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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 586579 matches for " A. N?slund "
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The Anticipated Positive Psychosocial Impact of Present Web-Based E-Health Services and Future Mobile Health Applications: An Investigation among Older Swedes
S. Wiklund Axelsson,L. Nyberg,A. Nslund,A. Melander Wikman
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/509198
Abstract: This study investigates the anticipated psychosocial impact of present web-based e-health services and future mobile health applications among older Swedes. Random sample’s of Swedish citizens aged 55 years old and older were given a survey containing two different e-health scenarios which respondents rated according to their anticipated psychosocial impact by means of the PIADS instrument. Results consistently demonstrated the positive anticipation of psychosocial impacts for both scenarios. The future mobile health applications scored more positively than the present web-based e-health services. An increase in age correlated positively to lower impact scores. These findings indicate that from a psychosocial perspective, web-based e-health services and mobile health applications are likely to positively impact quality of life. This knowledge can be helpful when tailoring and implementing e-health services that are directed to older people. 1. Introduction The world is facing an increasingly aging population which is presently placing heavy demand on health care services, and this continues into the future [1]. There are growing expectations that e-health will be the solution for these demands. E-health refers to “tools and services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) that can improve prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and management and can benefit the entire community by improving access to care and quality of care and by making the health sector more efficient” [2]. The goal is to make e-health both more user-friendly and thus more widely accepted by involving patients in strategy, design, and implementation, as well as supporting the general increase in quality of life [2, 3]. European countries, such as Norway, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Portugal, show steady development in using the Internet as a source for health information [4]. In Sweden, it is possible for citizens nationwide to use web-based e-health services offered by Swedish public health care providers to receive general e-health information online [5], receive personalized web-based e-health services (e.g., online e-prescription renewal), ask their doctors questions online, obtain medical devices, and reschedule doctor appointments [6, 7]. The next generation of e-health systems is mobile health applications that are “considered as the strongest contribution for the next generation e-health systems” [8]. These applications act closely with an individual and “focus on serving the needs of the user by providing widespread access to relevant information
Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring
Mikaela Willmer, Daniel Berglind, Thorkild I. A. S?rensen, Erik Nslund, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082247
Abstract: Introduction According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children born before and after maternal surgical weight loss. Method Women with at least one child born before and one child born after bariatric surgery were identified by record-linkage. Information about maternal BMI was extracted from medical records, as was information about the children's BMI from birth to 10 years of age. We retrieved BMI data at four years of age for 340 children, born to 223 women (164 children born before surgery (BS), 176 children born after surgery (AS)). We evaluated prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean BMI in children born BS and AS at the ages of four, six and ten using GEE regression models. For 71 families, where we had complete data on mother and both children, we used a fixed-effects regression model to explore the association between differences in maternal BMI in w10 of the pre- and post-operative pregnancies with siblings' BMI differences at age four. Results In no age group did we see a significantly reduced prevalence of overweight/obesity AS. For 10-year-old girls, the AS group had significantly higher rates of obesity. There was no association between differences in maternal BMI in early pregnancy and differences in siblings' BMI at four years of age (β = ?0.01, CI 95% = ?0.11; 0.09). Conclusions We have been unable to demonstrate any effect of bariatric surgery on weight development in offspring. It seems unlikely that restrictive bariatric surgery conveys a protective effect in offspring with regards to obesity.
