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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461783 matches for " A. Papayannis "
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Synergetic measurements of aerosols over S o Paulo, Brazil using LIDAR, sunphotometer and satellite data during the dry season
E. Landulfo,A. Papayannis,P. Artaxo,A. D. A. Castanho
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: A backscattering LIDAR system, the first of this kind in Brazil, has been set-up in a suburban area in the city of S o Paulo (23° 33' S, 46° 44' W) to provide the vertical profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm up to an altitude of 4–6 km above sea level (a.s.l.). The measurements have been carried out during the second half of the so-called Brazilian dry season, September and October 2001 and during the first half of the dry season in August and September 2002. The LIDAR data are presented and analysed in synergy with aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements obtained by a CIMEL sun-tracking photometer in the visible spectral region and with satellite measurements obtained by the MODIS sensor. This synergetic approach has been used, not only to validate the LIDAR data, but also to derive a typical value (45 sr) of the so-called extinction-to-backscatter ratio (LIDAR ratio) during the dry season. The satellite data analysis offers additional information on the spatial distribution of aerosols over Brazil including the determination of aerosol source regions over the country. The LIDAR data were also used to retrieve the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height, aerosol layering and the structure of the lower troposphere over the city of S o Paulo. These first LIDAR measurements over the city of S o Paulo during the dry season showed a significant variability of the AOT in the lower troposphere (0.5–5 km) at 532 nm. It was also found that the aerosol load is maximized in the 1–3 km height region, although up to 3 km thick aerosol layers were also detected in the 2.5–5.5 km region in certain cases. Three-dimensional 96-hours air mass back-trajectory analysis was also performed in selected cases to determine the source regions of aerosols around S o Paulo during the dry season.
Multi-wavelength Raman lidar, sunphotometric and aircraft measurements in combination with inversion models for the estimation of the aerosol optical and physico-chemical properties over Athens, Greece
R. E. Mamouri,A. Papayannis,V. Amiridis,D. Müller
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-5-589-2012
Abstract: A novel procedure has been developed to retrieve, simultaneously, the optical, microphysical and chemical properties of tropospheric aerosols with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system in the troposphere over an urban site (Athens, Greece: 37.9° N, 23.6° E, 200 m a.s.l.) using data obtained during the European Space Agency (ESA) THERMOPOLIS project which took place between 15–31 July 2009 over the Greater Athens Area (GAA). We selected to apply our procedure for a case study of intense aerosol layers occurred on 20–21 July 2009. The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) EOLE 6-wavelength Raman lidar system has been used to provide the vertical profiles of the optical properties of aerosols (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio) and the water vapor mixing ratio. An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius – reff), single-scattering albedo (ω) and mean complex refractive index (m) at selected heights in the 2–3 km height region. We found that reff was 0.3–0.4 μm, ω at 532 nm ranged from 0.63 to 0.88 and m ranged from 1.45 + 0.015i to 1.56 + 0.05i, in good accordance with in situ aircraft measurements. The final data set of the aerosol microphysical properties along with the water vapor and temperature profiles were incorporated into the ISORROPIA model to infer an in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved m and ω values. The retrieved aerosol chemical composition in the 2–3 km height region gave a variable range of sulfate (0–60%) and organic carbon (OC) content (0–50%), although the OC content increased (up to 50%) and the sulfate content dropped (up to 30%) around 3 km height; in connection with the retrieved low ω value (0.63), indicates the presence of absorbing biomass burning smoke mixed with urban haze. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sunphotometer data.
Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived aerosol vertical structures using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece
R. E. Mamouri,V. Amiridis,A. Papayannis,E. Giannakaki
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP retrievals -onboard the CALIPSO satellite-, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E). A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET), the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The duration of the ground-based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the statistical analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60%) which is attributed to the decrease of the CALIOP signal-to-noise ratio, as well as to the incomplete overlap height region of the ground based lidar and finally to the distance between the two instruments, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses. In cases of aerosols layers underlying cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worst, illustrating the limitations of space-borne downward-looking lidar measurements due to strong signal attenuations.
