Abstract:
The role of SU(2) invariants for the classification of multiparty entanglement is discussed and exemplified for the Kempe invariant I_5 of pure three-qubit states. It is found to being an independent invariant only in presence of both W-type entanglement and threetangle. In this case, constant I_5 admits for a wide range of both threetangle and concurrences. Furthermore, the present analysis indicates that an SL^3 orbit of states with equal tangles but continuously varying I_5 must exist. This means that I_5 provides no information on the entanglement in the system in addition to that contained in the tangles (concurrences and threetangle) themselves. Together with the numerical evidence that I_5 is an entanglement monotone this implies that SU(2) invariance or the monotone property are too weak requirements for the characterization and quantification of entanglement for systems of three qubits, and that SL(2,C) invariance is required. This conclusion can be extended to general multipartite systems (including higher local dimension) because the entanglement classes of three-qubit systems appear as subclasses.

Abstract:
This thesis poses a selection of recent research of the author in a common context. It starts with a selected review on research concerning the role entanglement might play at quantum phase transitions and introduces measures for entanglement used for this analysis. A selection of results from this research is given and proposed as evidence for the relevance of multipartite entanglement in this context. A constructive method for an SLOCC classification and quantification of multipartite qubit entanglement is outlined and results for convex roof extensions of the resulting measures are briefly discussed on a specific example. At the end, a transformation of antilinear expectation values into linear expectation values is presented which admits an expression of the aforementioned measures of genuine multipartite entanglement in terms of spin correlation function, hence making them experimentally accessible.

Abstract:
The invariant-comb approach is a method to construct entanglement measures for multipartite systems of qubits. The essential step is the construction of an antilinear operator that we call {\em comb} in reference to the {\em hairy-ball theorem}. An appealing feature of this approach is that for qubits (or spins 1/2) the combs are automatically invariant under $SL(2,\CC)$, which implies that the obtained invariants are entanglement monotones by construction. By asking which property of a state determines whether or not it is detected by a polynomial $SL(2,\CC)$ invariant we find that it is the presence of a {\em balanced part} that persists under local unitary transformations. We present a detailed analysis for the maximally entangled states detected by such polynomial invariants, which leads to the concept of {\em irreducibly balanced} states. The latter indicates a tight connection with SLOCC classifications of qubit entanglement. \\ Combs may also help to define measures for multipartite entanglement of higher-dimensional subsystems. However, for higher spins there are many independent combs such that it is non-trivial to find an invariant one. By restricting the allowed local operations to rotations of the coordinate system (i.e. again to the $SL(2,\CC)$) we manage to define a unique extension of the concurrence to general half-integer spin with an analytic convex-roof expression for mixed states.

Abstract:
We investigate the lower bound obtained from experimental data of a quantum state $\rho$, as proposed independently by G\"uhne et al. and Eisert et al. for mixed states of three qubits. The measure we consider is the convex-roof extended three-tangle. Our findings highlight an intimate relation to lower bounds obtained recently from so-called characteristic curves of a given entanglement measure. We apply the bounds to estimate the three-tangle present in recently performed experiments aimed at producing a three-qubit GHZ state. A non-vanishing lower bound is obtained if the GHZ-fidelity of the produced states is larger than 3/4.

Abstract:
A class of integrable one-dimensional models presented by Shastry and Schulz is consequently extended to the whole class of one-dimensional Hubbard- or XXZ-type models with correlated gauge-like hopping. A complete characterization concerning solvability by coordinate Bethe ansatz of this class of models is found.

Abstract:
We define one-dimensional particles with generalized exchange statistics. The exact solution of a Hubbard-type Hamiltonian constructed with such particles is achieved using the Coordinate Bethe Ansatz. The chosen deformation of the statistics is equivalent to the presence of a magnetic field produced by the particles themselves, which is present also in a ``free gas'' of these particles.

Abstract:
We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of incompressible fractional quantum Hall-like states in ultra-cold two dimensional rapidly rotating dipolar Fermi gases. In particular, we argue that the state of the system at filling fraction $\nu =1/3$ is well-described by the Laughlin wave function and find a substantial energy gap in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum. Dipolar gases, therefore, appear as natural candidates of systems that allow to realize these very interesting highly correlated states in future experiments.

Abstract:
We study the effect of symmetry breaking in a quantum phase transition on pairwise entanglement in spin-1/2 models. We give a set of conditions on correlation functions a model has to meet in order to keep the pairwise entanglement unchanged by a parity symmetry breaking. It turns out that all mean-field solvable models do meet this requirement, whereas the presence of strong correlations leads to a violation of this condition. This results in an order-induced enhancement of entanglement, and we report on two examples where this takes place.

Abstract:
We construct commuting transfer matrices for models describing the interaction between a single quantum spin and a single bosonic mode using the quantum inverse scattering framework. The transfer matrices are obtained from certain inhomogeneous rational vertex models combining bosonic and spin representations of SU(2), subject to non-diagonal toroidal and open boundary conditions. Only open boundary conditions are found to lead to integrable Hamiltonians combining both rotating and counter-rotating terms in the interaction. If the boundary matrices can be brought to triangular form simultaneously, the spectrum of the model can be obtained by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz after a suitable gauge transformation; the corresponding Hamiltonians are found to be non-hermitian. Alternatively, a certain quasi-classical limit of the transfer matrix is considered where hermitian Hamiltonians are obtained as members of a family of commuting operators; their diagonalization, however, remains an unsolved problem.

Abstract:
For the anisotropic XY model in transverse magnetic field, we analyze the ground state and its concurrence-free point for generic anisotropy, and the time evolution of initial Bell states created in a fully polarized background and on the ground state. We find that the pairwise entanglement propagates with a velocity proportional to the reduced interaction for all the four Bell states. A transmutation from singlet-like to triplet-like states is observed during the propagation. Characteristic for the anisotropic models is the instantaneous creation of pairwise entanglement from a fully polarized state; furthermore, the propagation of pairwise entanglement is suppressed in favor of a creation of different types of entanglement. The ``entanglement wave'' evolving from a Bell state on the ground state turns out to be very localized in space-time. Our findings agree with a recently formulated conjecture on entanglement sharing; some results are interpreted in terms of this conjecture.