologically confirmed on tissue specimens obtained at surgery. A medline research of papers on accuracy of integrated PET/CT in lymph node staging was also carried out. In this population of patients, a total of 1972 lymph node stations were evaluated. Integrated PET/CT correctly staged 247 out of 305 patients: 188 of 214 (87.8%) N0 patients, 34 of 40 (85.0%) N1 patients and 25 of 51 (49.0%) N2/N3 patients. PET/CT understaged 32 patients (10.5%) and overstaged 26 patients (8.5%). One hundred and forty-three lymph nodes were proved positive for malignancy. PET/CT correctly identified 89 metastatic lymph node stations. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of PET/CT were 64.8%, 87.9%, 69.4%, 85.5%, and 81.0% on a per-patient basis and 62.2%, 97.9%, 69.5%, 97.1%, and 95.3%, on a per-nodal-station basis, respectively. According to nodal size, PET/CT correctly identified 67 out of 77 (87.0%) metastatic lymph node stations with a short-axis di-ameter ≥ 10 mm, and 22 out of 66 (33.3%) metastatic lymph node stations with a short-axis diameter < 10 mm (p<0.001). The incidence of false negative lymph node metastases at PET/CT was higher in patients with adenocarcinoma (42 out of 54). These data are in agreement with the published literature and confirm that integrated PET/CT is more accurate than CT in detecting nodal metastases; however, the PET/CT exam is not enough accurate to substitute mediastinoscopy.
Orographic Effects on Extreme Rainfall at Different Durations: A Case Study in Campania Region (Southern Italy)  [PDF]
Pierluigi Furcolo, Anna Pelosi
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.611006
Abstract: Long-term probabilistic prediction of extreme rainfall at the regional scale is a significant tool in the mitigation of hydro-geological disasters: it actually provides the starting point in the design of strategic hydraulic infrastructures and emergency plans. A crucial task of regional estimation of extreme rainfall is how to include the complex effects of orographic barriers in a mathematical model for Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. Here, an analysis of how orography can affect extreme rainfall at different durations is presented for three orographic systems that are very relevant for hydrological risk assessment in the Campania Region in Southern Italy. Then, we introduce a power law model to link the amplification factor to the duration, thus allowing a simple and effective enhancement of the IDF model in mountainous areas.
Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods
Paolo Pelosi
Frontiers in Physiology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00320
Abstract: Detection of chemical signals both in insects and in vertebrates is mediated by soluble proteins, highly concentrated in olfactory organs, which bind semiochemicals and activate, with still largely unknown mechanisms, specific chemoreceptors. The same proteins are often found in structures where pheromones are synthesized and released, where they likely perform a second role in solubilizing and delivering chemical messengers in the environment. A single class of soluble polypeptides, called Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) is known in vertebrates, while two have been identified in insects, OBPs and CSPs (Chemosensory Proteins). Despite their common name, OBPs of vertebrates bear no structural similarity with those of insects. We observed that in arthropods OBPs are strictly limited to insects, while a few members of the CSP family have been found in crustacean and other arthropods, where however, based on their very limited numbers, a function in chemical communication seems unlikely. The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods.
PET in uterine malignancies  [PDF]
Valeria Pirro, Andrea Skanjeti, Ettore Pelosi
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.27099
Abstract: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or integrated PET/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose (18F-FDG) is a functional imaging modality, useful in the characterization of undetermined morphological findings, and in the staging/re-staging of a large number of malignancies. Although its use in uterine malignancies has been poorly investigated, in recent years the employment of this technique has constantly increased. In this review, we evaluate the role of PET (/CT) with 18FFDG in uterine malignancies (cervical and endometrial cancers as well as uterine sarcomas), underlying its advantages and discussing its limitations. Metabolic and anatomic information given by PET/CT with 18F-FDG could be useful in the evaluation of local and distant disease involvement at the staging, in the detection of disease recurrence, and in the evaluation of the response after chemotherapy and/or radio-therapy.
An assembly line for the construction of ultra-pure detectors
A. Buccheri,M. Capodiferro,S. Morganti,F. Orio,A. Pelosi,V. Pettinacci
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: The 19 towers constituting the CUORE detector are an assembly of ultra-radio-pure components made of copper and PTFE plus tellurium dioxide crystals for a total of more than 10,000 pieces. A dedicated assembly line is mandatory to handle and assembly those parts minimizing the risk of recontaminations induced by external agents both during their construction and their storage prior to installation inside the cryostat. The assembly strategy and the tools design, proposed in this paper and developed for CUORE, offer solutions that can be extended to the construction of similar-size detector with strict requirements on contamination.
Tracheostomy must be individualized!