A coupled climate model simulation of Marine Isotope Stage 3 stadial climate
J. Brandefelt, E. Kjellstr m, J.-O. N slund, G. Strandberg, A. H. L. Voelker,B. Wohlfarth
Climate of the Past (CP) & Discussions (CPD) , 2011,
Abstract: We present a coupled global climate model (CGCM) simulation, integrated for 1500 yr to quasi-equilibrium, of a stadial (cold period) within Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3). The simulated Greenland stadial 12 (GS12; ~44 ka BP) annual global mean surface temperature (Ts) is 5.5 °C lower than in the simulated recent past (RP) climate and 1.3 °C higher than in the simulated Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka BP) climate. The simulated GS12 is evaluated against proxy data and previous modelling studies of MIS3 stadial climate. We show that the simulated MIS 3 climate, and hence conclusions drawn regarding the dynamics of this climate, is highly model-dependent. The main findings are: (i) Proxy sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are higher than simulated SSTs in the central North Atlantic, in contrast to earlier simulations of MIS 3 stadial climate in which proxy SSTs were found to be lower than simulated SST. (ii) The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) slows down by 50 % in the GS12 climate as compared to the RP climate. This slowdown is attained without freshwater forcing in the North Atlantic region, a method used in other studies to force an AMOC shutdown. (iii) El-Ni o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) are significantly modified by GS12 and LGM forcing and boundary conditions. (iv) Both the mean state and variability of the simulated GS12 is dependent on the equilibration. The annual global mean Ts only changes by 0.10 °C from model years 500–599 to the last century of the simulation, indicating that the climate system may be close to equilibrium already after 500 yr of integration. However, significant regional differences between the last century of the simulation and model years 500–599 exist. Further, the difference between simulated and proxy SST is reduced from model years 500–599 to the last century of the simulation. The results of the ENSO variability analysis is also shown to depend on the equilibration.
Bone blood flow is influenced by muscle contractions  [PDF]
Jan Erik Nslund, Sofie Nslund, Erik Lundeberg, Lars-G?ran Lindberg, Iréne Lund
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2011.47062
Abstract: Forces acting on the skeleton could be divided into those originating from gravitational loading and those originating from muscle loading. Flat bones in a non-weight-baring segment of the skeleton probably experience forces mostly generated by muscle contractions. One purpose of muscle contractions is to generate blood flow within skeletal tissues. The present study aimed to investigate the pulsatile patellar bone blood flow after low and high intensity leg extension exercises. Forty-two healthy individuals volunteered for the study. Dynamic isotonic one leg extension/flexion exercises were performed in a leg extension machine. Randomly, the exercises were performed with the left or right leg with either 10 repetition maximum (10 RM) continuously without any resting periods (high intensity muscle work), or 20 RM with a 2 second rest between contractions (low intensity muscle work). The work load, expressed in kilograms totally lifted, was identical in both legs. The pulsatile patellar blood flow was recorded continuously using a photoplethysmographic technique. Blood pressure was measured continuously during muscle work by a non-invasive method (Finapress). The patellar pulsatile bone blood flow increased significantly more after high intensity muscle work (61%) compared to the same work load performed using a lower intensity (22%), p = 0.000073. Systolic blood pressure changed equally during and after both interventions. Post-exercise bone hyperaemia appears to be correlated to the intensity of muscle contractions in the muscle compartment attached to the bone.
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum serological status of different canine populations from Uberlandia, Minas Gerais
Mineo, T.W.P.;Silva, D.A.O.;Nslund, K.;Bj?rkman, C.;Uggla, A.;Mineo, J.R.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352004000300022
Abstract: este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de anticorpos contra toxoplasma gondii e neospora caninum em c?es da cidade de uberlandia, mg. as taxas de reatividade sorológica dos animais frente a esses parasitos foram comparadas em rela??o à sua origem e condi??es de vida. um total de 369 amostras de soro canino foi obtido de três grupos de c?es: (a) 213 pacientes do hospital veterinário da universidade federal de uberlandia, (b) 62 pacientes de clínicas veterinárias particulares da cidade e (c) 94 c?es errantes da cidade. as amostras foram analisadas para a presen?a de anticorpos contra os parasitos por meio de elisa. os resultados mostraram soropositividades de 30,3% para t. gondii, 9,2% para n. caninum e 5,7% para ambos os parasitos. o grupo de c?es errantes apresentou maior taxa de prevalência de anticorpos para os dois parasitos estudados. pode-se concluir que as taxas de soropositividades para t. gondii e n. caninum nas popula??es caninas estudadas parecem ser fortemente influenciadas por suas origens e condi??es de vida.