Inter-comparison of lidar and ceilometer retrievals for aerosol and Planetary Boundary Layer profiling over Athens, Greece
G. Tsaknakis,A. Papayannis,P. Kokkalis,V. Amiridis
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-4-73-2011
Abstract: This study presents an inter-comparison of two active remote sensors (lidar and ceilometer) in determining the structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and in retrieving tropospheric aerosol vertical profiles over Athens, Greece. This inter-comparison was performed under various strongly different aerosol concentrations (urban air pollution, biomass burning and Saharan dust event), implementing two different lidar systems (one portable Raymetrics S.A. lidar system running at 355 nm and one multi-wavelength Raman lidar system running at 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm) and one CL31 Vaisala S.A. ceilometer (running at 910 nm). To convert the ceilometer data to data having the same wavelengths as those from the lidar, the backscatter-related ngstr m exponent was estimated using ultraviolet multi-filter radiometer (UV-MFR) data. The inter-comparison was based on two parameters: the mixing layer structure and height determined by the presence of the suspended aerosols and the aerosol backscatter coefficient. Additionally, radiosonde data were used to derive the PBL height. In general a good agreement is found between the ceilometer and the lidar techniques in both inter-compared parameters in the height range from 500 m to 5000 m, while the limitations of each instrument are also examined.
Aerosol lidar observations and model calculations of the planetary boundary layer evolution over Greece, during the March 2006 total solar eclipse
V. Amiridis,D. Melas,D. S. Balis,A. Papayannis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: An investigation of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution over Greece, during the solar eclipse of 29 March 2006, is presented. Ground based observations were carried out using lidar detection and ranging devices (Lidars) and ground meteorological instruments, to estimate the height of the Mixing Layer (ML) before, during and after the solar eclipse in Northern and Southern parts of Greece exhibiting different sun obscuration. Data demonstrate that the solar eclipse has induced a decrease of the PBL height, indicating a suppression of turbulence activity similar to that during the sunset hours. The changes in PBL height were associated with a very shallow entrainment zone, indicating a significant weakening of the penetrative convection. Heat transfer was confined to a thinner layer above ground. The thickness of the entrainment zone exhibited its minimum during the maximum of the eclipse, demonstrative of turbulence mechanisms suppression at that time. Model estimations of the PBL evolution were additionally conducted using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Model diagnosed PBL height decrease during the solar eclipse due to vertical transport decay, in agreement with the experimental findings; vertical profiles of atmospheric particles and gaseous species showed an important vertical mixing attenuation.
Measurements of Saharan dust aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean using elastic backscatter-Raman lidar, spectrophotometric and satellite observations in the frame of the EARLINET project
A. Papayannis,D. Balis,V. Amiridis,G. Chourdakis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: We report on the vertical distributions of Saharan dust aerosols over the N.E. Mediterranean region, which were obtained during a typical dust outbreak on August 2000, by two lidar systems located in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece, in the frame of the European EARLINET project. MODIS and ground sun spectrophotometric data, as well as air-mass backward trajectories confirmed the existence of Saharan dust in the case examined, which was also successfully forecasted by the DREAM dust model. The lidar data analysis for the period 2000–2002 made possible, for the first time, an estimation of the vertical extent of free tropospheric dust layers (mean values of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio, LR) at 355 nm), as well as a seasonal distribution of Saharan dust outbreaks over Greece, under cloud-free conditions. A mean value of the lidar ratio at 355 nm was obtained over Athens (52.81±1.02 sr) and over Thessaloniki (44.19±1.72 sr) during the Saharan dust outbreaks. The corresponding aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 355 nm, in the altitude range 0–5 km, was 0.69±0.12 and 0.65±0.10 for Athens and Thessaloniki, respectively (within the dust layer the AOT was 0.23 and 0.21, respectively). Air-mass back-trajectory analysis performed in the period 2000–2002 for all Saharan dust outbreaks over the N. E. Mediterranean indicated the main pathways followed by the dust aerosols.