Paolo Pelosi, Paolo Severgnini
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2966
Abstract: Tracheostomy is among the most frequently conducted procedures in critically ill patients [1]. It has advantages compared with translaryngeal endotracheal intubation, including reduced laryngeal anatomical alteration, reduced inspiratory load, and better patient tolerance and ease of nursing. Thus, tracheostomy can enhance patient care in the event of prolonged respiratory support and difficulty in weaning.In the study conducted by Arabi and colleagues [2], those investigators examined the frequency with which tracheostomy was conducted; pathophysiological characteristics of patients undergoing early (first week in the intensive care unit [ICU]) and late tracheostomy (> 7 days in the ICU); and the impact of early tracheostomy on the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay and outcomes in a selected population of trauma patients. They reported that the majority of patients underwent tracheostomy after the first week, and that patients who received tracheostomy within the first week had maxillofacial trauma and more severe neurological injuries. Multivariate analysis showed that early tracheostomy was associated with reduced ICU length of stay. That study presents several issues that require consideration when interpreting the findings. First, the data are from a single population of patients with severe neurological and maxillofacial trauma. Second, both surgical and percutaneous tracheostomy techniques were performed. Finally, the percutaneous techniques used in the study were not reported.The optimal timing of tracheostomy remains controversial. The results presented suggest that early tracheostomy may reduce ICU length of stay and resource utilization in severe trauma, which is in accordance with previous data reported in patients with acute respiratory failure [3], but early tracheostomy did not reduce hospital length of stay or mortality. A recent study [4], performed in medical intensive care patients, showed that early percutaneous dilational tr
Clinical review: Positive end-expiratory pressure and cardiac output
Thomas Luecke, Paolo Pelosi
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3877
Abstract: Cyclic opening and closing of atelectatic alveoli and distal small airways with tidal breathing is known to be a basic mechanism leading to ventilator-induced lung injury [1]. To prevent alveolar cycling and derecruitment in acute lung injury, high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been found necessary to counterbalance the increased lung mass resulting from edema, inflammation and infiltrations and to maintain normal functional residual capacity (FRC) [2]. Therefore, application of high levels of PEEP is often recommended [3], despite the fact that 'aggressive' mechanical ventilation using high levels of PEEP to maintain or restore oxygenation during acute lung injury can markedly affect cardiac function in a complex and often unpredictable fashion. Likewise, this notion holds true for intrinsic PEEP caused by ventilation with high respiratory rates resulting in dynamic hyperinflation. Except from the failing ventricle, PEEP usually decreases cardiac output, a well known fact since the classic studies of Cournand et al. [4], in which the effects of positive-pressure ventilation were measured. They concluded that positive-pressure ventilation restricted the filling of the right ventricle because the elevated intrathoracic pressure (ITP) restricted venous flow into the thorax and, thereby, reduced cardiac output. This formulation of intrathoracic responses to positive-pressure ventilation still is the basis of our present day understanding of the cardiopulmonary interactions induced by PEEP, although precise responses to PEEP have not been simple to prove, and the intrathoracic responses appear multiple and complex.As heart rate usually does not change with PEEP [5], the entire fall in cardiac output is a consequence of a reduction in left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV). Therefore, the discussion on PEEP-induced changes in cardiac output can be confined to analyzing changes in SV and its determinants: preload, afterload, contractility and ve
Tracheostomy – a multiprofessional handbook
Paolo Pelosi, Paolo Severgnini
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc2993
Abstract: It is a 392-page paperback book with 22 chapters covering the following topics: first, the upper airway and respiratory basic anatomy; second, the technical basis of tracheostomy and how it alters the upper airway's anatomy; third, the description of different tracheostomy tubes and surgical or percutaneous tracheostomy approaches; fourth, the medical and nursing care of tracheostomy in the early phase after the operation and in the long term, including humidification, suctioning, wound care, swallowing and communication; fifth, the problems related to changing the tracheostomy tube and decannulation; sixth, particular attention to the technical and practical problems of tracheostomy of children; seventh, infection management and nutritional care of the tracheostomized patient.Particularly important are the sections dedicated to tracheostomy problems in children. Tracheostomy in children is not as common as in adults, but when it occurs both the technical aspects, namely tracheostomy timing and technique, and clinical management are particularly difficult even for more experienced doctors. Moreover, few contributions have been published on this specific aspect. In this book the authors describe the main differences in anatomy, tracheostomy tubes, techniques, and nursing management between tracheostomy in children and in adults. Extremely emotional is the report of the parents of a tracheostomized daughter describing aspects of their practical experience and psychological behaviour. It looks like a charming tale but it gives important information to doctors and nurses that are generally unrecognized and unconsidered.Surprisingly poor is the section dedicated to percutaneous techniques. The authors mention only one specific dilational technique. It should be remembered that several percutaneous techniques, intrusive and extrusive, are now commercially available and each of them has advantages and disadvantages that have to be addressed individually when a specific tra
Avalia??o das condi??es ambientais da lagoa de Varano, no sul da Itália
Pelosi, Sergio;Franchi, Massimo;
Química Nova , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422003000600002
Abstract: in the sediments of varano lagoon (south italy) were evaluated the concentration of some toxic heavy metals. besides in the same sites were determinated the bioluminescent inhibition of eluate sediments by toxalertò 10 and all matrix datas comparated with biological classification proposed by author frisoni based on abundance level of macrozoobenthos. the results from three tipes of approches (ecotoxicological, chemical and biological ) show a similar trend.
Avalia o das condi es ambientais da lagoa de Varano, no sul da Itália
Pelosi Sergio,Franchi Massimo
Química Nova , 2003,
Abstract: In the sediments of Varano lagoon (South Italy) were evaluated the concentration of some toxic heavy metals. Besides in the same sites were determinated the bioluminescent inhibition of eluate sediments by Toxalert 10 and all matrix datas comparated with biological classification proposed by author Frisoni based on abundance level of macrozoobenthos. The results from three tipes of approches (ecotoxicological, chemical and biological ) show a similar trend.
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