Run-Off Replication of Host-Adaptability Genes Is Associated with Gene Transfer Agents in the Genome of Mouse-Infecting Bartonella grahamii
Eva C. Berglund,A. Carolin Frank,Alexandra Calteau,Olga Vinnere Pettersson,Fredrik Granberg,Ann-Sofie Eriksson,Kristina Nslund,Martin Holmberg,Hillevi Lindroos ?,Siv G. E. Andersson
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000546
Abstract: The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria adapted to mammals, including previously recognized and emerging human pathogens. We report the 2,341,328 bp genome sequence of Bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent Bartonella species in wild rodents. Comparative genomics revealed that rodent-associated Bartonella species have higher copy numbers of genes for putative host-adaptability factors than the related human-specific pathogens. Many of these gene clusters are located in a highly dynamic region of 461 kb. Using hybridization to a microarray designed for the B. grahamii genome, we observed a massive, putatively phage-derived run-off replication of this region. We also identified a novel gene transfer agent, which packages the bacterial genome, with an over-representation of the amplified DNA, in 14 kb pieces. This is the first observation associating the products of run-off replication with a gene transfer agent. Because of the high concentration of gene clusters for host-adaptation proteins in the amplified region, and since the genes encoding the gene transfer agent and the phage origin are well conserved in Bartonella, we hypothesize that these systems are driven by selection. We propose that the coupling of run-off replication with gene transfer agents promotes diversification and rapid spread of host-adaptability factors, facilitating host shifts in Bartonella.
Bone and Soft Tissue Blood Flow during Normobaric and Hyperbaric Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Divers  [PDF]
Agneta C. Larsson, Johan Uusij?rvi, Jan E. Nslund, Iréne Lund, Peter Lindholm
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.712094
Abstract: Purpose: The study aimed to investigate, using a photoplethysmographic (PPG) technique, how pulsatile blood flow within the patellar bone and skin over the patella reacts to normobaric (NBO) and hyperbaric oxygen breathing (HBO). Methods: Eleven healthy volunteers, breathed air or oxygen. Subjects were blinded to breathing gas. A range of partial pressures of oxygen were administered in 10 minute intervals: 21 kPa, 101 kPa (NBO), 21 kPa, (compression to 280 kPa), 59 kPa, 280 kPa (HBO), 59 kPa, (decompression), and 21 kPa. Changes were measured continuously for each individual. Results: Hyperoxia decreased pulsatile patellar blood flow ~32 resp. 38% and skin blood flow ~36 resp. 42% during the first 2 - 3 minutes of NBO resp. HBO. This decrease was normalized within 5 minutes after exposure. The results were similar when switching from air to NBO (101 kPa) and from air at pressure (59 kPa) to HBO (280 kPa). Conclusions: The study shows that pulsatile patellar skin and bone blood flow, decreases significantly as a reaction to oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. The results suggest that a non-invasive PPG technique could be used to monitor blood flow changes in bone during oxygen treatment.
Is Placebo Acupuncture What It Is Intended to Be?