Aerosol Lidar observations and model calculations of the Planetary Boundary Layer evolution over Greece, during the March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse
V. Amiridis,D. Melas,D. S. Balis,A. Papayannis
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: An investigation of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution over Greece, during the solar eclipse of 29 March 2006, is presented. Ground based observations were carried out using lidar detection and ranging devices and ground meteorological instruments, to estimate the height of the mixing layer (ML) before, during and after the solar eclipse in northern and southern parts of Greece exhibiting different sun obscuration. Data demonstrate that the solar eclipse has induced a decrease of the PBL height, indicating a suppression of turbulence activity similar to that during the sunset hours. The changes in PBL height were associated with a very shallow entrainment zone, indicating a significant weakening of the penetrative convection. Heat transfer was confined to a thinner layer above the ground. The thickness of the entrainment zone exhibited its minimum during the maximum of the eclipse, demonstrative of turbulence mechanisms suppression at that time. Model estimations of the PBL evolution were additionally conducted using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Model-diagnosed PBL height decrease during the solar eclipse due to vertical transport decay, in agreement with the experimental findings; vertical profiles of atmospheric particles and gaseous species showed an important vertical mixing attenuation.
Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallaj kull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements
P. Kokkalis,A. Papayannis,V. Amiridis,R. E. Mamouri
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-5315-2013
Abstract: Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and ngstr m exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties, as well as of the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallaj kull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system and inversion models, during 21–24 April 2010. Additionally, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements indicated the presence of volcanic particles over our area. Simulations of the volcanic partilcles dispersion, done by the FLEXPART model, confirmed the presence of these particles over Athens. Our lidar data showed volcanic particles layers, in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) between from ground levels up to nearly 10 km. Over Athens the volcanic particles layers were found to be mixed with locally produced aerosols, inside the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Mean hourly-averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles, ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth (AOD) found to vary from 0.014 to 0.184 at 355 nm and from 0.017 up to 0.174 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (LR) ranged between 59.7–79.6 sr (at 355 nm) and 43.9–88.3 sr (at 532 nm). Additionally, we calculated that the mean effective radius of the volcanic particles was 0.13–0.38 μm, while their refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. Finally, our data also allowed us to quantitatively compare, for the first time, the volcanic ash concentrations simulated by FLEXPART with those calculated by the inversion code LIRIC, using data sets derived from coincident lidar-AERONET measurements. In general, good agreement was found between simulations and observations, concerning not only the geometrical properties of the volcanic particles layers, but also the particles mass concentration, with a correlation coefficient of the order of 0.75.
Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece
R. E. Mamouri, V. Amiridis, A. Papayannis, E. Giannakaki, G. Tsaknakis,D. S. Balis
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2009,
Abstract: We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E). A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET), the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60%) which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.
Lidar Measurements for Desert Dust Characterization: An Overview
L. Mona,Z. Liu,D. Müller,A. Omar,A. Papayannis,G. Pappalardo,N. Sugimoto,M. Vaughan
Advances in Meteorology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/356265
Abstract: We provide an overview of light detection and ranging (lidar) capability for describing and characterizing desert dust. This paper summarizes lidar techniques, observations, and fallouts of desert dust lidar measurements. The main objective is to provide the scientific community, including nonpractitioners of lidar observations with a reference paper on dust lidar measurements. In particular, it will fill the current gap of communication between research-oriented lidar community and potential desert dust data users, such as air quality monitoring agencies and aviation advisory centers. The current capability of the different lidar techniques for the characterization of aerosol in general and desert dust in particular is presented. Technical aspects and required assumptions of these techniques are discussed, providing readers with the pros and cons of each technique. Information about desert dust collected up to date using lidar techniques is reviewed. Lidar techniques for aerosol characterization have a maturity level appropriate for addressing air quality and transportation issues, as demonstrated by some first results reported in this paper.
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