Thomas Lundeberg,Irene Lund,Audrey Sing,Jan Nslund
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep049
Abstract: Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are recommended for evaluation of a treatment's efficacy with the goal of separating the specific effects (verum) from the non-specific ones (placebo). In order to be able to carry out placebo-controlled acupuncture trials, minimal/sham acupuncture procedures and a sham acupuncture needle has been used with the intention of being inert. However, clinical and experimental results suggest that sham/minimal acupuncture is not inert since it is reported that both verum acupuncture and sham/minimal acupuncture induce a significant alleviation of pain. This alleviation is as pronounced as the alleviation obtained with standard treatment and more obvious than the one obtained with placebo medication or by the use of waiting list controls. These results also suggest that sham acupuncture needles evoke a physiological response. In healthy individuals sham acupuncture results in activation of limbic structures, whereas a deactivation is seen in patients with pain, i.e. results from healthy individuals do not reflect what is seen in clinical conditions. Also, depending on the etiology of pain (or any under clinical condition under investigation), the response to sham acupuncture is varying. The acupuncture ritual may also be seen as an emotional focused therapy allowing for psychological re-orientation. Sham needling in such context may be as powerful as verum acupuncture. We recommend that the evaluated effects of acupuncture could be compared with those of standard treatment, also taking the individual response into consideration, before its use or non-use is established. 1. Introduction During the last decade, a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been published comparing manual acupuncture or electro-acupuncture with different modes of intended placebo controlled procedures in the treatment of perceived pain. The placebo control procedures most commonly used include minimal or superficial acupuncture (needling of the skin), sham acupuncture (deep or superficial needling of non-acupuncture points) and the use of placebo acupuncture needles (a blunt tip of a needle touches the skin without penetrating it) [1–3]. The intention of these RCTs is to reduce the presence of bias of the results by comparing the size of the interventional specific effects, by means of assumed, specific mechanisms, with the non-specific effects of an inert (placebo) comparator applied in a placebo-controlled procedure. This trial design is considered the gold standard in evaluation of all types of intervention and its
Minimal acupuncture is not a valid placebo control in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture: a physiologist's perspective
Iréne Lund, Jan Nslund, Thomas Lundeberg
Chinese Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-4-1
Abstract: Randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials (placebo-controlled RCTs) are used to evaluate the efficacy of medical interventions. The ultimate intention of these placebo-controlled RCTs is to eliminate the non-specific placebo effects [1]. This trial design is considered as the gold standard. The results of placebo-controlled RCTs provide evidence for a treatment's efficacy [2]. However, the technical issues in developing valid placebos in acupuncture RCTs are still controversial [1,3-7].The placebo concept was introduced into RCTs as a treatment without curative anticipation [8]. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are generally considered as the best experimental method for separating the 'specific' from the 'non-specific placebo related' effects of a treatment. The placebo is supposed to be inert, inducing only non-specific physiological and emotional changes. If the intervention is a drug, the 'specific' component is the pharmacologically active agent while the placebo is an inert substance. Recent studies have, however, shown that some placebos are sometimes therapeutically effective [9]. The issue of evaluation becomes more complicated especially if the intervention in question is as complex as acupuncture [7,10]. Acupuncture may be viewed from a Chinese medicine perspective whereby each acupoint is associated with specific effects, or from a Western perspective whereby acupuncture is merely what its Latin name suggests – 'acus' (needle) and 'pungere' (to prick), and its effects are explained in Western physiological terms.In Chinese medicine, the correct acupoints are vital in the classical theory of acupuncture to achieve efficacy. A possible control intervention from this perspective is, therefore, needling at incorrect sites. From a physiological perspective, an acupoint is defined by its anatomical innervation. Needling at an incorrect site may affect the correct receptive field in terms of physiology. In such a scenario, the physiologic
Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents
Emelie Condén, Jerzy Leppert, Lisa Ekselius, Cecilia ?slund
BMC Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-11
Abstract: A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in V?stmanland, Sweden with a cohort of 5012 students in the age between 15–18 years old. The participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in V?stmanland 2008 during class hour. Psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain were measured through index measuring the presence of symptoms and how common they were. DS14 and its two component subscales of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) were measured as well.There was a difference depending on sex, where 10.4% among boys and 14.6% among girls (p?=?< 0.001) were defined as Type D personality. Boys and girls with a Type D personality had an approximately 2-fold increased odds of musculoskeletal pain and a 5-fold increased odds of psychosomatic symptoms. The subscale NA explained most of the relationship between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain. No interaction effect of NA and SI was found.There was a strong association between Type D personality and both psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain where adolescent with a type D personality reported more symptoms. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of Type D on psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents.The high prevalence of musculoskeletal and psychosomatic symptoms among adolescents in the western world is a problem involving significant costs for both individuals and societies [1,2]. Musculoskeletal pain and psychosomatic symptoms that appear during adolescence often persist into adulthood and may partly be explained by psychosocial and lifestyle factors [3-5]. Pain among adolescents has been identified as an important public health problem. Roth-Isigkeit found that 83% of children and adolescents had experienced pain during the preceding three months, with headache, abdominal, limb and back pain being the most prevalent types. Pain caused the respondents of th
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